Monday 23 January 1664/65

Up, and with Sir W. Batten and Sir W. Pen to White Hall; but there finding the Duke gone to his lodgings at St. James’s for all together, his Duchesse being ready to lie in, we to him, and there did our usual business. And here I met the great newes confirmed by the Duke’s own relation, by a letter from Captain Allen. First, of our own loss of two ships, the Phoenix and Nonesuch, in the Bay of Gibraltar: then of his, and his seven ships with him, in the Bay of Cales, or thereabouts, fighting with the 34 Dutch Smyrna fleete; sinking the King Salamon, a ship worth a 150,000l. or more, some say 200,000l., and another; and taking of three merchant-ships. Two of our ships were disabled, by the Dutch unfortunately falling against their will against them; the Advice, Captain W. Poole, and Antelope, Captain Clerke: The Dutch men-of-war did little service. Captain Allen did receive many shots at distance before he would fire one gun, which he did not do till he come within pistol- shot of his enemy. The Spaniards on shore at Cales did stand laughing at the Dutch, to see them run away and flee to the shore, 34 or thereabouts, against eight Englishmen at most. I do purpose to get the whole relation, if I live, of Captain Allen himself. In our loss of the two ships in the Bay of Gibraltar, it is observable how the world do comment upon the misfortune of Captain Moone of the Nonesuch (who did lose, in the same manner, the Satisfaction), as a person that hath ill-luck attending him; without considering that the whole fleete was ashore. Captain Allen led the way, and Captain Allen himself writes that all the masters of the fleete, old and young, were mistaken, and did carry their ships aground. But I think I heard the Duke say that Moone, being put into the Oxford, had in this conflict regained his credit, by sinking one and taking another. Captain Seale of the Milford hath done his part very well, in boarding the King Salamon, which held out half an hour after she was boarded; and his men kept her an hour after they did master her, and then she sunk, and drowned about 17 of her men. Thence to Jervas’s, my mind, God forgive me, running too much after some folly, but ‘elle’ not being within I away by coach to the ‘Change, and thence home to dinner. And finding Mrs. Bagwell waiting at the office after dinner, away she and I to a cabaret where she and I have eat before, and there I had her company ‘tout’ and had ‘mon plaisir’ of ‘elle’. But strange to see how a woman, notwithstanding her greatest pretences of love ‘a son mari’ and religion, may be ‘vaincue’. Thence to the Court of the Turkey Company at Sir Andrew Rickard’s to treat about carrying some men of ours to Tangier, and had there a very civil reception, though a denial of the thing as not practicable with them, and I think so too. So to my office a little and to Jervas’s again, thinking ‘avoir rencontrais’ Jane, ‘mais elle n’etait pas dedans’. So I back again and to my office, where I did with great content ‘ferais’ a vow to mind my business, and ‘laisser aller les femmes’ for a month, and am with all my heart glad to find myself able to come to so good a resolution, that thereby I may follow my business, which and my honour thereby lies a bleeding. So home to supper and to bed.

55 Annotations

Pedro  •  Link

"Captain Moone of the Nonesuch (who did lose, in the same manner, the Satisfaction), as a person that hath ill-luck attending him;" ...But I think I heard the Duke say that Moone, being put into the Oxford, had in this conflict regained his credit, by sinking one and taking another.

Ill-luck indeed, to be immortalized in the Diary of Samuel Pepys for something that was not his fault? In defence of Captain Moone (Mohun), information from the Journal of Sir Thomas Allin edited by RC Anderson seems to point to a Captain Parker.

The first mention of the warship Nonsuch in the Allin Journals is on the 24th of September 1664 at Cadiz, and in a footnote Anderson puts the Captain as Nicholas Parker. On the 2nd of December Allin describes the events that saw the Nonsuch and the Phoenix meet their fate.

The first mention of Captain Mohun in the Oxford is on the 19th December, the day of the attack on the Smyrna fleet...

"After Captain Searle, being to the leeward of the men-of-war, had given the Admiral what guns he could, and Captain Mohun he gave them his guns, being also to the leeward, and I got to the windward and gave him all my upper tier and 2 demi-cannon in the gun-room, and charged for his Vice Admiral and Rear Admiral and gave them all we could..."

