Sunday 14 September 1662

(Lord’s day). Up very early, and Mr. Moore taking leave of me the barber came and trimmed me (I having him now to come to me again after I have used a pumice-stone a good while, not but what I like this where I cannot conveniently have a barber, but here I cannot keep my hair dry without one), and so by water to White Hall, by the way hearing that the Bishop of London had given a very strict order against boats going on Sundays, and as I come back again, we were examined by the masters of the company in another boat; but I told them who I was. But the door not being open to Westminster stairs there, called in at the Legg and drank a cup of ale and a toast, which I have not done many a month before, but it served me for my two glasses of wine to-day. Thence to St. James’s to Mr. Coventry, and there staid talking privately with him an hour in his chamber of the business of our office, and found him to admiration good and industrious, and I think my most true friend in all things that are fair. He tells me freely his mind of every man and in every thing. Thence to White Hall chapel, where sermon almost done, and I heard Captain Cooke’s new musique. This the first day of having vialls and other instruments to play a symphony between every verse of the anthem; but the musique more full than it was the last Sunday, and very fine it is.1 But yet I could discern Captain Cooke to overdo his part at singing, which I never did before. Thence up into the Queen’s presence, and there saw the Queen again as I did last Sunday, and some fine ladies with her; but, my troth, not many. Thence to Sir G. Carteret’s, and find him to have sprained his foot and is lame, but yet hath been at chappell, and my Lady much troubled for one of her daughters that is sick. I dined with them, and a very pretty lady, their kinswoman, with them. My joy is, that I do think I have good hold on Sir George and Mr. Coventry. Sir George told me of a chest of drawers that were given Sir W. B. by Hughes the rope-maker, whom he has since put out of his employment, and now the fellow do cry out upon Sir W. for his cabinet. So home again by water and to church, and from church Sir Williams both and Sir John Minnes into the garden, and anon Sir W. Pen and I did discourse about my lodgings and Sir J. Minnes, and I did open all my mind to him, and he told me what he had heard, and I do see that I shall hardly keep my best lodging chamber, which troubles me, but I did send for Goodenough the plasterer, who tells me that it did ever belong to my lodgings, but lent by Mr. Payles to Mr. Smith, and so I will strive hard for it before I lose it. So to supper with them at Sir W. Batten’s, and do counterfeit myself well pleased, but my heart is troubled and offended at the whole company. So to my office to prepare notes to read to the Duke to-morrow morning, and so to my lodgings and to bed, my mind a little eased because I am resolved to know the worst concerning my lodgings tomorrow. Among other things Sir W. Pen did tell me of one of my servants looking into Sir J. Minnes’ window when my Lady Batten lay there, which do much trouble them, and me also, and I fear will wholly occasion my loosing the leads. One thing more he told me of my Jane’s cutting off a carpenter’s long mustacho, and how the fellow cried, and his wife would not come near him a great while, believing that he had been among some of his wenches. At which I was merry, though I perceive they discourse of it as a crime of hers, which I understand not.

  1. Charles II. determined to form his own chapel on the model of that at Versailles. Twenty-four instrumentalists were engaged, and this was the first day upon which they were brought into requisition. Evelyn alludes to the change in his Diary, but he puts the date down as the 21st instead of the 14th. “Instead of the antient, grave and solemn wind musiq accompanying the organ, was introduc’d a concert of 24 violins between every pause after the French fantastical light way, better suiting a tavern or playhouse than a church. This was the first time of change, and now we no more heard the cornet which gave life to the organ, that instrument quite left off in which the English were so skilful.” A list of the twenty-four fiddlers in 1674, taken from an Exchequer document, “The names of the Gents of his Majesties Private Musick paid out of the Exchequer,” is printed in North’s “Memoires of Musick,” ed. Rimbault, 1846, p. 98 (note).

43 Annotations

Terry F   Link to this

"but I told them who I was."

