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Anne Hyde
Duchess of York and of Albany
Anne Hyde by Sir Peter Lely.JPG
c. 1665 portrait by Sir Peter Lely. "Anne’s teasing playing of her hair is deliberately suggestive of a royal consort’s prime role – breeding – but also a reminder of her great wit."[1]
Spouse James, Duke of York and of Albany
Issue
more...
Charles, Duke of Cambridge
Mary II, Queen of England
James, Duke of Cambridge
Anne, Queen of Great Britain
Charles, Duke of Kendal
Edgar, Duke of Cambridge
House House of Stuart
Father Edward Hyde, 1st Earl of Clarendon
Mother Frances Aylesbury
Born (1637-03-12)12 March 1637
Windsor, England
Died 31 March 1671(1671-03-31) (aged 34)
London, England
Burial Westminster Abbey
Religion Anglicanism (later Roman Catholicism)

Anne Hyde (12 March 1637 – 31 March 1671)[a] was Duchess of York and of Albany as the first wife of the future King James II of England. Originally Anglican, her father was a lawyer. Anne married James in 1660 after she became pregnant by him, but James is said to have promised to marry her in 1659. The two first met in the Netherlands while Anne was living in the household of James' sister Mary. James and Anne had eight children, but six died in early childhood.[2] The two who survived to adulthood were Lady Mary, who succeeded her father after his deposition during the Glorious Revolution of 1688 and Lady Anne, who succeeded her brother-in-law and became the first monarch of Great Britain.

Born the daughter of a commoner – Edward Hyde (later created Earl of Clarendon), Anne is best known for her marriage to James, which caused much gossip. Two months after the marriage, Anne gave birth to the couple's first child, who had obviously been conceived out of wedlock. Until near the end of Anne's life, some observers disapproved of James' decision to marry Anne; but not King Charles II, James' brother, who wanted the marriage to take place. Another cause of disapproval was the public affection James showed towards Anne, such as kissing and leaning against each other, which was considered improper behaviour during the 1600s.

James was a known philanderer who kept many mistresses, for which Anne often reproached him, once even complaining to the king, who sent one of James' mistresses to the countryside where she remained until her death. Nonetheless, James fathered many illegitimate children. Anne was the reason her husband converted to Catholicism, having both been exposed to Catholicism during visits to the Netherlands and France. Anne was so strongly attracted to this religion that she converted quickly after her marriage. Years later, James followed suit, which was a contributing factor to the Glorious Revolution. Anne suffered from advanced breast cancer and died shortly after giving birth to her last child.

Early years (1637–60)

In 1629, Edward Hyde married his first wife, Anne Ayliffe of Grittenham. Six months into the marriage Anne caught smallpox, miscarried and died.[3] Three years later, Hyde married Frances Aylesbury. In 1637, Anne, the couple's eldest daughter, was born at Cranbourne Lodge in Windsor.[4] Almost nothing except that she was named after Edward Hyde's first wife is known of her life before 1649, when her family fled to the Netherlands after the execution of the deposed King Charles I.[5] They settled in Breda, where they were offered a home by Mary, Princess Royal and Princess of Orange, who had done the same with many English fugitives.[6] The Princess appointed Anne a maid of honour, apparently against the wishes of her mother and late father.[7]

Anne became a general favourite with the people she met either at The Hague or at the Princess of Orange's country house at Teylingen. She was very attractive and stylish,[8] and attracted many men. One of the first men to fall in love with Anne was Spencer Compton, a son of the Earl of Northampton.[9] However, Anne quickly fell in love with Henry Jermyn, who returned her feelings. Anne dismissed Jermyn as quickly as she fell in love with him, when she met James, Duke of York, the son of the deposed king.[10] On 24 November 1659, two[11] or three[12] years after she first met him, James promised he would marry Anne.[13] Charles, James' brother, forced the reluctant James to marry Anne, saying that her strong character would be a positive influence on his weak-willed brother.[14]

Duchess of York (1660–71)

Marriage

A portrait of Anne, James and their two daughters, Lady Mary and Lady Anne (this portrait is based on an earlier portrait of Anne and James).