Anderson adds a footnote concerning Mohun in the Oxford...The last mention of this ship was on the 2nd of October. Probably she had come from Malaga with the English convoy. Dutch accounts say there were two English men-of-war there when they arrived and that the English merchantmen sailed at the same time as the Dutch.

Pedro  •  Link

More on Captain Mohun.

Later in the day of the 19th December Allin says…

“While we lay under our mainsail, Captain Mohun came aboard with some old letters from Alicante from Mr. Coventry.”

Patricia  •  Link

"But strange to see how a woman, notwithstanding her greatest pretences of love ‘a son mari’ and religion,..." A bit of double standard there, Sam? His conscience must really be bothering him, judging by the amount of totally unnecessary French he inserts in this entry.

Carl in Boston  •  Link

Sam is drooling, he has to find the girls, but he has to follow his business for a month, but he can't stand it, faster and faster his whirligig goes. Meanwhile Elizabeth knows. She has to know by intuition, but she has the title "Mrs, Pepys", she has the fine clothes and servants, and silver plate and money piling up on every side, while not ten years ago he weren't nothin but a pricklouse. For the moment, she will let him have have his leash loose. Sam has to keep pursuing the girls, they are beautiful, he can't stop.
I use the present tense rather than the past tense because Sam and Elizabeth are real to me.

jeannine  •  Link

My weak translations (feel free to improve upon)

And finding Mrs. Bagwell waiting at the office after dinner, away she and I to a cabaret where she and I have eat before, and there I had her company all and had my pleasure of her. But strange to see how a woman, notwithstanding her greatest pretences of love of her husband and religion, may be overcome.

So to my office a little and to Jervas’s again, thinking to have met Jane, but she did not come inside [not 100% sure of this?]

So I back again and to my office, where I did with great content make a vow to mind my business, and let go of women for a month.

In any case the translation is "he got lucky, he had a strike out and he made a vow that we know he won't keep".....other than that just another day at the office.

Terry W  •  Link

French Translations

Pretty good Jeannine.

So to my office a little and to Jervas’s again, thinking to have met Jane, but she was not within.

Martha Wishart  •  Link

I wonder why the Stuarts were such poor breeders. Anne Hyde, the "Duchesse" whose only two children to live to adulthood produced no children who lived to adulthood (despite poor Queen Anne enduring about 12 pregnancies of her own).

Todd Bernhardt  •  Link

The bane of inbreeding, perhaps, Martha?

I had another question: Looking at the description of Sam's dalliance with Mrs. Bagwell at "a cabaret where she and I have eat before," I was reminded of all the other "public" places where he's done similar dirty deeds. It then occurred to me that Sam can't be the only one getting his jollies at these establishments. But presumably they were indeed public places, so what gives? How was this possible?

jeannine  •  Link

"I wonder why the Stuarts were such poor breeders"….. you are not the only one to wonder such things. In his book "Royal Confinements' Jack Dewhurst he devotes 2 chapters to the Restoration Stuart women. Here’s a brief summary of his findings:

Catherine of Braganza was childless and he notes that there was no evident explanation for this.

Ann Hyde, wife of the Duke of York had 6 children in 11 years and only the 2 daughters (Anne and Mary) lived.

Mary of Modena second wife of the Duke of York had been pregnant 8 times before she became queen. After that she finally gave birth to a son, who would never make it to the throne.

Mary (wife of William III) had a miscarriage and then what was perhaps a ‘phantom pregnancy’. After that she never became pregnant again and no reason is noted for that.

Poor Anne’s situation must have been horrible with different records of the time recording differences in the number of pregnancies that she had.
Dewhurst provides a history from David Green which was written in 1974 summarizing his findings on Anne’s history of births, miscarries and stillborn children.