L&M note: "The Waterman's Company had charge of the hire of boats. Pepys could claim privilege as a royal servant."

L&M also note: "Sheldon's injunctions about the observance of the Sabbath (12 September 1662) have no mention of boats...."

Bradford   Link to this

Sorting out the antecedents:

"the barber came and trimmed me (I having him now to come to me again after I have used a pumice-stone a good while, not but what I like this where I cannot conveniently have a barber, but here I cannot keep my hair dry without one)"

"this" apparently means the pumice-stone, in lieu of a razor shave. Very well; but "one" seems to refer to barber, and a) why would his hair be wet "here" any more than anywhere else unless he tumbles into the Thames, and b) how could a barber help keep it dry?

If One Cup of Ale (+ toast) = 2 Glasses of Wine, one would think the ale very strong or the wine insipidly weak.

Glyn   Link to this

If anyone is in London this Saturday and Sunday (Sept 2005), it's London Open House weekend:

http://londonopenhouse.org/london/search/search...

and the Guildhall has its Crypt open to the public, which it isn't for the rest of the year. The Crypt has a stained glass window featuring Pepys, so perhaps someone could go there and photograph it and put it on this site, because I haven't found any examples on the internet.

To find it, go to the above address, click on "Boroughs" and on "City of London", then click on "Guildhall". Repeat the process for "Westminster", "Greenwich" and so on. Of course, it's completely free and if you browse through their site you'll see children's events so take the kids/grand-kids.

Saturday is also the day of the Great River Race (http://www.greatriverrace.co.uk ).

Australian Susan   Link to this

Toast
I don't think this means scorched bread as we know it. Isn't it something to do with mulled wine?

I agree with Bradford about the keeping the hair dry remark. Most odd. Anyone know what this means?

Sam has an eye for pretty ladies again!

So, Sam has the presence of mind to send for someone who knows the history of who had what rooms when in the Navy Office houses and gets the information he needs!

The Church music: Sam uses the term "vials", Evelyn is quoted as saying "violins". For the sake of harmony and depth in the performance, I would have thought these were vials of different sizes, not just one size violins as we know them.

The cornet is referred to by Evelyn - this would have been one without the valves of a modern cornet. Brass music was much appreciated at that time (as Evelyn's regret shows), but instruments were hard to play and lacked range. The famous Trumpet Voluntary by Jeremiah Clarke (composed slightly later than the Diary period) was originally written to be played on an organ using the trumpet stop as no trumpet of that time could have played it - only when valved instruments were developed could it be played on a trumpet.

Another query - why does the poor workman losing his moustaches imply he'd been a naughty boy? I join with Sam, however, in admiring Jane: it's not just in Sam she inspires fear of disclosure!

Nix   Link to this

"But yet I could discern Captain Cooke to overdo his part at singing" --

We choral singers know the type. (Indeed, many of us see them in the mirror each morning.)

dirk   Link to this

"If One Cup of Ale (+ toast) = 2 Glasses of Wine, one would think the ale very strong or the wine insipidly weak."

Re - Bradford

Or maybe the quantity of ale (a pint?) and/or the strength of it was considered more inebriating than two (small?) glasses of wine?

daniel   Link to this

"The cornet is referred to by Evelyn - this would have been one without the valves of a modern cornet. "

I can't help but comment as this entry is a very good one as far as music is concerned.

The seventeenth century instrument, Cornetto, sometimes Cornet, is not a brass instrument. It is a three foot long wooden tube, with finger holes, covered in leather, but with the cupped mouth-peice that brass players of today would be familiar with. It was a solo instrument par excellence in the 17th century, rivaling the violin or viol. It very qucikly went out of fashion on most of the continent and England about twenty-five years hereafter, William of Orange in particular finding it of lesser esteem than the new-fangled oboe.

