Tuesday 23 April 1661

Coronacian day.

[Continued from yesterday. P.G.] … about 4 I rose and got to the Abbey, where I followed Sir J. Denham, the Surveyor, with some company that he was leading in. And with much ado, by the favour of Mr. Cooper, his man, did get up into a great scaffold across the North end of the Abbey, where with a great deal of patience I sat from past 4 till 11 before the King came in. And a great pleasure it was to see the Abbey raised in the middle, all covered with red, and a throne (that is a chair) and footstool on the top of it; and all the officers of all kinds, so much as the very fidlers, in red vests.

At last comes in the Dean and Prebends of Westminster, with the Bishops (many of them in cloth of gold copes), and after them the Nobility, all in their Parliament robes, which was a most magnificent sight. Then the Duke, and the King with a scepter (carried by my Lord Sandwich) and sword and mond1 before him, and the crown too.

The King in his robes, bare-headed, which was very fine. And after all had placed themselves, there was a sermon and the service; and then in the Quire at the high altar, the King passed through all the ceremonies of the Coronacon, which to my great grief I and most in the Abbey could not see. The crown being put upon his head, a great shout begun, and he came forth to the throne, and there passed more ceremonies: as taking the oath, and having things read to him by the Bishop; and his lords (who put on their caps as soon as the King put on his crown)2 and bishops come, and kneeled before him.

And three times the King at Arms went to the three open places on the scaffold, and proclaimed, that if any one could show any reason why Charles Stewart should not be King of England, that now he should come and speak.

And a Generall Pardon also was read by the Lord Chancellor, and meddalls flung up and down by my Lord Cornwallis, of silver, but I could not come by any.

But so great a noise that I could make but little of the musique; and indeed, it was lost to every body. But I had so great a lust to … [What is it that needed to be censored from this public description? D.W.] that I went out a little while before the King had done all his ceremonies, and went round the Abbey to Westminster Hall, all the way within rayles, and 10,000 people, with the ground covered with blue cloth; and scaffolds all the way. Into the Hall I got, where it was very fine with hangings and scaffolds one upon another full of brave ladies; and my wife in one little one, on the right hand.

Here I staid walking up and down, and at last upon one of the side stalls I stood and saw the King come in with all the persons (but the soldiers) that were yesterday in the cavalcade; and a most pleasant sight it was to see them in their several robes. And the King came in with his crown on, and his sceptre in his hand, under a canopy borne up by six silver staves, carried by Barons of the Cinque Ports,3 and little bells at every end.

And after a long time, he got up to the farther end, and all set themselves down at their several tables; and that was also a brave sight: and the King’s first course carried up by the Knights of the Bath. And many fine ceremonies there was of the Heralds leading up people before him, and bowing; and my Lord of Albemarle’s going to the kitchin and eat a bit of the first dish that was to go to the King’s table.

But, above all, was these three Lords, Northumberland, and Suffolk, and the Duke of Ormond, coming before the courses on horseback, and staying so all dinner-time, and at last to bring up [Dymock] the King’s Champion, all in armour on horseback, with his spear and targett carried before him. And a Herald proclaims “That if any dare deny Charles Stewart to be lawful King of England, here was a Champion that would fight with him;”4 and with these words, the Champion flings down his gauntlet, and all this he do three times in his going up towards the King’s table. At last when he is come, the King drinks to him, and then sends him the cup which is of gold, and he drinks it off, and then rides back again with the cup in his hand.

I went from table to table to see the Bishops and all others at their dinner, and was infinitely pleased with it. And at the Lords’ table, I met with William Howe, and he spoke to my Lord for me, and he did give me four rabbits and a pullet, and so I got it and Mr. Creed and I got Mr. Michell to give us some bread, and so we at a stall eat it, as every body else did what they could get.

I took a great deal of pleasure to go up and down, and look upon the ladies, and to hear the musique of all sorts, but above all, the 24 violins.

About six at night they had dined, and I went up to my wife, and there met with a pretty lady (Mrs. Frankleyn, a Doctor’s wife, a friend of Mr. Bowyer’s), and kissed them both, and by and by took them down to Mr. Bowyer’s. And strange it is to think, that these two days have held up fair till now that all is done, and the King gone out of the Hall; and then it fell a-raining and thundering and lightening as I have not seen it do for some years: which people did take great notice of; God’s blessing of the work of these two days, which is a foolery to take too much notice of such things.

