15 Annotations

language hat  •  Link

Sam's Duke (from the site Phil linked):
Fifth Creation (England) - 1644
James Stuart (1633-1701), second son of King Charles I. When his older brother, Charles II, died without heirs, James succeeded to the throne as King James II. [Duke from] 1644-1685 [when he became king]

Pauline  •  Link

Born St James Palace 14 October 1633
Duke of York 1643
Married Lady Anne Hyde 24 November 1659
Married Maria Beatrice Eleonora d'Este 21 November 1673
King James II of England and Scotland (=James VII) 1685-88

vincent  •  Link

James and Charles were cousins to Louis XIV (the Sun King); Louis was known for some good Quotes "... --"I am the State!" -- "L'

steve h  •  Link

Macaulay's portrait of James Stuart

"Though a libertine, James was diligent, methodical, and fond of authority and business. His understanding was singularly slow and narrow, and his temper obstinate, harsh, and unforgiving. That such a prince should have looked with no good will on the free institutions of England, and on the party which was peculiarly zealous for those institutions, can excite no surprise. As yet the Duke professed himself a member of the Anglican Church but he had already shown inclinations which had seriously alarmed good Protestants."

anonymous  •  Link

Whilst His Majesty was still Duke of York and of Albany, he was illicitly associated with Arabella Churchill, the Duke of Marlborough's sister.

vicente  •  Link

Re: Churchill was still in shorts at this time: Duke of Marlborough

anonymous  •  Link

I thank you, sir, for your information. He was not created Duke of Marlborough until 1702. Thus, I should have referred to him as "John Churchill," sir. I apologise.

jeannine  •  Link

From Grammont's footnotes (Burnet quote)
James Duke of York, afterwards King James II. He was born 15th October, 1633; succeeded his brother 6th February, 1684-5; abdicated the crown in 1688; and died 6th September, 1701. Bishop Burnet's character of him appears not very far from the truth. -- "He was," says this writer, "very brave in his youth; and so much magnified by Monsieur Turenne, that till his marriage lessened him, he really clouded the king, and passed for the superior genius. He was naturally candid and sincere, and a firm friend, till affairs and his religion wore out all his first principles and inclinations. He had a great desire to understand affairs: and in order to that he kept a constant journal of all that passed, of which he shewed me a great deal. The Duke of Buckingham gave me once a short but severe character of the two brothers. It was the more severe, because it was true: the king, (he said,) could see things if he would: and the duke would see things if he could. He had no true judgment, and was soon determined by those whom he trusted: but he was obstinate against all other advices. He was bred with high notions of kingly authority, and laid it down for a maxim, that all who opposed the king, were rebels in their hearts. He was perpetually in one amour or other, without being very nice in his choice: upon which the king once said, he believed his brother had his mistresses given him by his priests for penance. He was naturally eager and revengeful: and was against the taking off any, that set up in an opposition to the measures of the court, and who by that means grew popular in the house of commons. He was for rougher methods. He continued many years dissembling his religion, and seemed zealous for the church of England. But it was chiefly on design to hinder all propositions, that tended to unite us among ourselves. He was a frugal prince, and brought his court into method and magnificence, for he had 100,000l. a-year allowed him. He was made high admiral, and he came to understand all the concerns of the sea very particularly."
http://www.pseudopodium.org/repress/grammont/no... see note 41

jeannine  •  Link

The Life of James The Second King Of England Collected Out Of His Memoirs And Writ Of his Own Hand Together With The Kings’ Advice To His Son and His Majesty’s Will. J.S. Clarke, historiographer to the King, London 1816.
This 2 volume set is a rare find, but available in the US through the interlibrary loan system (U of Idaho has a copy). It is also available as a CD ROM at

This 2 volume book set tracts James life, based upon and including large sections of his writing from about age 16 through his death. The years of that overlap Sam’s Diary are rather scarce in comparison to the whole and did not focus attention to the building of the Navy. The introduction probably has the most interesting “find” in terms of overlap between James and the Naval activities that Sam is involved with during the years of the Diary. It states that few Princes