The twenty-four violins of Louis XIV became the height of musical excellence and and worthy emulation from other monarchs in Europe, Charles II being one of the first. The nursery rhyme about "Sing a-song a-six pence, a pocket full of rye" directly refers to Charles's top-notch band of twenty-four. In my humble opinion, Sam has mistaken viols (vialls) for violins, as this band was already employed at the Chapel Royal at this time.

Why Captain Cooke would be overdoing his part is curious. some boys out sick, perhaps?

Terry F   Link to this

Wasn't drinking "no wine" a part of his Sunday Oath? -- if so, how much ale would that equate to?

(Are standards slipping? Are we decompensating a bit for our vexations -- the likely loss of access to the leads, the behavior of Wayneman, etc.?)

dirk   Link to this

"how much ale would that equate to?"

After constipational calculus and digestional algebra, a new Pepysian type of mathematics: alcoholic polynomials, or Bacchus' Binomium...

Cfr.:
http://www.pepysdiary.com/diary/1662/09/06/#c35077

Terry F   Link to this

The cornett or *cornetto* daniel referenced is illustrated here in several kinds and further explained: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cornett

Australian Susan   Link to this

Music
So these were all violins, were they and Sam was wrong. I still think a few bass notes would have made a better sound!
Great information about the cornet. Having a brass player in the family (trumpet, tenor horn, euphonium) I tend to have blinkered vision over these instruments and assumed a cornet was a cornet was a cornet!

Australian Susan   Link to this

See http://www.petrouska.com/historyofthetrumpet.htm for information about natural trumpets and the introduction of valves.

daniel   Link to this

Violins

this was and can still be a general term for "the violin family" . for example, the usual distribution of parts for Charles's 24 fiddles was six treble violins (the type most today think of) four alto violins, eight tenor violins in two different parts (think the modern "viola") and six bass violins, an instrument admirably suited for playing the bottom parts. Sam mentions at least once in his music making opportunities "musick made to the bass-viallin",.

Australian Susan   Link to this

Does the "bass violin" referred to above look like a bass vial or more like a modern 'cello? How many strings?

Terry F   Link to this

Viol/Viall/violin from the Background info

Phil on Wed 5 Mar 2003, 11:25 pm
Viol. From Wheatley' list of Sam's instruments, it appears that the viol family of instruments is that most frequently referred to in the diary. For information on the viola da gamba and other members of the family see:

http://vdgsa.org/pgs/stuff.html

[Originally posted by Derek on a general Instruments page.]

(Nifty site.)

daniel   Link to this

Bass Violin-

Four, sometimes five strings, tuned in fifths like a 'cello but larger in size and usually tuned a bit lower than the modern 'cello.

Viol and violin familes ran rival with each other for about a century, from about 1550 to 1650. most of the higher members of the viol family (treble, alto, tenor) had fallen out of fashion on the continent by the time of the diary, leavin ght ebass instrument as a solo instrument favored by the nobility. In England, the use of a "consort" of viols was still current around the time of Sam's present entries but Charles II prefered the brisker sounds of the violin family and helped push along the supremancy of the string orchestra sound that became popular in the eighteenth century. Sam could have been listening to a consort of viols playing "symphonies" inbetween verses of the church anthems but most likely with nobels and other fashionable people in attendance, a small group from the 24 violins were more likely playing.

Australian Susan   Link to this

The violin/vial type of instrument developed in several different ways. One, which was developed shortly before the Diary period, is the Hardanger violin from Norway, which is understrung. This instrument acheived worldwide fame by being used for the soundtrack of The Two Towers. Infomation about the Hardanger violin: http://www.wisconsinhistory.org/museum/artifact...

pinderbush   Link to this

"This the first day of having vialls and other instruments to play a symphony between every verse of the anthem..."

For readers who might be wondering, this does NOT mean the viols played an entire symphony -- a la Beethoven or Mozart -- between verses. In this context, symphony simply meant any musical piece in which a group of instruments played on their own -- as opposed to when they were accompanying voices.

The best way to imaging this, is that the singers or chanter would sing part of the text, the instrumentalists would play some measures on their own, and then the singers would sing the next part of the part of the text, then the instrumentalists, and so on.