I observed little disorder in all this, but only the King’s footmen had got hold of the canopy, and would keep it from the Barons of the Cinque Ports,5 which they endeavoured to force from them again, but could not do it till my Lord Duke of Albemarle caused it to be put into Sir R. Pye’s hand till tomorrow to be decided.

At Mr. Bowyer’s, a great deal of company, some I knew, others I did not. Here we staid upon the leads and below till it was late, expecting to see the fire-works, but they were not performed to-night: only the City had a light like a glory round about it with bonfires.

At last I went to Kingstreet, and there sent Crockford to my father’s and my house, to tell them I could not come home tonight, because of the dirt, and a coach could not be had.

And so after drinking a pot of ale alone at Mrs. Harper’s I returned to Mr. Bowyer’s, and after a little stay more I took my wife and Mrs. Frankleyn (who I proffered the civility of lying with my wife at Mrs. Hunt’s to-night) to Axe-yard, in which at the further end there were three great bonfires, and a great many great gallants, men and women; and they laid hold of us, and would have us drink the King’s health upon our knees, kneeling upon a faggot, which we all did, they drinking to us one after another. Which we thought a strange frolique; but these gallants continued thus a great while, and I wondered to see how the ladies did tipple.

At last I sent my wife and her bedfellow to bed, and Mr. Hunt and I went in with Mr. Thornbury (who did give the company all their wine, he being yeoman of the wine-cellar to the King) to his house; and there, with his wife and two of his sisters, and some gallant sparks that were there, we drank the King’s health, and nothing else, till one of the gentlemen fell down stark drunk, and there lay spewing; and I went to my Lord’s pretty well. But no sooner a-bed with Mr. Shepley but my head began to hum, and I to vomit, and if ever I was foxed it was now, which I cannot say yet, because I fell asleep and slept till morning. Only when I waked I found myself wet with my spewing. Thus did the day end with joy every where; and blessed be God, I have not heard of any mischance to any body through it all, but only to Serjt. Glynne, whose horse fell upon him yesterday, and is like to kill him, which people do please themselves to see how just God is to punish the rogue at such a time as this; he being now one of the King’s Serjeants, and rode in the cavalcade with Maynard, to whom people wish the same fortune.

There was also this night in King-street, [a woman] had her eye put out by a boy’s flinging a firebrand into the coach.

Now, after all this, I can say that, besides the pleasure of the sight of these glorious things, I may now shut my eyes against any other objects, nor for the future trouble myself to see things of state and show, as being sure never to see the like again in this world.

  1. Carried by the Duke of Buckingham.
  2. As yet barons had no coronet. A grant of that outward mark of dignity was made to them by Charles soon after his coronation. Queen Elizabeth had assigned coronets to viscounts. — B.
  3. Pepys was himself one of the Barons of the Cinque Ports at the Coronation of James II.
  4. The terms of the Champion’s challenge were as follows: “If any person of what degree soever, high or low, shall deny or gainsay our Soveraigne Lord King Charles the Second, King of England, Scotland, France and Ireland, defender of the faith, Sonne and next heire to our Soveraigne Lord Charles the First, the last King deceased, to be right heire to the Imperiall Crowne of this Realme of England, or that bee ought not to enjoy the same; here is his champion, who sayth that he lyeth and is a false Traytor, being ready in person to combate with him, and in this quarrell will venture his life against him, on what day soever hee shall be appointed.”
  5. Bishop Kennett gives a somewhat fuller account of this unseemly broil: “No sooner had the aforesaid Barons brought up the King to the foot of the stairs in Westminster Hall, ascending to his throne, and turned on the left hand (towards their own table) out of the way, but the King’s footmen most insolently and violently seized upon the canopy, which the Barons endeavouring to keep and defend, were by their number and strength dragged clown to the lower end of the Hall, nevertheless still keeping their hold; and had not Mr. Owen York Herald, being accidentally near the Hall door, and seeing the contest, caused the same to be shut, the footmen had certainly carried it away by force. But in the interim also (speedy notice hereof having been given the King) one of the Querries were sent from him, with command to imprison the footmen, and dismiss them out of his service, which put an end to the present disturbance. These footmen were also commanded to make their submission to the Court of Claims, which was accordingly done by them the 30th April following, and the canopy then delivered back to the said Barons.” Whilst this disturbance happened, the upper end of the first table, which had been appointed for the Barons of the Cinque Ports, was taken up by the Bishops, judges, &c., probably nothing loth to take precedence of them; and the poor Barons, naturally unwilling to lose their dinner, were necessitated to eat it at the bottom of the second table, below the Masters of Chancery and others of the long robe. — B.

