Daily entries from the 17th century London diary
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About William Cavendish (1st Duke of Newcastle-upon-Tyne)
CAVENDISH, WILLIAM, Duke of Newcastle (1592-1676), son of Sir Charles Cavendish of Welbeck, Nottinghamshire, and the heiress of the barony of Ogle, Northumberland; educated at St. John's College, Cambridge; K.B., 1610; travelled; entertained James I at Welbeck, 1619; created Viscount Mansfield, November 1620; created Earl of Newcastle, March 1628; succeeded to the Ogle estates, 1629; spent 20,000l. in entertaining Charles I at Welbeck, 1633, Ben Jonson writing the masques; governor of Charles, prince of Wales, 1638-41; lent Charles I 10,000l. and raised a troop at his own cost against the Scots, 1639; withdrew from court, 1641, to avoid prosecution by parliament for again raising troops for the king; named governor of Hull by Charles I, January 1642, but not accepted by the garrison; joined Charles I at York; sent to secure Newcastle-on-Tyne, June, and to command in the north; raised troops at his own charges; invaded Yorkshire, November 1642; raised the siege of York, and advanced southwards; forced to fall back on York, January 1643; advanced into the West Biding, but was forced back; detached troops to escort the queen to Oxford; secured all Yorkshire by the victory of Adwalton Moor, 1643; advanced as far as Lincoln; recalled to besiege Hull; raised the siege, 11 Oct. 1643; created Marquis of Newcastle, 27 Oct. 1643: sent to oppose the Scots, 1644; forced to fall back on York; fought as volunteer at Marston Moor, having vainly urged Prince Rupert to wait for reinforcements, 1644; at Hamburg, July 1644 to February 1645; in Paris, April 1645-8; married; at Rotterdam, 1648, and Antwerp, 1648-60; for some time lived in great pecuniary difficulties, pawned his wife's jewels, and incurred heavy loans; obtained an allowance out of his confiscated estates; accompanied Charles II to London, 1660; had only part of his lands restored, having spent nearly 1,000,000l. in the royal service; created Duke of Newcastle, March 1665; withdrew to Welbeck; patron of Ben Jonson and Dryden. His works include plays, 1649-77, poems, and 'Methode et Invention ... de dresser les Chevaux,' Antwerp, 1657, and 'New Method ... to Dress Horses,' 1667.---Dictionary of National Biography: Index and Epitome. S. Lee, 1906.
About Tuesday 22 October 1661
It was named by his men of Physick, the new Disease: a name of ignorance, or their accustomed Asylum ignorantiae, to which they take their refuge, when they know not what the Disease is, or what to call it. One time they shall tell you, it is an Ague; another, it is a Feavor; a third, it's an Ague and Feavor; a fourth, it's Feavor and Ague; a fifth, it's the new Disase : a denomination so idle, that every Novice in Physick might well suspect they had never read Hippocrates or Galen; specially, upon observing, that every Autumnal or Epidemick Distemper is by them termed termed new : whereas, the gentle Pox excepted, there is not any among all those they have nominated new Diseases, but what is amply described in many ancient Authors.---The Conclave of Physicians. G. Harvey, 1686.
AGUE, An intermitting fever with cold fits succeeded by hot ---A Dictionary Of The English Language. Samuel Johnson, 1756.
About Sunday 20 October 1661
Following JWB above, here is an interesting anecdote concerning Sam's colleague Admiral William Penn and his famous Quaker son, also William. In any case, Will Hewer's hat may have had religious overtones.
Having left college, at his return home to the vice-admiral his father, instead of kneeling to ask his blessing, as is the custom with the English, he went up to him with his hat on, and accosted him thus; "Friend, I am glad to see thee in good health." The vice-admiral thought his son crazy; but soon discovered he was turned Quaker.---The Works of M. de Voltaire. T.G. Smollett, 1762.
Upon his Arrival in England (He was then two and twenty Years old), he waited on his Father like a true Quaker, with his Hat on, without bowing to him, Theeing and Thouing him, and calling him Friend. The Reception he met with was not very gracious, he was looked looked upon as a Visionary and a Madman. His afflicted and angry Father tried all Means, Prayers, Threats, Arguments, Punishments to bring him back from his Errors, and despairing at last to overcome his inflexible Stubbornness, turned him out of his House.---The Ceremonies and Religious Customs of the Various Nations of the Known World. C. Du Bosc, 1737.
Ling and chips?
LING, a sort of Salt-Fish.---An Universal Etymological English Dictionary. N. Bailey, 1675.
About A new Pepys walk around Westminster
I stopped off in London on my return to America and spent the afternoon doing the Westminster Walk. I had downloaded the PDF to my Kindle. Great fun though I only got to Trafalgar Square, which I couldn't ignore (though instructed to). Rain, time, darkness and tickets to St. Martin's stopped me cold. I look forward to finishing the walk on my next visit!
About Tuesday 15 October 1661
"to Paul’s Churchyard to a blind place"
BLIND3 Unseen, private. ---A Dictionary Of The English Language. Samuel Johnson, 1756.
About Sunday 13 October 1661
"left off half skirts"
SKIRTS, the Part of a Garment below the Waist.---An Universal Etymological English Dictionary. N. Bailey, 1675.
About Fountain (The Strand)
There is information about the Fountain Tavern in this in-depth entry:
Samuel Pepys and Fleet Street http://www.pepysdiary.com/indepth/2005/09/21/sa...
About Friday 4 October 1661
To make China-Ale, and several other SortsTo six Gallons of Ale, take a Quarter of a Pound or more of China-root thin sliced, and a Quarter of a Pound of Coriander-Seed bruised; hang these in a Tiffany or coarse Linnen-bag in the Vessel, till it has done working, and let it stand fourteen Days before you bottle it; tho' the common Sort vended about Town, is nothing more (at best) than Ten Shilling Beer, put up in small stone Bottles, with a little Spice, Lemmon-peel, and Raisins or Sugar.---The London and country brewer. W. Ellis, 1737.