Before it acquired its modern meaning as an extended piece for an orchestra, it could mean pretty much any instrumental piece that didn't fit into another category such as song or fugue or dance.

The term could even refer to a piece for a solo keyboard instrument in which the parts for both hands were more or less equal. (Eg: some of Bach's pieces for solo keyboard are called "symphonien".)

The term comes via Italian from the Greek (loosely translated) "to play at the same time".

DrCari   Link to this

Personal Hygiene in Sam's day did not extend to daily baths or washing of one's hair. When Sam laments his inability to keep his hair dry, I am assuming the 'wetness' would be the accumulation of sebacious oil from unwashed hair.
I believe in France there was a practice of powdering hair in order to reduce oiliness. Don't know if this was done in London though.

Mary   Link to this

Keeping sam's hair 'dry'.

I had had the same thought as DrCari above. When Pepys is living comfortably in his own lodgings, he has Jane or one of the other servants comb his hair out (possibly following the use of powder of some description). His temporary lodgings make this difficult or impossible, so he employs the barber to tidy him up instead.

Miss Ann   Link to this

Mary's recall of Jane's hair brushing brings to mind that during this period in time the brushing of one's hair was actually considered an "erotic" experience - I think I might agree with this.

andy   Link to this

I shall hardly keep my best lodging chamber, which troubles me, but I did send for Goodenough the plasterer, who tells me that it did ever belong to my lodgings, but lent by Mr. Payles to Mr. Smith, and so I will strive hard for it before I lose it.

Not being an Oxford graduate I have only a hazy idea of their "Rooms" off a communal area. I wonder if Sam's accommodation is also hazily defined so that he has an assortment of rooms rather than our modern conception of a house; and that one of these rooms is the one that leads out onto the leads and which he has extended; but as his extension blocks the light they've remembered that it wasn't really one of his rooms anyway.

Mary   Link to this

"..looking into Sir J. Minnes window"

It looks as if Minnes may have just cause of complaint over the use of the leads. Or is this simply a case of the Sir Williams reminding Pepys that he's not yet on safe ground when it comes to slighting his seniors?

David Goldfarb   Link to this

Actually, rather than "play at the same time", "symphony" would be better translated from the Greek as "voices together".

Robert Gertz   Link to this

I would imagine sweat from his constant activity would also play a role in keeping the hair undry. Well between the greasy oil and sweat, Bess will never have trouble finding her boy in the dark...

Robert Gertz   Link to this

"...one of my servants looking into Sir J. Minnes' window when my Lady Batten lay there…” During the reconstruction, I presume?

Will…

Australian Susan   Link to this

Toast
I think Sam was drinking bread soaked in wine. See http://www.phrases.org.uk/bulletin_board/23/mes...

Xjy   Link to this

"He tells me freely his mind of every man and in every thing."
"...and anon Sir W. Pen and I did discourse about my lodgings and Sir J. Minnes, and I did open all my mind to him, and he told me what he had heard..."
"So to supper with them at Sir W. Batten', and do counterfeit myself well pleased, but my heart is troubled and offended at the whole company.”
Minds open and free, and counterfeit. Good articles recently in the New Scientist and Scientific American Mind about human beings as “natural born liars”… Our Sam is a useful case study here. The Restoration Puritan ;-)

andy   Link to this

bread soaked in wine

must try that one myself!

Michael L   Link to this

I find the carpenter's mustacho anecdote intriguing. First, how was Jane able to cut it off? Next, why would the man's wife suppose its removal was evidence of unfaithfulness?

Terry F   Link to this

the carpenter's mustacho anecdote

Well, Michael L, how do you suppose anyone would be allowed so close for so long as to distract him into closing his eyes and cut off a man’s mustacho? I’ve wondered that myself. It wouldn’t be one of his fellows, but could be done in a long embrace…

Perhaps Jane hasn’t committed a crime, but has displayed, for all (including his wife) to see, a reproach?