50 Annotations

Jonquil   Link to this

[What is it that needed to be censored from this public description? D.W.]

I suspect he needed to pee. Long ceremony; certainly people complained of similar issues during Edward VII's coronation.

Phil   Link to this

Exactly! L&M begin the sentence: "But I had so great a list to pisse, that I went out a little while before the King..." I'm not sure why it's "list" rather than "lust".

dirk   Link to this

"list" rather than "lust"

Maybe merely a less than accurate positioning of the vowel marks in the shorthand. (Remember vowels are shown by the position of the next consonant - cfr earlier annotations on Sam's shorthand).

Jonquil   Link to this

"List" just means "want to". "Whoso list to hunt, I know where is an hind..." begins a sonnet by Sir Thomas Wyatt, meaning "Whoever wants to hunt..." . Somebody who is listless is lacking in will.

M.Stolzenbach   Link to this

Champion rides into Banquet-Hall

Seems a pity this custom appears to have been discontinued at more recent Coronacions.

M.Stolzenbach   Link to this

Oh, my - what a lot of drinking.

And spewing.

Vicente   Link to this

Wot a wonderful day and all that pomp and circumstance , don't every one luv it.[mind yu Sam does do it proud like, ]then the finale "....and then it fell a-raining and thundering and lightening as I have not seen it do for some years: which people did take great notice of; God's blessing of the work of these two days, which is a foolery to take too much notice of such things
…”
And then the view from Camulodunum Way The Rev. Josselyn.
23 I baptised Elizabeth Eldred , the air echoed with cannon shot. towards night it lightened and thundered and rained a very great tempest. it begun London wards. god shot off his warring pieces die 24.[next day] a considerable flood.
http://linux02.lib.cam.ac.uk/earlscolne/diary/7...

the king had left and there is no comment John Evelyn on the extra fireworks from the sky.
http://astext.com/history/ed_1661.html#1661
P.S. always someone gets ‘urt in these bashes.

Krzysztof   Link to this

More than drinking and spewing ...to hear the musique of all sorts, but above all, the 24 violins: Charles II founded the group to play at his coronation, imitating the French "Vingt-quatre Violons du Roy", which he admired during his exile at the court of Louis XIV. Here, SP for the first time mentions the "violin", obviously a great novelty at that time in England, but also in France. SP plays bowed instruments such as fiddle (treble- or tenor-viol?) and viall (viola da gamba). There is a great deal of confusion of names when it comes to bowed instruments of the epoch, in England and elsewhere. But here he makes a clear distinction between violin and "viall".

Roger Arbor   Link to this

WONDERFUL! It brings it home why we read this diary. Samuel could have been describing the coronation of Queen Elizabeth. So much the same, even down to the (over) celebration.

Mary   Link to this

Did Sam take notes? If so, how?

Whilst acknowledging that Sam may simply have had a very good memory for detail (and this was a time when people in general still expected to hold a great deal more in memory than we might feel comfortable with)I wonder whether and how he also took notes on such a momentous day.

Pen and paper would clearly have been awkward in such circumstances
but, historically speaking, he could have carried a pencil. After the discovery of graphite in the Lake District c.1500 this useful substance grew widely appreciated. By 1558 its use had spread to Flemish art studios. The first ever pencils were hand-made in Keswick, Cumberland and in 1662 mass production of pencils was taking place in Nuremberg.

There is, of course, no evidence given of the use of a pencil in writing the diary entries themselves ...... different inks were used at different times in the making of this permanent record.

Peter Bates   Link to this

King's Champion

Though the practice of riding into Westminster Hall has stopped, the job of Queen's Champion still exists:

"Sir John Dymoke was the first to exercise the office at the Coronation of Richard II, and the Dymoke family of Scrivelsby, Lincolnshire have continued to hold the office up to the present ..... At the Coronation of the present Queen, a member of the ... family was present, but he did not throw down a gauntlet ... he had the honour of carrying the Royal Standard in the ... procession."

www.historic-uk.com/CultureUK/QueensChampion.htm

PHE   Link to this

"which is a foolery to take too much notice of such things"
This comment is quite telling, showing Sam has a healthy cynicsm for superstition, at a time when people were much more superstitious.