Anne was visibly pregnant and the couple were obliged to marry.[15] They held an official but private marriage ceremony in London on 3 September 1660, following the restoration of the monarchy. The wedding took place between 11 at night and 2 in the morning at Worcester House – her father's house in the Strand – and was solemnised by Dr. Joseph Crowther, James' chaplain . The French Ambassador described Anne as having "courage, cleverness, and energy almost worthy of a King's blood".[16] The couple's first child, Charles, was born in October of that year, but died seven months later. Seven children followed: Mary (1662–1694), James (1663–1667), Anne (1665–1714), Charles (1666–1667), Edgar (1667–1671), Henrietta (1669–1669), and Catherine (1671–1671). All of their sons and two of their daughters died in infancy.[2]

Even well after their marriage, some observers disapproved of the prince's decision, regardless of what he had promised beforehand.[17] Samuel Pepys said of the marriage: "... that the Duke of York's marriage with her hath undone the kingdom, by making the Chancellor so great above reach, who otherwise would have been but an ordinary man, to have been dealt with by other people ..."[18] After Anne's death, the royal court tried to find a new wife for James, but this new wife was not, under any circumstances, to be of humble birth.[19] As good a father as Pepys portrayed James to be, he strangely stated that Anne and James were unaffected by the death of their firstborn son.[20] Pepys also described Anne as "not only the proudest woman in the world, but the most expensefull."[18] Even in the minds of Anne's future son-in-law, William III of Orange and that of her cousin-by-marriage, Sophia of Hanover, the stigma of the Hydes' lowly birth remained.[21]

Domestic life

Anne, painted by Lely about 1670.

Anne experienced problems in her married life.[22] She was not very much liked at court[23] and James philandered with younger mistresses such as Arabella Churchill, with whom he fathered many illegitimate children, including two born during Anne's lifetime; thus he was called "the most unguarded ogler of his time."[24] Anne was not oblivious to this: Pepys wrote that she was jealous and chided James, but he also wrote that Anne and James were notorious for showing their affections publicly, kissing and leaning on each other. Pepys also wrote that when James fell in love with Lady Chesterfield, Anne complained to King Charles so insistently that Lady Chesterfield had to retreat to the countryside, where she remained until she died.[25] [26]

Anne became drawn to Catholicism, to which both she and James had been exposed during their time abroad[27][28] and converted to it almost immediately after the Restoration. John Callow states that Anne "made the greatest single impact upon his thinking."[29] James also converted to Catholicism eight or nine years after Anne, but he still attended Anglican services until 1676.[30][31] James preferred to associate himself with Protestant people, such as John Churchill,[32] whose wife later became a very close friend of Anne's youngest surviving daughter Lady Anne.[33][34] King Charles at the time opposed Catholicism and insisted that James' children be raised in the Anglican faith,[35]although he converted to Catholicism on his deathbed.[36] James and Anne's surviving daughters were raised as Anglicans.[37]

Death and legacy

Anne was ill for 15 months after the birth of her youngest son, Edgar.[38] She bore Henrietta in 1669 and Catherine in 1671.[39] Anne never recovered from Catherine's birth.[40] Ill with breast cancer,[41] she died on 31 March 1671.[4][b] On her deathbed, her two brothers Henry and Laurence tried to bring an Anglican priest to give her communion, but Anne refused[40] and she received viaticum of the Catholic Church.[41] Two days after her death, her embalmed body was interred in the vault of Mary, Queen of Scots at Westminster Abbey's Henry VII Chapel.[42] In June 1671, Anne's only surviving son Edgar died of natural causes, followed by Catherine in December, leaving Ladies Mary and Anne as the Duke of York's heiresses.[43]

After Anne Hyde's death, a portrait of her painted by Willem Wissing was commissioned by the future Mary II; this used to hang above the door of the Queen's Drawing Room of the Garden House at Windsor Castle.[44] Two years after the death of his first wife, James married a Catholic princess, Mary of Modena, who bore James Francis Edward, James' only son to survive to adulthood. James became king of England, Ireland, and Scotland in 1685, but was deposed during the Glorious Revolution of 1688. The throne was then offered by Parliament to Anne's eldest daughter Mary and her husband William of Orange.[45] After Mary died in 1694 and William in 1702, Anne Hyde's youngest daughter Anne became Queen of the three Kingdoms and, in 1707, the first sovereign of the united Kingdom of Great Britain.[46]