1684 12 May a stillborn daughter
1685 2 June Mary or Marie (died February 8 1687)
1686 2 June Anne Sophia (died 2 February 1687)
1687 Between 20 January and 4 February a miscarriage
1687 October a miscarriage (male)
1688 16 April a miscarriage
1689 24 July William Duke of Gloucester (died 30 July 1700)
1690 14 October Mary (born 2 months premature, lived two hours)
1692 17 April George (born at Syon, lived a few minutes)
1693 23 March a miscarriage (female)
1694 21 January a miscarriage
1696 18 February a miscarriage (female)
1696 20 September a double miscarriage ( a son of 7 months growth, the other of 2 or 3 months)
1697 25 March a miscarriage
1697 December a miscarriage
1698 15 September a miscarriage (male)
1700 25 January a miscarriage (male)

Dewhurst then goes on to dispute the different summaries of the number of Anne’s pregnancies/miscarries, etc. and the conflicting records of her time. He also talks of how awful her emotional state must have been and notes that her faith must have been the only thing to maintain her (ie. “God’s will”). He then sums up the little that is known of these miscarriages and pregnancies from the different records of Anne’s time.

Finally he takes on the question of ‘why’ this happened to Mary. He disputes causes set forth in the past by others (syphilis, deformed pelvis). He looks at the pattern of her carries and miscarries and offers 3 explanations, which include Rhesus disease, diabetes or an intra-uterine growth retardation due to placental insufficiency. He tends to lean towards the last as the most logical, as either a poorly formed placenta or a lack of oxygen to the placenta could cause fetuses to die in utero before birth, or be born very small with a serious risk of dying in the first few days or weeks of life. (p 1-46). This seems the most consistent with her pattern from his perspective. In any case, she must have suffered greatly and the Stuart line ended.

cape henry  •  Link

This is just idle speculation on my part, but I have wondered for a while if, when Sam shifts into 'Casanova Mode,' he employs this pidgin French of his on these women as a way of impressing them. Then these brief outbreaks of French in the diary make a bit of sense: he merely transfers his thoughts from those encounters into print.

cape henry  •  Link

Most inns or taverns were converted residences with rooms. Many of these, I imagine, had places where a couple could chat in private. I imagine certain ones would have been more amenable to this than others.

Miss Ann  •  Link

Ah, Cape Henry, have you been drinking in the same bars as I? This presumption would make so much sense. I'm a little worried however that Sam has sworn off women for a whole month - maybe he has a conscience afterall.

The loss of children in the past was something that was certainly considered to be "God's Will", and today it is considered a great tragedy as it happens so privately and very rarely talked about. I would think that in the past women had a different mindset about children (both birthing and rearing) to today's mothers, but underneath it all I'm sure they grieved just as we do today. (I myself had 5 pregnancies and 2 live births.)

Poor Anne Hyde not only had all these miscarriages / still births to contend with but in the beginning her husband didn't want to marry her -- I think it amazing that she got pregnant so many times at all.

Australian Susan  •  Link

Thank you Jeannine for your excellent summary of the dire obstetric histories of some Royal wives.

Just to add to this: Todd raised the point of "inbreeding" - whilst not technically that (cousin marriage is legal), Mary Hyde did marry her first cousin: her Aunt, Charles II's sister - also a Mary - married William III's father - also a William.

The numerous pregnancies which some of these women had with scarce a gap between was perhaps due to the practice of wet nursing, so the partial birth control of suckling did not take effect. Lucy Hutchinson (from The Other Side in the CW) was ridiculed amongst fellow aristo wives for breastfeeding her own children. For information on Henrietta maria's children (note how frequent were her early pregnancies) see

cgs  •  Link

The Pepys ships gets the monika
"Royal Navy"
"Resolved, &c. That these Words, "Royal Navy," be inserted, instead of "great Fleet," in the Preamble.

Which was done; and the Words thrice read; and agreed.

Resolved, &c. That the Words "in the Seas" be inserted, instead of "of the Seas."

Which was done; and the Words thrice read; and agreed to."

Mary  •  Link

"laisser aller les femmes.."

Literally 'let women go ..' but the meaning is that he will leave women aside, leave them alone.

Bryan M  •  Link

“His conscience must really be bothering him” but not as much as it did in the past.

In earlier days after a dalliance Sam would express a sense of guilt and more or less promised himself “never again”. Today his vow is to abstain for a month. I think we have seen a real change in Sam’s character over the last 12 months. These days he is much more cynical and manipulative with regards to women and acquiring wealth.