Today's entry, while thorough and informative is not as eloquent as his description of the previous day's parade. It doesn't paint a picture and get across the atmosphere in quite the same way. I'd say it could be to do with the hangover, but it seems he wrote the two days' entries in one go.

Pedro.   Link to this

Serjt. Glynne, whose horse fell upon him yesterday, and is like to kill him...Maynard, to whom people wish the same fortune.

Sir John Glynne obviously survived, but why are these two so disliked?
One quip attributed to Maynard:

In the midst of a murder trial one day, Sir John Maynard challenged the judge on a point of law. "Sir," the judge declared, "you have grown so old you have forgotten the law."
"I have forgotten more law than you ever knew," Maynard retorted, "but allow me to say, I have not forgotten much.

J A Gioia   Link to this

we drank the King's health, and nothing else, till one of the gentlemen fell down stark drunk, and there lay spewing

the glory of this day’s entry, for me anyway, is sam’s reporting of the ragged ends, the chaos that follows hard upon the pageantry.

“Only when I waked I found myself wet with my spewing. Thus did the day end with joy every where.”

hard to reconcile a violent hangover with unbridled joy, but that’s our brave sam!

Emilio   Link to this

"Serjt. Glynne, whose horse fell upon him yesterday"

He wasn't alone, just uniquely disliked. L&M note that many were thrown from their horses, including the Duke of York (twice). The horses were spooked by the music, and the King himself was supposedly in danger until he told the musicians to cease. I'm pretty sure someone has mentioned this story before.

Both Glynne and Maynard were powerful lawyers under Cromwell and (like many) jumped ship at the right time and returned to high office in the Restoration. They were both King's Serjeants (a forerunner to the current QCs?), and to judge from Pedro's story also shared a well-honed ability to offend.

M.Stolzenbach   Link to this

"people were much more superstitious"

True, but science as we know it was also a-bornin' - Sam himself later became president of the Royal Society -and Isaac Newton was entering college about this date.

A time burgeoning with new possibilities while at the same time turning back to some old ones, i.e. the Monarchy.

Emilio   Link to this

Signs and omens

Some thought that the pelting rain could be a bad omen as well as a good--one commenter was reminded of an earthquake that took place during Charles I's coronation, according to an L&M footnote. As a foreshadowing of our Charles's reign, I'd say the weather isn't seem half bad: a brief period of sunshine followed by ill wind and storm. It's brother James who will catch most of the lightning, though.

Emilio   Link to this

no sooner a-bed with Mr. Shepley but my head begun to turne and I to vomitt

This according to L&M, a more common but less interesting metaphor.

Krzysztof   Link to this

Music, musick, musicke or.. musique (of all sorts). Sorry, I couldn't resist one more comment on music. Is SP using the French name (musique) here to indicate that the musicians used the low "French pitch"? It is a tempting suggestion, considering Charles's penchant for French music.

Jackie   Link to this

How come there were six barons of the Cinque Ports? Aren't there only five Cinque Ports?

Susan   Link to this

Cinque Ports
Official website at http://www.cinqueports.org/
This includes a picture of the Barons (which included our Sam) carrying the canopy over James II at his coronation

dirk   Link to this

no sooner a-bed with Mr. Shepley but my head began to hum, and I to vomit (...) when I waked I found myself wet with my spewing

Must have been an interesting experience for poor Mr Shepley (in the same bed, if I read correctly) - unless of course he was in the same condition...

Vicente   Link to this

It reminds of mis-translation of the French word of Homme Used on old fashioned "Pisoires" : " it don't half Hum too?"

Jenny Doughty   Link to this

no sooner a-bed with Mr. Shepley but my head begun to turne and I to vomitt

Ah yes, the whirling pits...

Nix   Link to this

"I found myself wet with my spewing. Thus did the day end with joy every where" --

The hangover isn't punishment but confirmation of the rollicking time.

For confirmation, see Emmylou Harris: "I really had a ball last night .... Feeling single, seeing double, wound up in a whole lot of trouble." She is definitely Samuel's kind of gal.

Wim van der Meij   Link to this

"did Sam take notes"
I have found that, if you are a conscientious diary writer, your mind is trained to remember details that you find interesting (it is of course impossible to write down everything). Would not Sam have mentioned taking notes at one time or another?