Issue

Name Birth Death Notes
Charles, Duke of Cambridge 22 October 1660 5 May 1661 Born two months after his parents' legal marriage, died aged seven months of smallpox.[47]
Mary II, Queen of England, Scotland and Ireland 30 April 1662 28 December 1694 Married her cousin William III, Prince of Orange in 1677. She and her husband ascended to the throne in 1689 after the deposition of her father. No surviving issue.[48]
James, Duke of Cambridge 12 July 1663 20 June 1667 Died of the bubonic plague.[49]
Anne, Queen of Great Britain 6 February 1665 1 August 1714 Married Prince George of Denmark in 1683. Successor of her brother-in-law and cousin in 1702. First Queen of Great Britain under the Act of Union of 1707. No surviving issue.[50]
Charles, Duke of Kendal 4 July 1666 22 May 1667 Died of convulsions.[51]
Edgar, Duke of Cambridge 14 September 1667 8 June 1671 Died in childhood.[39]
Henrietta 13 January 1669 15 November 1669 Died in infancy.[39]
Catherine 9 February 1671 5 December 1671 Died in infancy.[39]

Style and arms

Anne Hyde's coat of arms.[52]

Following her marriage, Anne was styled as Her Royal Highness the Duchess of York.[53][54]

Ancestry

Media portrayals

Notes

  1. ^ All the dates in this article are Old Style.
  2. ^ England used the Julian calendar (OS) during Anne's lifetime.

References

  1. ^ Portrait of the Duchess of York. historicalportraits.com. Philip Mould Ltd.
  2. ^ a b Weir 2008, pp. 259–60.
  3. ^ Lister 1838, p. 9.
  4. ^ a b Weir 2008, p. 259.
  5. ^ Henslowe 1915, p. 18.
  6. ^ Henslowe 1915, p. 19.
  7. ^ Everett Green 1857, p. 235.
  8. ^ Melville 2005, p. 3.
  9. ^ Henslowe 1915, p. 34.
  10. ^ Melville 2005, pp. 3–4.
  11. ^ Melville 2005, p. 4.
  12. ^ Gregg 1984, p. 2.
  13. ^ Miller 2000, p. 44.
  14. ^ Softly 1979, p. 91.
  15. ^ Henslowe 1915, pp. 130–1.
  16. ^ Fraser 2002, p. 202.
  17. ^ Miller 2000, pp. 44–45.
  18. ^ a b The Diary of Samuel Pepys, Monday 24 June 1667.
  19. ^ Strickland 1882, pp. 242–3.
  20. ^ The Diary of Samuel Pepys, Monday 6 May 1661.
  21. ^ Gregg 1984, pp. 3–4.
  22. ^ Melville 2005, p. 17.
  23. ^ Melville 2005, p. 19.
  24. ^ Miller 2000, p. 46.
  25. ^ Melville 2005, pp. 21–2.
  26. ^ Melville 2005, pp. 25–7.
  27. ^ Miller 2000, pp. 58–9.
  28. ^ Callow 2000, pp. 144–5.
  29. ^ Callow 2000, p. 144.
  30. ^ Callow 2000, pp. 143–4.
  31. ^ Waller 2002, p. 135.
  32. ^ Callow 2000, p. 149.
  33. ^ Curtis 1972, p. 27.
  34. ^ Green 1970, p. 21.
  35. ^ Waller 2002, p. 92.
  36. ^ Hutton 1989, pp. 443; 456.
  37. ^ Van der Kiste 2003, p. 32.
  38. ^ Henslowe 1915, p. 289.
  39. ^ a b c d Weir 2008, p. 260.
  40. ^ a b Gregg 1984, p. 10.
  41. ^ a b Melville 2005, p. 32.
  42. ^ Henslowe 1915, p. 300.
  43. ^ Waller 2002, pp. 49–50.
  44. ^ James, Duke of Cambridge (1663-7) by Willem Wissing at the Royal Collection.
  45. ^ Devine 2006, p. 3.
  46. ^ Gregg 1984, p. 240.
  47. ^ Panton 2011, p. 455.
  48. ^ Weir 2008, p. 266.
  49. ^ The Diary of Samuel Pepys, Tuesday 30 April 1667.
  50. ^ Weir 2008, pp. 267–8.
  51. ^ The Diary of Samuel Pepys, Tuesday 14 May 1667.
  52. ^ Maclagan & Louda 1999, p. 27.
  53. ^ The Diary of Samuel Pepys, Saturday 19 August 1665.
  54. ^ The Diary of Samuel Pepys, Wednesday 18 June 1662.
  55. ^ a b c d e f g Jones, W. A. (1853). "Lord Clarendon and his Trowbridge Ancestry". The Wiltshire Archaeological and Natural History Magazine 9: 282–290. 
  56. ^ a b c Fuidge, N. M. (1981). "Hyde, Lawrence I (d.1590), of West Hatch and Tisbury, Wilts. and Gussage St. Michael, Dorset", The History of Parliament: the House of Commons 1558–1603, ed. P. W. Hasler
  57. ^ a b Evans, C. F. H. (1975). "Clarendon's Grandparents". Notes and Queries 22 (1): 28. 
  58. ^ a b c Alsbury, Colin (2004). "Aylesbury, Sir Thomas, baronet (1579/80–1658)", Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press. Retrieved 20 September 2011. (subscription or UK public library membership required)
  59. ^ a b Wilmshurst, Edwin (1908) The History of the Old Hall of the Manor of West Retford, Notts, Online
  60. ^ The Last King: full cast and crew. IMDb.