One reason for the change which Sam hints at occasionally might be his attitude to, and personal concern about death. It comes up again in today’s entry: “I do purpose to get the whole relation, if I live, of Captain Allen himself”. The good captain is the one out there in harm’s way but Sam says “if *I* live”. And he’s still only 32. It's not exactly an optimistic statement.

In the last six months Sam has also made some comments about the transience of life and reputation. For example, on June 2 he said about the death of Lord Tiviott “and how soon the memory of this great man is gone, or, at least, out of mind by the thoughts of who goes next”. In July Alsop the brewer shuffled off and Sam noted on the 27th it “is a sad consideration to see how uncertain a thing our lives are, and how little to be presumed of in our greatest undertakings”.

And of course there was Sam’s reaction to his brother Tom’s death or more correctly his own awareness of his lack of a reaction. On 18 March, just a few days after Tom’s death, Sam wrote: “But, Lord! to see how the world makes nothing of the memory of a man, an houre after he is dead! And, indeed, I must blame myself; for though at the sight of him dead and dying, I had real grief for a while, while he was in my sight, yet presently after, and ever since, I have had very little grief indeed for him”.

I don’t think these are just throw away comments but reflect something deeper. It might be going too far to say that Sam had an existential crisis in this period but there does seem to have been a transition or realignment. To speculate a bit further, perhaps Sam justified his behaviour to himself by arguing that he was working his butt off to provide for Liz after he was gone, so he was entitled to a good time once in a while.

Apologies for the length of the post.

Cdr.Thomas von B.  •  Link

"the Duke gone to his lodgings at St. Jame's for Altogether, his Duchesse being ready to lie-in,.."

The Duke usually went there only for the summer.

L+M (vol.VI)1974.

Boatswain Sebas  •  Link

".. by a letter from Captain Allen first, of our loss of two ships,.."

Allin to Coventry, Cadiz Bay, 23 dec.: copy in Tanner 294, ff.16v-17v.

".. to see them run away and fly to the shore,34 or thereabouts against 8 Englishman at most.."

Allin had eight men of war; the Dutch 30 merchantmen and three warships. This was the action of 19 December.

L+M (Vol.VI. 1665) 1974.

Boatswain Sebas  •  Link

".. all the maisters of the fleet, old and young, were mistaken and did carry their ships aground.."

Allin wrote: "Of so many ancient masters and officers never was such an oversight committed"

L+M (Vo.VI.1665)1974.

Lt. Colin Seaway  •  Link

".. a vow to mind my business and laisser aller les femmes for a month.."

The oath seems to have been renewed on 23 February ( his birthday) and may be the oath which expired on 15 May.."

L+M (Vol.VI.1665)1974.

Ruben  •  Link

thank you, Brian M. Death seen around us has a profound effect in many. The instinct of preservation of life gives way to an explosion of sex drives, that not all can control.

Australian Susan  •  Link

Why all the aliases?

Pedro  •  Link

Thanks Brian.

Long entries are sometimes thought provoking, and a great addition.

I mean anyone can quote from L&M. (And for that matter Allin, Holmes, and De Ruyter!)

Pedro  •  Link

"I do purpose to get the whole relation, if I live, of Captain Allen himself."

Luckier than Sam I have obtained the Journals edited by Anderson, that may be of interest in the future.

They also included many things of interest from 1660 onwards. I have added a few to the back entries and would be interested to know if they are of interest to others, in which case I will continue to put them in.

Miriam  •  Link

Australian Susan, as my beloved bubbie used to say, of one of her farm residents, "He always brays to let you know he's there."

Back to the cabaret!

Bradford  •  Link

Indeed, Miriam: and when did the cabaret make its entrance into the English entertainment industry? Oh, drat, Companion Large Glossary says it just means "tavern," banishing all sorts of delightful anachronistic images. And hasn't la belle française ever been la langue de l'amour? Place your bets now on how long les femmes will laisseront aller by Sam---more like laisser-faire, and prendent garde, sans doute!