Mary   Link to this

moustache trimming.

It can be done. A friend removed one half of her husband's handle-bar moustache whilst he was asleep after lunch. The marriage survived, but only just. Perhaps the carpenter had taken a little more beer than usual at midday and Jane struck as he was sleeping it off.

Robert Gertz   Link to this

I would guess our Jane rejected several of the fellow's advances and kept a knife or shears at hand when he wouldn't take no for an answer. He was probably lucky to get off so lightly...

Watch it, Sam...

Ruben   Link to this

Virtual Tour of Guildhall
to Glyn:
last year you mentioned the stained glass in Guildhall.
you can see what I want to think is Sam's image in the window glass at:
http://www.cityoflondon.gov.uk/corporation/guil...
from the site you cited last year.
It is possible to "tour the Crypt" with the controls included and also to blow-up Pepys presumed image.

Bradford   Link to this

I just thought Sam was drinking A Toast.
Even given loose writing it is difficult to drink a piece of bread no matter how sodden with vino.

Hyperion 66667 is a CD entitled "The Four and Twenty Fiddlers," by the Parley of Instruments Renaissance Violin Band, featuring the repertoire of the Restorian court (available for inspection on Hyperion's own site,
http://www.hyperion-records.co.uk
and no doubt Amazon.com and Amazon.co.uk).

Scav   Link to this

If chez Pepys' is at all like a few stone houses I've visited in France, well, imagine standing in house Scav, knocking a door through a side-wall into house B, walling up any doors to said house B and, voila, you've room for the extra kid. You can also buy and roof-over neighbor C's donkey courtyard if you procreate further. Amazing arrangements lurk behind those smooth(ish) facades along simple village streets.

Australian Susan   Link to this

Bradford - the term "to drink a toast" derived (only after the Diary period)from the custom of having things dunked in the wine. See the url I gave above for (maybe only supposed) genesis of this practice. I agree, it doesn't sound very appetising, but maybe Sam would not think much of McVitie's digestives dunked in tea (probably only an English custom?) but he might fancy the Australian version of sucking up port through a Tim-Tam, which is one of life's minor pleasures here in the great brown land.

Terry F   Link to this

"drank a cup of ale and a toast, which I have not done many a month before, but it served me for my two glasses of wine to-day."

There is still the matter of how to parse this and also to grasp how the "no wine" part of Sam's Sunday Oath can be harmonized with what seems to be his assumption of a "two glasses of wine"-daily allotment.

Does he consider his daily grog to be "two glasses of wine" and the "no wine" pledge to include only what is above that?

Terry F   Link to this

Better: Does Sam regard "two glasses of wine" to be his daily grog, and the "no wine" pledge to include only what is more than that?

JonTom Kittredge   Link to this

"Two glasses of wine"
This is something of a long shot, but there is a tradition that, at least during Lent, the rigors of fasting are relaxed on Sunday. It may be that SP's self-imposed oaths allow him two glasses of wine, on Sunday only.

A.Hamilton   Link to this

Or is this simply a case of the Sir Williams reminding Pepys that he's not yet on safe ground when it comes to slighting his seniors?

Mary, I think the whole episode of Sir. J.Minnes’s complaints about Sam’s additions,and the accusation that he has built beyond his entitlement, could be seen as the Old Salts’ revenge on young upstart Pepys. (Sorry for late post— I’ve been traveling.)

Jenny Doughty   Link to this

It's not necessarily as bad as we think not to wash your hair frequently. There's a story here about a modern woman who has not washed her hair for eleven years!

http://www.sky.com/skynews/article/0,,30000-132...

pat stewart cavalier   Link to this

Toast : "the notion of drinking a toast goes back to the late 17th century .... the name of the [toasted] lady was supposed to flavour the drink like the pieces of spiced toast that were formerly added to wine" (Concise Oxford dictionary)

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