Saturday 4 July 1663

Up by 4 o’clock and sent him to get matters ready, and I to my office looking over papers and mending my manuscript by scraping out the blots and other things, which is now a very fine book.

So to St. James’s by water with Sir J. Minnes and Sir W. Batten, I giving occasion to a wager about the tide, that it did flow through bridge, by which Sir W. Batten won 5s. of Sir J. Minnes.

At St. James’s we staid while the Duke made himself ready. Among other things Sir Allen Apsley showed the Duke the Lisbon Gazette in Spanish, where the late victory is set down particularly, and to the great honour of the English beyond measure. They have since taken back Evora, which was lost to the Spaniards, the English making the assault, and lost not more than three men.

Here I learnt that the English foot are highly esteemed all over the world, but the horse not so much, which yet we count among ourselves the best; but they abroad have had no great knowledge of our horse, it seems.

The Duke being ready, we retired with him, and there fell upon Mr. Creed’s business, where the Treasurer did, like a mad coxcomb, without reason or method run over a great many things against the account, and so did Sir J. Minnes and Sir W. Batten, which the Duke himself and Mr. Coventry and my Lord Barkely and myself did remove, and Creed being called in did answer all with great method and excellently to the purpose (myself I am a little conscious did not speak so well as I purposed and do think I used to do, that is, not so intelligibly and persuasively, as I well hoped I should), not that what I said was not well taken, and did carry the business with what was urged and answered by Creed and Mr. Coventry, till the Duke himself did declare that he was satisfied, and my Lord Barkely offered to lay 100l. that the King would receive no wrong in the account, and the two last knights held their tongues, or at least by not understanding it did say what made for Mr. Creed, and so Sir G. Carteret was left alone, but yet persisted to say that the account was not good, but full of corruption and foul dealing. And so we broke up to his shame, but I do fear to the loss of his friendship to me a good while, which I am heartily troubled for.

Thence with Creed to the King’s Head ordinary; but, coming late, dined at the second table very well for 12d.; and a pretty gentleman in our company, who confirms my Lady Castlemaine’s being gone from Court, but knows not the reason; he told us of one wipe the Queen a little while ago did give her, when she came in and found the Queen under the dresser’s hands, and had been so long:

“I wonder your Majesty,” says she, “can have the patience to sit so long a-dressing?” — “I have so much reason to use patience,” says the Queen, “that I can very well bear with it.” He thinks that it may be the Queen hath commanded her to retire, though that is not likely.

Thence with Creed to hire a coach to carry us to Hide Park, to-day there being a general muster of the King’s Guards, horse and foot: but they demand so high, that I, spying Mr. Cutler the merchant, did take notice of him, and he going into his coach, and telling me that he was going to shew a couple of Swedish strangers the muster, I asked and went along with him.

Where a goodly sight to see so many fine horses and officers, and the King, Duke, and others come by a-horseback, and the two Queens in the Queen-Mother’s coach, my Lady Castlemaine not being there. And after long being there, I ‘light, and walked to the place where the King, Duke, &c., did stand to see the horse and foot march by and discharge their guns, to show a French Marquisse (for whom this muster was caused) the goodness of our firemen; which indeed was very good, though not without a slip now and then; and one broadside close to our coach we had going out of the Park, even to the nearness as to be ready to burn our hairs. Yet methought all these gay men are not the soldiers that must do the King’s business, it being such as these that lost the old King all he had, and were beat by the most ordinary fellows that could be.

Thence with much ado out of the Park, and I ‘lighted and through St. James’s down the waterside over, to Lambeth, to see the Archbishop’s corps (who is to be carried away to Oxford on Monday), but came too late, and so walked over the fields and bridge home (calling by the way at old George’s), but find that he is dead, and there wrote several letters, and so home to supper and to bed.

This day in the Duke’s chamber there being a Roman story in the hangings, and upon the standards written these four letters — S.P.Q.R., Sir G. Carteret came to me to know what the meaning of those four letters were; which ignorance is not to be borne in a Privy Counsellor, methinks, that a schoolboy should be whipt for not knowing.