Mary  •  Link


OED gives this as meaning 'a wooden dwelling, booth, shed' when it first appears in English (1632) and hypothesizes that it may have been formed from 'cabanet' either in error or on account of the connexion between taberna and tavern.

By 1652, the meaning 'pot-house, drinking-house' has accrued to it.

Terry Foreman  •  Link

"my honour thereby lies a bleeding"

Indeed, the oath-breaker's lament, and a poignant phrase.

cape henry  •  Link

[One of the benefits of this extended, common reading and comment forum is that threads are tied together in the fine manner of Bryan's entry above.]

cgs  •  Link

Pedro : It be good to see other background information, it gives flavor to the times.

Pedro  •  Link

“Allin Journals ….24th of September 1664 at Cadiz, and in a footnote Anderson puts the Captain as Nicholas Parker.”

Ill luck also for Captain Parker! In a later footnote around the start of November 1664, Anderson says that Bacon had been the Lieutenant on the Plymouth and replaced Parker as Captain in the Nonsuch.

Todd Bernhardt  •  Link

Cape, I agree on both counts (your speculation about Sam's Francaise, and the benefits of this forum's format). Bryan, Jeannine, Aussie Sue, Pedro ... good stuff. Gotta love this site.

Pedro  •  Link

“I met the great newes confirmed by the Duke’s own relation, by a letter from Captain Allen.”

It is not clear whether Sam is getting this information at first hand, as it differs in some ways to Journal of Allin where there is a detailed account covering two pages.

Allin says that in the morning of the 19th that they saw a dozen to 14 sail which proved the Holland fleet, and matching English Captains and ships mentioned comes to 11.

He does not give the number of Dutch warships, but there must have been less than the English, or the impression that the Dutch men-of-war did little service.

No mention either of waiting till he come within pistol- shot of his enemy.

Carl in Boston  •  Link

I can't believe it, 33 annotations. This is terrific. I love the old sea dogs coming in to tell us of the maritime part.
I have to tag up before I get called for being off topic. Samuel Pepys, there, he was a dawg, rutting with every poor starving female he could find. There you are, all tagged up.
All these references to seafaring and astronomy are so cool.

Robert Gertz  •  Link

Perhaps the most chilling thing is Sam's almost scientific interest in the progress of l'affair Bagwell as he notes his success in wearing away her resistance as well as his casual dismissal of her increasingly battered scruples. One may still wonder if she is quite as helpless a victim as Sam's self-damning account portrays but in any case it's reflecting a steady hardening of the man.

I don't think Bess knows, Carl...Though she ought to suspect and Sam does seem to be increasingly careless.

A black day for Holland, if Allen's account be quite true. But other days will come...

Dear Jane escapes the clutches of the Peeper yet again... One wonders if our Lothario is as ridiculous in his lovemaking as this little endless runaround suggests.

Australian Susan  •  Link

Every entry regarding Jane increases my admiration for her - she has them all led by the nose!

Cabaret - someone has to say it - who else had an instant vision of Joel Grey in that grotesque make-up singing "Wilkommen, Bien Venue, Welcome".

Taverns etc had public or open rooms and private rooms. having a private room did not necessarily mean you were Up To No Good - just that you wanted privacy. You would also have to pay for the fire and more for service. There's a line in Measure for measure that always needs footnotes "It was an open room and therefore good for winter" which means the person went there because he did not have to pay for the fire and to keep warm. Although Sam is only wanting the private room for One Thing, it did not automatically mean that, but i still think he is chancing it. Who knows who might see. Also, what does he do with The Boy at these times - he would be expected to accompany his master on all outings and leaving him at home with no explanation would arouse Bess's suspicions surely?

Pedro  •  Link

A black day for Holland, if Allen’s account be quite true. But other days will come…

It would be interesting is Mr. Dorspamns (rank uncertain) could dig up some information from the Dutch side about the Smyrna attack.

Boatswain Sebas quotes L&M…

”.. all the maisters of the fleet, old and young, were mistaken and did carry their ships aground...”

Actually in his Journal Allin says, "of so many ancient masters and officers never was such oversight committed.”