“ have struggled with greater Difficulties than King James the Second, and few ever sustained a greater load of trouble afterwards. Yet the Difficulties he had to struggle with have not always been sufficiently considered by Historians, nor does it appear that the essential and lasting service which James rendered to this Country in compacting and as it were building up its Naval Power has been sufficiently weighed: It is not generally known the Naval regulations now in force are taken almost verbatim from those which he established, or that when lately the Board of Naval Revision wished to add to and improve the Naval Regulations, they sent out for Papers of Pepys, the Marine Secretary of James, as being the best materials whence they could obtain the object they had in view…. James thoroughly understood the whole business of the Admiralty, and knew also the disorders which had crept into the whole economy of the Fleet, in the six years immediately preceding his Accession. This fact is amply corroborated by the honorable testimony of Mr. Secretary Pepys in his Memoirs: the excellent methods there recorded, by which James regenerated the Naval Power, clearly shew how well he understood it on all its bearings. The following were the Qualifications [ as set forth in Pepys Memoirs, date /page not specified] which during that Monarch’s reign were required from every one, who occupied a place in any branch in the Naval Department.

1. A Practiced Knowledge in every part of the Works and Methods of your Navy, both at the Board and in your Yards. The not discerning of which and the others that follow, (adds Mr. Pepsys in addressing James the Second,) appears to have cost your Royal Brother and You within the fore-mentioned five years, above half a million.
2. A General Mastery in the business of Accounts, through more particularly those incident to the Affairs of Your Navy.
3. Vigour of Mind, joyn’d with approve’d Industry, Zeal, and Personal aptness for Labour.
4. An entire Resignation of themselves and their whole time to this Your Service, without lyableness to Avocation from other Business of Pleasure.
5. Lastly, Such Credit with your Majesty for Integrity and Loyalty, as may (with the former conditions) lead both your Self and My Lord Treasurer, to an entire confidence of having all done that can be morally expected from them, in the Advancement of your Service, and the circumspect and orderly dispensing and Improving of your Treasure.

And to the above judicious Qualifications, which cannot be too much attended to in the present day, may be subjoined what Pepys termed, ‘His Three Truths Essential to the Sea Economy of Great Britain’ as corollaries from the premises:

1. That Integrity, and general (but unpracticed) Knowledge, are not alone sufficient to conduct and support a Navy, so as to prevent its Declension into a state little less unhappy than the worst that can befall it under want of both.
2. That not much more (Neither) is to be depended on, even from Experience alone and Integrity, unaccompanied with Viguor of Application, Assiduity, Affection, Strictness of Discipline, and Method.
3. That it was a strenuous Conjunction of all of these (and that Conjunction only) that within half the time, and less than half the charge it cost the Crown in the exposing it, had (at the very instant of its unfortunate Lords’ withdrawing from it) raised the Navy of England from the lowest state of Impotence, to the most advanced step towards a lasting and solid Prosperity, that (all circumstances considered) this Nation had ever seen it at. And yet not such, but that (even at its Zenith) it both did and suffered sufficient to teach us, THAT THERE IS SOMETHING ABOVE BOTH THAT AND US THAT GOVERNS THE WORLD, TO WHICH (INCOMPREHENSIBLE) ALONE BE GLORY.

Such were the Principles and Maxims which James the Second established, whose interesting Commentaries on what had passed before him both as a Prince and A Sovereign, are now given in these Volumes to the Public through the liberal condescension of His Royal Highness The Prince Regent” ( pages xxvi –xxix).

Two other areas of interest, which are included along with James’ life in these volumes are available online. Both of these are the letters of “advice” from Father to Son, first that from Charles I to Charles II and then from James II to his son James, exiled along with him in France.