Bibliography

  • Callow, John (2000). The Making of King James II: The Formative Years of a King. Gloucestershire: Sutton. ISBN 0-7509-2398-9. 
  • Curtis, Gila (1972). The Life and Times of Queen Anne. London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson. ISBN 0-297-99571-5. 
  • Devine, Tom (2006). The Scottish Nation 1700–2007. London: Penguin Books. ISBN 0-14-102769-X. 
  • Everett Green, Mary (1857). Lives of the Princesses of England, from the Norman Conquest. London: Longman, Brown, Green, Longman, & Roberts. OCLC 15617187. 
  • Fraser, Antonia (2002). King Charles II. Phoenix. ISBN 0-7538-1403-X. 
  • Green, David (1970). Queen Anne. London: Collins. ISBN 0-00-211693-6. 
  • Gregg, Edward (1984). Queen Anne. New Haven and London: Yale University Press. ISBN 0-7448-0018-8. 
  • Henslowe, J. R. (1915). Anne Hyde, Duchess of York. London: T. W. Laurie. 
  • Hutton, Ronald (1989). Charles II: King of England, Scotland and Ireland. Oxford: Clarendon. ISBN 0-19-822911-9. 
  • Lister, Thomas Henry (1838). Life and Administration of Edward, First Earl of Clarendon. London: Longman, Orme, Brown, Green, and Longmans. OCLC 899249. 
  • Maclagan, Michael; Louda, Jiří (1999). Line of Succession: Heraldry of the Royal Families of Europe. London: Little, Brown & Co. ISBN 1-85605-469-1. 
  • Melville, Lewis (2005). The Windsor Beauties: Ladies of the Court of Charles II. Michigan: Loving Healing Press. ISBN 1-932690-13-1. 
  • Miller, John (2000). James II. New Haven: Yale University Press. ISBN 0-300-08728-4. 
  • Panton, Kenneth John (2011). Historical Dictionary of the British Monarchy. Lanham: Scarecrow Press. ISBN 0-8108-5779-0. 
  • Softly, Barbara (1979). The Queens of England. Michigan: Bell Pub Co. ISBN 0-517-30200-4. 
  • Strickland, Agnes (1882). The Queens of England. Boston: Easton and Lauriat. OCLC 950726. 
  • Van der Kiste, John (2003). William and Mary. Gloucestershire: Sutton. ISBN 0-7509-3048-9. 
  • Waller, Maureen (2002). Ungrateful Daughters: The Stuart Princesses who Stole Their Father's Crown. London: Hodder & Stoughton. ISBN 0-312-30711-X. 
  • Weir, Alison (2008). Britain's Royal Families: The Complete Genealogy. London: Vintage Books. ISBN 978-0-09-953973-5. 