Standing alone this may give the idea that it was an almighty cook-up.

Allin goes on to say. "They at first never considered their currents and steered away SSE and lay by and then SSW and were all ashore by one or two in the morning, they say they could not see my lights, although I put as many candles as there were pockets, three in my great lantern; but indeed the night was so dark and rainy that we could not see a ships length, but one said they saw a light close to Gibraltar for my light and steered to that, others the force of the current and the first part of the night little wind, drove up and were ashore without thinking of anything more than they were in the middle of a channel. Never had men used more diligence to bring our designs to good effect, but what can we more say?"

It is interesting to note that on the day before he says that all the captains aboard were very earnest to sail for Trafalgar, to lie there expecting the coming of the fleet of Hollanders. He was loth to weigh, considering the darkness of the night, being in the gut with variety of winds and currents...But his master was hasty to sail saying that he could carry her through at midnight as well as high day, "I considering, if they should pass and I stay contrary to their intentions, all would be laid on me…so we steered over for the Barbary shore.”

Obviously the conditions were foul and the Straits notoriously full of dangers.
Does Allin account himself as one of those committing oversights, or is he trying to distance himself from the tragic events?

Interesting to note he does not record of loss of life, and nine days later they try to cross the neck of land at Gibraltar to reach the men that were left on board the ships, but were refused permission and had to go by sea. The men were given enough money to sustain them for a month.

Chess  •  Link

>sinking the King Salamon, a ship worth a 150,000l. or more>

Isn't that a huge amount of money for the time? Does anyone have the link to the website that converts monetary values to modern day equivalents? It was posted years ago but I can't find it.

Pedro  •  Link

King Salamon

Appears to have been in New Netherland in 1654…

On Trinity Sunday, 1654, the Swedes surprised and captured Fort Casimir, which had no powder in its magazine, and named it Fort Trinity. Stuyvesant, after reporting to the Company the “infamous surrender,” was ordered to retake the fort and drive out the Swedes. Having an expected attack from New England to provide for, he postponed his expedition until the warships King Solomon, Great Christopher, and the Balance, with a French privateer, the Hope, had come over from Amsterdam

cgs  •  Link

Salamon value [>sinking the King Salamon, a ship worth a 150,000l. or more].
That be the cargo, it be valued at that amount.
Then those pounds would buy thee 500 houses on the Strand?
In gold, that be 75,000 oz's of gold now worth 450 quid/oz. []
a modern warship be valued at ?
If in loaves of bread, it be 240x 150,000 loaves then
so that to- day you would need 18,000,000 quid to get that number of Pepysian loaves.
Of course, if Sam had that amount of cash [-he has 1000 l] he could purchase 50,00 to 150,000 periwigs from Jervais [that would impress the slippery assistant] or better he could get 180,000 silk stockings for his visits to the the room off to the left?.
Of course Samuell could get a carriage and pair for 50 smackers, and really impress the lasses.
[the above be lifted from Eliza's little book on the Restoration London.]

Robert Gertz  •  Link

The Boy...And his Innocent Tricks...

"And how was your day with Mr. Pepys, Thomas?"

"Yes, boy...Tell Mrs. Pepys what a busy, yet innocent day we had."

"Lets see...'Mr. Pepys and I did many errands and did much good singing and Mr. Pepys worked with many fine gentlemen very busily and then we et dinner and then we come home...'"

"Very good, Tom."

"And the lady give me a penny..."


"Yes, very kind, one of our staff's wives...Run along now Tom and get to your book. Now, Tom."

"Yes, sir."

"What lady?"



"What is it, Tom? I told you to go."

"I don't think the lady's bubs was as big as Mrs. Pepys like you said, sir."


Ruben  •  Link

I presume that if the cabaret was in the west, Sam would send the boy in an errand to the east, etc.

salis  •  Link

150,000l. then would keep 5000 naval officers afloat for 18 mths, now it would only keep 2 navy captains for less than a year.

Pedro  •  Link

For Old Rowley...£150,000 then would keep..