27 Annotations

TerryF  •  Link

(calling by the way at old George’s), but find that he is dead

L&M: (calling by the way at old Georges, but find that he is dead)

R.I..P. George, Pepys's elderly drawer at the Sun tavern, King St. (Index)

Pedro  •  Link

" and were beat by the most ordinary fellows that could be."

Those ordinary ironsides of the New Model Army?

Lurker  •  Link

Sir G. Carteret came ... for not knowing.

So, I wonder if Pepys told him with a dirty look, or had him run and look it up himself?

Bradford  •  Link

"S.P.Q.R., Sir G. Carteret came to me to know what the meaning of those four letters were; which ignorance is not to be borne in a Privy Counsellor, methinks, that a schoolboy should be whipt for not knowing."

Try that on me, sir, as you did Wayneman, and you'll repent it. Anyhow, I looked it up for my fellow ignoramuses:

"Senatus Populusque Romanus (The Roman Senate and People). Letters inscribed on the standards, etc., of ancient Rome. Facetiously, 'small profits and quick returns.'"---"Brewer's Phrase and Fable."

"and I ‘lighted":
Have often noted what looks like a strange ligature on the "l"; in fact it's an apostrophe, a contraction for "alighted."

"he told us of one wipe the Queen a little while ago did give her":
wipe: sarcasm, insult
(Companion, Large Glossary)

When preparing to give testimony, it never hurts to rehearse your remarks, perhaps even writing them out to work your way out of the tight spots---making sure to burn the foul papers afterward.

TerryF  •  Link

"to the great honour of the English beyond measure. They have since taken back Evora"

"Pressure from the Habsburg crown had increased after the end of the campaign in Catalonia (1652) and the signing of the peace with France (1659)....The most serious effort was made by a Spanish invading force of more than 10,000 men, under D. Juan José, that captured Evora in 1663. Assisted by foreign experts, the Portuguese crown had built a home army of 15,000, including 1,500 elite English regulars and 5,000 cavalry, 20 percent of which were British or other foreign forces. These troops defeated the Spanish in several pitched battles between 1663 and 1665, with the English brigade winning special distinction."

The English military distinguished themselves in a very different sense in Hyde Park today. Methinks Gaston Jean-Baptiste, Comte de Cominges, was impressed indeed.

dirk  •  Link

"mending my manuscript by scraping out the blots"

I still remember that from my schooldays...

dirk  •  Link

John Evelyn saw the muster too -- compare his reference to "the French Ambassador Monsieur Cominges" with Sam's...

"I saw his Majesties Guards being of horse & foote 4000 led by the Generall, The Duke of Albemarle, in extrordinary Equipage & gallantrie, consisting of Gent: of quality, & Veterane Souldiers, excellently clad, mounted & ordered, drawn up in batallia before their Majesties in Hide-parke, where the old Earle of Cleavela[n]d trailed a Pike, & led the right-hand file in a foote Company commanded by the Lord Wentworth his sonn, a worthy spactacle & example, being both of them old & valiant Souldiers: This was to shew the French Ambassador Monsieur Cominges: There being a greate Assembly of Coaches &c in the Park: In the Evening I went home:"

Xjy  •  Link

Swedish strangers
I wonder if they were in the coach or going to meet Cutler at the muster. I feel that Sam would have had something to say about them if he'd met them - interviewed them about Baltic business if nothing else. Strange he'd leave them out now that he's got time on his hands to fill his diary while Bess is away.

Robert Gertz  •  Link

Creed's account gets more and more mysteriously important...I can't believe the board, especially Carteret, would fuss so much over 500Ls. I wonder if the 500L really just represents Creed's share for Sandwich's entire account which is much larger. Creed as accountant would be legally responsible for the thing and I could see where Carteret might dislike seeing Sandwich try to run his bill by the Navy rather than Charles but not wish to condemn or criticize Sandwich personally.