Vicente   Link to this

Re: note taking: I do believe he just used 'is noodle. Up to times recently, one had keep all the details in ones head. Even paper and pencil were scarce,so more people had to rely on the brain, now with the modern tools, Thee is allowed a more efficient use of gray matter. Like now, I don't have to know the work, just know the key words to google. First Calculator I used cost 3 times my annual wage, and this was for the Scientific branch of government too. [ if I want to spell a word, mouse it. A good dictionary [eons ago] was at least a months sallery[salary], so why the errors ['tis laziness, not using the little grey cells]
also paper was very expensive so one processed all ones thoughts before putting pen[pencil] to paper [ it was not couth to show erasures[or blots] in ones work] Look at the xrays of paintings, the canvas was used many times before satisfaction or hunger set in and product brought in the rent money.

Kevin Peter   Link to this

I notice that Charles II was crowned King of France as well, showing that the English monarchy still hadn't yet given up their claim on the French throne, which I believe dates back to the Hundred Years War in the 14th and 15th centuries.

I wonder when they finally gave up that claim. Supposedly Edward III gave it up at the end of the Hundred Years War, but that apparently did not last

Jackie   Link to this

I think that the claim to the French throne didn't go until the Hanoverians came in. Certainly, throughout the 15th Century, that claim was maintained. Indeed, Henry V forced the agreement that he'd inherit the French throne from Charles the Mad (and married his daughter to prove it), but Henry died just before he could inherit. His son inherited the claim and was the only English King to be crowned in France at the age of 10, but Henry VI was useless and unable to hold on to France (and England!). Since him, however English moonarchs made that claim until the House of Hanover took over.

dirk   Link to this

"the claim to the French throne"

"In 1801 the empty claim to France was at long last abandoned and George III dropped his title "King of France" [held by English kings for nearly 500 years since King Edward III], and recognized the French Republic. A treaty was signed the next year in 1802 which formalized the terms, but the year after that in 1803 war again broke out with France.”
See:
http://www.angelfire.com/ego/et_deo/1066ff2now....

Kevin Peter   Link to this

Thanks, Dirk. I was looking all over for information like that.

Glyn   Link to this

Kevin, if you are ever in front of St Paul's take a close look at the statue of Queen Anne who was monarch when it was completed. Beneath her are four women representing the four most important areas of the world that the British claimed at that time: as I recall the order they are Ireland, France, Britain and America.

language hat   Link to this

"showing Sam has a healthy cynicsm for superstition"

At least for other people's superstition. I'd be very surprised if he didn't have any of his own.

dirk   Link to this

“the claim to the French throne”

Very complete info on the subject:
http://www.reference.com/browse/wiki/English_cl...

Pedro   Link to this

23rd April 1661...

Allin being in Zante celebrates St. George’s Day…

“I caused thirty muskets to be brought up and armed so many men, and being fixed Sir Thomas Bendish, myself and Consul Bokenham took every one his glass of liquor and cried St. George for England and health to our Sovereign King Charles and good success to what should be acted that day in England. To every one of us drinking a volley of small shot and after them seven great guns. Then I caused a cask of wine to be set upon our oval on the quarter deck and called over every man and boy in the ship and gave them a horn of Zante wine holding about half a pint and before they drank to cry God save King Charles and send him a happy reign or long to reign.”

(The Journals of Sir Thomas Allin edited by RC Anderson)

Bill   Link to this

The Dean of Westminster is:
John Earle (Bishop of Salisbury, 1663-65) http://www.pepysdiary.com/encyclopedia/845/

Bill   Link to this

"the King with a scepter"

It was St. Edward's staff.
---Diary and correspondence of Samuel Pepys, the diary deciphered by J. Smith. 1854.

The Sceptre with the Cross.
Also known as the St Edward's Sceptre, the Sovereign's Sceptre or the Royal Sceptre, is a sceptre of the British Crown Jewels. It was originally made for the coronation of King Charles II in 1661. In 1905, it was redesigned after the discovery of the Cullinan Diamond.
--- http://www.1066.co.nz/text/dress/sceptre.htm

Bill   Link to this

"And three times the King at Arms went to the three open places on the scaffold"

Sir Edward Walker, Garter King of Arms.
The south, west, and north sides.
---Diary and correspondence of Samuel Pepys, the diary deciphered by J. Smith. 1854.