6 Mistresses for one year or 1 mistress for 6 years.

Australian Susan  •  Link

Thank you, RG! Lovely sketch as usual - thought you'd rise to the bait with consummate skill as ever - never failing to bring a smile to my dial on a miserable morning!

dirk  •  Link

Bryan, maybe Sam is suffering from a typical wintertime depression - short and dark days, long nights, cold, lack of sunshine... Something I think we're all familiar with to some extent.

Combined with Tom's death and Sam's difficulty to cope with his own lack of feeling, this would go a long way to explain Sam's mood now.

Michael Robinson  •  Link

"Bryan, maybe Sam is suffering from a typical wintertime depression ..."

Bryan, to my mind, seems to have caught something in his post -- I had wondered to myself some time ago if some of the unconscious agreements that underlay the Pepys marriage were being re-negotiated, I remember some months back the note about the two spending nights apart for the first time in the marriage; domestic staff and companions for her more freedom for him and his irregular working hours allowing enormous and unquestioned personal liberty.

He could also be suffering from a seasonal depression in addition. There seems to be absolutely no regular source of Vitamin D in his diet, that we know of, and at this time of year the sun is too low at the latitude to provide even a daily minimum: ironically the less affluent, and the Dutch, eating fat fish like herring would probably be in better psychological shape in the closing months of winter.

Bryan M  •  Link

"this would go a long way to explain Sam’s mood now".

That could be the case Dirk. (It’s something that didn’t cross my mind because in this part of the world our problem is too much sunshine.) There does seem to have been a change in Sam’s attitude over the last year though, a hardening as RG suggested. It’s intriguing to try to put some of the pieces of Sam’s jigsaw together.

Mary  •  Link

Lack of exercise, too?

In the early days of the diary Sam walked almost everywhere, come rain or shine, winter and summer. These days, having gained in reputation, importance and wealth, he travels about town more and more often by coach.

salis  •  Link

very interesting insights. Thanks.

Australian Susan  •  Link

Another change

We do not seem to be hearing much about family and old friends at the moment - no letters from Brampton, no visits from the Joyces, no visits to or from Jane Turner.
And, as Mary points out, the upward mobility socially has led to a lack of it in reality: no more walking to Woolwich or Greenwich and he uses the official barge to get to Deptford and lots of hackney coaches around the City.

Carl in Boston  •  Link

That bad boy Sam seems to have the modern ladies clamoring for Elizabeth to restore order. I think she knew which side of her bread was buttered, well laid on butter, and turned a blind eye to Sam's sport. I glanced at a railway signal worker yesterday from fifty feet away and he immediately looked at me. Even men have a sixth sense. How much more would Elizabeth know, especially if he seemed to be satisfied of late. My wife of 33 years would know by mental telepathy if I did anything.
The no more walking to Woolwich or Greenwich is temporarily caused by the Winter cold, I think. I have no idea if he will take up walking again because Sam's future lies ahead.
There now, that makes a perfected 52 annotations, more satisfying than the absurd number 51. We have astonished them all. Congratulations, everyone.

laura k  •  Link

"Meanwhile Elizabeth knows. She has to know by intuition, but she has the title "Mrs, Pepys", she has the fine clothes and servants, and silver plate and money piling up on every side, while not ten years ago he weren’t nothin but a pricklouse. For the moment, she will let him have have his leash loose."

This is a very large assumption.

We have no way of knowing if Elizabeth knows about Sam's infidelity, and if she does, how much she knows. It's obvious to us because we're reading his diary! But many a spouse has been kept completely in the dark, and has been utterly flummoxed when learning of infidelities that others knew of all along.

CGS  •  Link

The seventh sense is not yet provable but intuition alerts one to the possibilities, thus one can turn the proverbial blind eye if it gets one the greater benefits.
Possession is 9/ 10ths of the law of practically.
'umans rely on the facts as known.

Pedro  •  Link

“We have no way of knowing if Elizabeth knows about Sam’s infidelity”

What we do know, but tantalizingly not why, and so we can only surmise, is that Elizabeth left him for a period before the Diary starts.

Was it because she found an infidelity, did he beat her, was it his jealousy of the dashing Holmes making advances, or just that she was not satisfied with her lot?

(That makes 55 annotations which is odd)

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