If Sam refers to Sandwich's anger at Carteret's attempts to reject the account that should help resolve the matter.

Robert Gertz  •  Link

"...beat by the most ordinary fellows..."

Can't quite completely take the Cromwellian out of the Pepys...

"The Way to Grow Rich...Chapter 26..."

"Avoiding Association with Ye Friends and Associates Taking Long Chances in Ye Official Duties..."

Hmmn...Sam ponders.

"...and if ye must be forced to it by the power of ye friend/associate or his connections, put nothing under ye own hand. Above all, draw ye no attention to yeself in the matter but let him who inspired the business lead in all."

Good day not to be eloquent before the Duke, Sam notes.

"...Above all, make ye no enemies and rose no wrath in the matter."


Pedro  •  Link

“to the great honour of the English beyond measure.”

I think that it is worth noting that the great honour that the troops received was virtually only in dispatches, and in the hearts of the common people.

On arrival they numbered 1000 cavalry and 2000 foot. In fact they only numbered 5% of the total Portuguese fighting force, and distinguished themselves in all battles they fought. However, they were grudgingly praised by the Portuguese for their fighting qualities, unless they were demanding reinforcements. After seven months they were reduced to 250 horse and 1400 foot, and in March 63 Charles had to send £6000 of dowry money to make up the difference between English and Portuguese pay.

The Potuguese did not welcome foreign troops, Protestants were disliked, and the government had been forced to issue proclamations to forbid Portuguese citizens to give sanctuary to those killing or wounding Englishmen. The troops were initially under Lord Inchiquin who protested to the Portuguese that they were not being paid and being ill used. He left and returned to England. Fanshawe told the Portuguese King that they were being shown an invincible antipathy.

The troops were then placed under Schomberg who had fought with the Ironsides at the Battle of the Dunes in 1658, and was respected by the English Brigade. Clarendon wrote to Castelo Melhor in forceful terms saying that the King was pained to hear that the troops were regarded by Portugal as a burden, when they were not only being deprived of pay, but also of the honour and glory due to them for performing onerous and dangerous tasks with valour and success. Schomberg was disgusted with the attitude of the ministers and told them that if the English were not wanted in Portugal, they should be sent home.

Including reinforcements, a total of 5000 men were sent between 62 and 68, and by 68 there were only 1000 left, 80% had been lost. Colbatch considered that the troops gradually won the respect of the common people who began to use the expression “word of an Englishman” as meaning a firm promise.

In September 1668 Southwell (Consul) wrote to Arlington…

“I do not believe there is to be found again in the world a better body of men. Never any fought more bravely in the field or lived more quietly in their quarters, and being equal in discipline as in their valour, only their enemies complain, and not the inhabitants, who it has been affirmed to me, did now with tears wave them from the frontiers.”

Pedro  •  Link

“Yet methought all these gay men are not the soldiers that must do the King’s business,”

According to Burnet, Schomberg was of the same opinion as Sam.

Passing through London to take command of the French troops already in Portugal, he had advised Charles to send “the military men that had served under Cromwell, who he thought were the best officers he had ever seen: and he was sorry to see they were dismissed, and that a company of wild young men were those the King relied on.”

Schomberg must have foreseen that a year later he would command those troops!

Stolzi  •  Link

Poor old Pepys
has failed in his repeated attempts to see the Archbishop's corpse.

language hat  •  Link

"were beat by the most ordinary fellows that could be"

Wherein we see the eventual doom of the aristocratic system, though it would take a further 250 years to triumph (I think it's fair to say WWI put the nail in the coffin).

Judith boles  •  Link

The Archbishop has been dead for a month. Would burials have been postponed for so great a time? ... especially in the summer months?

Pedro  •  Link

“but the horse not so much, which yet we count among ourselves the best; but they abroad have had no great knowledge of our horse, it seems.”

Avoiding any more long entries, anyone interested in an English view of the current events in Portugal, and why the British Horse may not have been given due credit, see entry under background Army.