“Advice that Charles I Bequeathed to his Son Charles II” (which accurately reflects the original text) can be found at

“The Advice which James the Second Bequeathed to his Son James, Generally known by the Name of The Chevalier de St. George” can be found at the link below. This version has been “modernized” in terms of spelling and has quite a few typos, but it was the only online copy I could locate. The overall document is accurate against the version in this book.

Pedro  •  Link

The Duke on the fiddle?

(Summary from L.M.E. Shaw…Anglo-Portuguese Alliance)

In 1663 for the English to trade with Brazil a licence was needed and security given to return via Portugal. The Duke did not quibble about the necessity. Charles lent him three royal ships to trade with Brazil. An English merchant in Lisbon undertook to freight them, on condition that the Duke manned and victualled them for twelve months at a cost of £14,000. Fanshawe told Coventry that tha Duke stood to be richer by £6-7,000 as a result of the investment. A considerable sum at that time.

Michael Robinson  •  Link

Cooper, Samuel (artist) 1609 -1672
Portrait of James II as Duke of York
Miniature, Watercolour on vellum put down on a leaf from a table-book
1661 (painted)
England (probably, painted)
V&A Museum number P.45-1955 Purchased with the assistance of The Art Fund
Gallery location: Portrait Miniatures, room 90a, case 6
"At the Restoration of the monarchy in 1660 Cooper’s reputation as the foremost artist in England secured him the patronage of the returned royal family, to which he responded with an enriched style. His flesh painting became more full bodied, noticeably so to contemporaries such as Samuel Pepys, who thought ‘the colouring of the flesh to be a little forced’.

Today, albeit with fading, this portrait of the Duke of York does not seem unnaturally sanguine. Overall the effect is less austere than Cooper’s style during the Commonwealth period, the lighting less dramatic and so the relief of the sitter’s features is less marked. Its softer, lighter style, however, does not lessen the dignity and presence of the sitter. The Duke particularly retains a serious reserve appropriate for the second son of the ‘martyred’ Charles I."

Bill  •  Link

The duke of York, though he had a quick relish for pleasure, followed business with that closeness of application which the king his brother wanted; and wanted himself that quickness of apprehension, that natural sagacity and apparent benevolence of temper, which was so conspicuous in the king. His notions of government were as erroneous as those of his father and grandfather; and the large steps which his brother took towards arbitrary power, were in a great measure owing to his instigation. He was, what rarely happens, revengeful and valiant almost in the same degree; and displayed such courage in the first Dutch war, as rendered him more popular than all the other acts of his life. His bigotry to the Roman Catholic religion, which was still encreasing with his years, had the strongest influence upon his conduct; and at length prompted him to such measures as were condemned by the sober and judicious of all religions.
---A Biographical History of England. J. Granger, 1779.

Bill  •  Link

[through 1670]
JAMES II (1633-1701), king of England; second son of Charles I; created Duke of York; handed over to parliament after the surrender of Oxford, 1646; escaped to Holland, 1648; went to Paris, 1649; left Paris for Holland 1650: after battle of Worcester (1651) entered French service as a volunteer, and distinguished himself under Turenne against the Fronde and its allies, 1652-5; took service with the Spanish in Flanders, 1657; in command of Nieuport at Cromwell's death, 1658; secretly contracted himself to Anne Hyde at Breda, 1659; created lord high admiral, 1660; received revenues of the post-office, 1663; dissuaded disbandment of the troops after Venner's rising, 1661; as head of the admiralty reconstituted the board, and issued 'Instructions,' 1662, which remained in force till beginning of nineteenth century, and memoirs of naval affairs, 1660-73; governor of the Royal Africa Company, c.1664; received patent of New York (New Amsterdam), 1664; commanded fleet in first Dutch war, winning battle of Solebay, 1665, but failed to complete the victory; defended Clarendon in House of Lords; estranged from Charles II, but early entered into his French policy; probably became Roman catholic soon after treaty of Dover (1670);
---Dictionary of National Biography: Index and Epitome. S. Lee, 1906.

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Chart showing the number of references in each month of the diary’s entries.