External links

1893 text

Anne Hyde, born March 12th, 1637, daughter of Edward, first Earl of Clarendon. She was attached to the court of the Princess of Orange, daughter of Charles I., 1654, and contracted to James, Duke of York, at Breda, November 24th, 1659. The marriage was avowed in London September 3rd, 1660. She joined the Church of Rome in 1669, and died March 31st, 1671.


This text comes from a footnote on a diary entry in the 1893 edition edited by Henry B. Wheatley.

5 Annotations

Vicente  •  Link

duchess of York * portraits to peek at.
my pick of the day

http://www.npg.org.uk/live/search/portrait.asp?...
or
8 to choose from
http://www.npg.org.uk/live/search/person.asp?Li...

a little history from
http://www.berkshirehistory.com/bios/ahyde.html

She was known
"...Duchess of York better than anyone had dared hope, she was domineering and James II was described as "in all things but his cod-piece is led by the nose by his wife". ..."
http://worldroots.com/brigitte/royal/bio/james2...

jeannine  •  Link

From Grammont's footnotes
Miss Anne Hyde, eldest daughter of Lord Chancellor Clarendon. King James mentions this marriage in these terms. -- "The king at first refused the Duke of York's marriage with Miss Hyde. Many of the duke's friends and servants opposed it. The king at last consented, and the Duke of York privately married her, and soon after owned the marriage. Her want of birth was made up by endowments; and her carriage afterwards became her acquired dignity." Again. "When his sister, the princess royal, came to Paris to see the queen-mother, the Duke of York fell in love with Mrs. Anne Hyde, one of her maids of honour. Besides her person, she had all the qualities proper to inflame a heart less apt to take fire than his, which she managed so well as to bring his passion to such an height, that, between the time he first saw her and the winter before the king's restoration, he resolved to marry none but her; and promised her to do it: and though, at first, when the duke asked the king his brother for his leave, he refused, and dissuaded him from it, yet at last he opposed it no more, and the duke married her privately, owned it some time after, and was ever after a true friend to the chancellor for several years." -- Macpherson's State Papers, vol. i.
http://www.pseudopodium.org/repress/grammont/no... see note 42

Bill  •  Link

The Duchess of York was a very extraordinary woman. She had great knowledge and a lively sense of things. She soon understood what belonged to a Princess; and took state on her rather too much. ... She was bred to great strictness in religion, and practised secret confession. Morley told me, he was her confessor. She began at twelve years old, and continued under his direction, till, upon her father's disgrace, he was put from the Court. She was generous and friendly; but was too severe an enemy.
---History of His Own Time. G. Burnet, 1724

Bill  •  Link

Anne dutchess of York, was the elder of the two daughters of the lord-chancellor Clarendon, She possessed, together with a large portion of her father's understanding, the beauty and accomplishments of her own sex in an extraordinary degree. She had a dignity in her behaviour, which was by some, who regarded her as Anne Hyde, rather than the dutchess of York, mistaken for haughtiness. She sometimes amused herself with writing, and made a considerable progress in the Life of the duke her husband, which she shewed to Dr. Burnet in manuscript; but the work was never finished. Her misconduct before she was dutchess of York was amply atoned for by her conduct afterwards. Ob. 31 March, 1671.
---A Biographical History of England. J. Granger, 1779.

Bill  •  Link

HYDE, ANNE, Duchess of York (1637-1671), eldest daughter of Edward Hyde, afterwards earl of Clarendon; maid of honour to Princess of Orange, 1654, of whom she wrote a 'portrait'; became engaged to James, duke of York, at Breda, 1659; privately married him in London, 1660; of their children only two daughters— Mary (wife of William III) and (Queen) Anne—survived childhood. She was secretly received into the Roman church, 1670; many portraits of her were painted by her protégé, Lely.
---Dictionary of National Biography: Index and Epitome. S. Lee, 1906.

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References

Chart showing the number of references in each month of the diary’s entries.

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