Sir Edward Walker (Garter King of Arms)
http://www.pepysdiary.com/encyclopedia/856/

Bill   Link to this

Sir Frederick Cornwallis, Baronet, had been created a Baron three days before the coronation. He was Treasurer of His Majesty's Household, and a Privy Councillor. He had married Elizabeth, daughter of John Ashburnham. His wife, therefore, and her brother, John Ashburnham, were first cousins to Villiers Duke of Buckingham. Rugge states in July, 1660, that "the King supped with Sir Frederick Cornwallis at Durham Yard, in the Strand." He died in January, 1661-2, and was buried with his ancestors at Brome, on the 18th. The medals which he received as his fee (nearly 100 in number) were carefully preserved in the family, and have been recently arranged, so as to form the setting of a large silver cup, at Audley End.
---Diary and correspondence of Samuel Pepys, the diary deciphered by J. Smith. 1854.

Bill   Link to this

"these three Lords, Northumberland, and Suffolk, and the Duke of Ormond"

Algernon Percy, tenth Earl of Northumberland, acting as Lord High Constable of England on this occasion.
James Howard, third Earl of Suffolk, acting as Earl Marshal of England.
James Butler, first Duke of Ormond, Lord High Steward of England pro hac vice.
---Diary and correspondence of Samuel Pepys, the diary deciphered by J. Smith. 1854.

Bill   Link to this

"then it fell a-raining and thundering and lightening "

Baxter, in his life, mentions this storm. "On April 23, was His Majesty's coronation-day, the day being very serene and fair, till suddenly in the afternoon, as they were returning from Westminster Hall, there was very terrible thunders when none expected it, which made me remember his father's coronation, on which, being a boy at school, and having leave to play for the solemnity, an earthquake, about two o'clock in the afternoon, did affright the boys, and all the neighbourhood. I intend no commentary on these, but only to relate the matter of fact."
---Diary and correspondence of Samuel Pepys, the diary deciphered by J. Smith. 1854.

Bill   Link to this

"a throne (that is a chair)"

The Coronation chair in Westminster Abbey is an object of the greatest interest. Beneath the seat is the "Stone of Destiny," carried off from Scone by Edward I. in 1296.
---Wheatley, 1899.

Bill   Link to this

"then in the Quire at the high altar"

QUIRE, that Part of a Church where Divine Service is performed
to QUIRE it, to sing in Concert as the Choir does.
QUIRISTER, one who sings in the Choir of a Cathedral, &c.;
---An Universal Etymological English Dictionary. N. Bailey, 1675.

Victoria   Link to this

Further to Bill's comment above. Although it has been returned to Scotland in recent years and is now kept in Edinburgh Castle the Stone of Destiny must still be considered vital for a coronation, as the arrangement is that it will be brought back to Westminster for the occasion.

Louise Hudson   Link to this

I wonder how many here realize that Elizabeth Pepys was only 15 years old when she and Pepys were married and was only 20 in April 1661 when the above entries were made.

I do wonder at the entry where Pepys says he sent her to bed "with her bedfellow, Mr. Hunt". No ambiguity there as far as I can tell. It can't be claimed that he sent them to their separate beds. He calls him her bedfellow!

Terry Foreman   Link to this

Louise, I find "At last I sent my wife and her bedfellow to bed, and Mr. Hunt and I went in with Mr. Thornbury...."
http://www.pepysdiary.com/diary/1661/04/23/ Have you a different link?

Louise Hudson   Link to this

Terry, Yes, yours is how it was written. I was quoting from faulty memory instead of checking. Pepys wrote "bedfellow," and I was thrown by taking "fellow" literally. It was, in fact, Mrs. Frankleyn. Therefore, my point was an error. My apologies.

Chris Squire UK   Link to this

' . . In 1800, the Act of Union joined the Kingdom of Great Britain with the Kingdom of Ireland to a new United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. George III chose this opportunity to drop his claim to the now defunct French throne, whereupon the fleurs de lis, part of the coat of arms of all claimant Kings of France since the time of Edward III, were also removed from the British royal arms. Britain recognised the French Republic by the Treaty of Amiens of 1802 . . '

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/English_claims_to_...

Terry Foreman   Link to this

The Stone of Destiny referenced by Bill and Victoria:

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stone_of_Scone

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