TerryF  •  Link

"I wonder if the 500L really just represents Creed’s share for Sandwich’s entire account which is much larger."

Larger indeed! According to L&M, Johm Creed had spent £4660 plus on supplies in 1661-62 as Deputy-Treasurer of Sandwich’s fleet in the Mediterranean (I had earlier mistyped £4600); and there were surely other charges as well.

TerryF  •  Link

Sir G. Carteret's level of learning was notably low.

L&M point the way to Andrew Marvell's "Last Instructions to a Painter" (London, 4 September 1667), ll. 203f.

"Carteret the rich did the accountants guide
And in ill English all the world defied."

They observe that, lacking much formal education, he had spent much of his life at sea. --
Sound familiar? Carteret, Batten and Mennes -- though the last was a celebrated lyricist, he lacked Pepys's classical education, and even this lacked mathematiques, so essential for keeping accounts, something for which our hero has made amends. No wonder such meetings (Which valuation of the pieces of eight is better?) are so maddening for SP!

Bradford  •  Link

Judith's point is a sound one, given that the man died June 4th. The hearse (in one of the senses L. Hat researched for us) might still be visible; but the remains themselves, unless an aura of saintliness is keeping them fresh? Any enlightenment, you mortuary experts?

dirk  •  Link

The Archbishop has been dead for a month.

Very likely the body would have been embalmed. Embalming was practised in Western Europe from the 1400s onwards -- be it in a very primitive way. At the time it was limited to kings, queens, etc. and the outcome was often unpredictable. The discovery of blood circulation by Harvey (1628) was a milestone, as it made arterial embalming possible. The Dutch were the first to implement this technique in the 17th century.

dirk  •  Link


There are several contemporary references to embalming in the Carte Papers -- without any reference though to techniques used

Also the "London Gazette" of July 15th, 1666: "that the States have taken order for the embalming the body of Sir William Berkeley"
Contains **SPOILERS**

Also have a look at
for more on Frederik Ruysch -- Dutch anatomist & embalmer (1638-1731)

in Aqua epistula  •  Link

pen knife be a handy tool
" manuscript by scraping out the blots and other things,.."

A. Hamilton  •  Link

Evora and "ceremonies of bravery"

Talk of the Archbishop's bier and the bravery of the British at Evora sets me wondering whether the British were there before, during or after the construction of the Capella dos Ossos, allegedly built in the 17th Century when space in burial grounds became scarce. Et ego vidi meis ipsis occulis the bones of the departed strewn about on the ground beneath the floor of another church in that gem of a city. For visual impressions of the Capella does Ossos, follow this link:

in aqua pustula  •  Link

Evora, a delightful city for those that adore the Goddess Diana, and evoking the sins of Roman follies in Luisitania, before the succumbing to the whiles of Arabie, then the restablishment of those that dothe want to control the Oak Cork trees.

dirk  •  Link

embalming - cont'd

Apparently mercury was used for this purpose -- at least according to this text from 1703:

"Haec ea sunt, quae oculi acies, microscopium, vasorum in vivis ligaturae, hydrargyrium mortuis injectum, contemplatio figurae morbosae, comparatio denique brutorum, piscium, insectorum et plantarum detexit."

"This is what observation with the naked eye, and with the microscope, binding the arteries of the living, injecting the dead with mercury, contemplation of the suffering body, [and] comparison to animals, fish, insects and plants has clearly shown." [This is a passage about the structure of arteries etc.]

"De Usu Ratiocinii Mechanici in Medicina", Hermanni Boerhaave, 1703

Terry Foreman  •  Link

"the Lisbon Gazette in Spanish, where the late victory is set down particularly, and to the great honour of the English beyond measure."

The Lisbon Gazette's account was printed as Relacion de la famosa, y memorable vitoria que el exercito de el rey de Portugal (Lisbon, 1663).
The Portuguese usually printed news of importance in both Portuguese and Spanish. (Per L&M footnote)

Log in to post an annotation.

If you don't have an account, then register here.