Monday 22 April 1661

King’s going from ye Tower to Whitehall1

Up early and made myself as fine as I could, and put on my velvet coat, the first day that I put it on, though made half a year ago. And being ready, Sir W. Batten, my Lady, and his two daughters and his son and wife, and Sir W. Pen and his son and I, went to Mr. Young’s, the flag-maker, in Corne-hill;2 and there we had a good room to ourselves, with wine and good cake, and saw the show very well. In which it is impossible to relate the glory of this day, expressed in the clothes of them that rid, and their horses and horses clothes, among others, my Lord Sandwich’s.

Embroidery and diamonds were ordinary among them. The Knights of the Bath was a brave sight of itself; and their Esquires, among which Mr. Armiger was an Esquire to one of the Knights. Remarquable were the two men that represent the two Dukes of Normandy and Aquitane.

The Bishops come next after Barons, which is the higher place; which makes me think that the next Parliament they will be called to the House of Lords. My Lord Monk rode bare after the King, and led in his hand a spare horse, as being Master of the Horse.

The King, in a most rich embroidered suit and cloak, looked most noble. Wadlow, the vintner, at the Devil; in Fleetstreet, did lead a fine company of soldiers, all young comely men, in white doublets. There followed the Vice-Chamberlain, Sir G. Carteret, a company of men all like Turks; but I know not yet what they are for.

The streets all gravelled, and the houses hung with carpets before them, made brave show, and the ladies out of the windows, one of which over against us I took much notice of, and spoke of her, which made good sport among us.

So glorious was the show with gold and silver, that we were not able to look at it, our eyes at last being so much overcome with it.

Both the King and the Duke of York took notice of us, as he saw us at the window.

The show being ended, Mr. Young did give us a dinner, at which we were very merry, and pleased above imagination at what we have seen. Sir W. Batten going home, he and I called and drunk some mum and laid our wager about my Lady Faulconbridge’s name, which he says not to be Mary, and so I won above 20s.

So home, where Will and the boy staid and saw the show upon Towre Hill, and Jane at T. Pepys’s, the Turner, and my wife at Charles Glassecocke’s, in Fleet Street. In the evening by water to White Hall to my Lord’s, and there I spoke with my Lord. He talked with me about his suit, which was made in France, and cost him 200l., and very rich it is with embroidery. I lay with Mr. Shepley, and … [continued tomorrow. P.G.]

  1. The king in the early morning of the 22nd went from Whitehall to the Tower by water, so that he might proceed from thence through the City to Westminster Abbey, there to be crowned.
  2. The members of the Navy Office appear to have chosen Mr. Young’s house on account of its nearness to the second triumphal arch, situated near the Royal Exchange, which was dedicated to the Navy.

44 Annotations

A. De Araujo   Link to this

"The Bishops came next.....;which makes me think....they will be called to the House of Lords" SP doesn't say if that is good or bad but one gets the feeling he doesn't care much about the Bishops.

Alan Bedford   Link to this

"...one gets the feeling he doesn't care much about the Bishops”

And yet he makes note, which a young man with political interests - which Sam is - should do. If the Bishops are “called to the House of Lords”, they potentially will become another faction that Sam and his colleagues will be required to deal with on a regular basis.

Vicente   Link to this

Here is the counter point: John Evelyn's account and all the king's men da da
http://astext.com/history/ed_1661.html#1661

Vicente   Link to this

Another view point, from down Essex way
22. 23. "dry. to serve the pompous show, and coronation at London. on which day...."
http://linux02.lib.cam.ac.uk/earlscolne/diary/7...

Vicente   Link to this

Smart lad, is our Sam, did not have to pay an extra fee to have it made on time."...and put on my velvet coat, the first day that I put it on, though made half a year ago..."

And here he is again "...I lay with Mr. Shepley, and ..." to lay meaning ones 'ead on the pillow only, why assume anything else?

David A. Smith   Link to this

"one of which over against us I took much notice of"
An extraordinary day, and an extraordinary entry. We start with the marvelously deft word brush strokes:

* "Embroidery and diamonds were ordinary among them"
* "The streets all gravelled"
* "our eyes at last being so much overcome"
* "the King and the Duke of York took notice of us"

and then from the grand to the personal:

"the ladies out of the windows, one of which over against us I took much notice of"

Under 500 words, and *you are there*: description, pathos, action, and personality.

Bravo, Sam.

John Mac Dougall   Link to this

But how was the weather? Yesterday it was an issue, and today.. no mention.

Paul Chapin   Link to this

How was the weather?
Thanks to Vicente's link, we know from Rev. Josselin that it was "dry, to serve the pompous show ... at London."

PHE   Link to this

The spectacle and scene described so well in so few words. A picture painted - as DA Smith suggests.

Mary   Link to this

... a company of men all like turkes..

L&M comment that these appear to have been members of the company of the royal footguard, but offer no explanation for their costume. Just possibly by 'turkes' Pepys is simply indicating exotic Eastern (or Moorish?) costume, with this company representing a reference to Algiers.

Wim van der Meij   Link to this

Which he said not to be Mary...
Mary was the daughter of Oliver Cromwell, second wife of Thomas, second Viscount Falconberg, afterwards Earl of Falconberg.

Wim van der Meij   Link to this

No mention of Elizabeth in the company!
Did Sam leave her with his parents? Possibly his stature is not yet high enough to take his own Lady to ceremonies like this.

Susan   Link to this

Reading John Evelyn's account after having just read Sam's makes one admire Sam more and more. Evelyn's account, even given such a wonderful topic is just plain boring - mainly tedious lists! As David Smith says, Sam brings us right there in 500 words. Magic stuff.

Pedro.   Link to this

Cry God,Charles,Sam,England and St.George.

What a great coincidence that we should read such a marvellous entry on this Day of St. George.

Glyn   Link to this

It's not a coincidence!!!

Obviously the king's advisers arranged for him to be formally crowned on England's saint's day. (News management is a very old profession!)

Glyn   Link to this

Of course this is the 22nd not the 23rd but I imagine the ceremony is planned to last several days.

Mary   Link to this

The weather in the streets.

Although it is possible that Josselin was enjoying weather different from that in London, I'm sure that Pepys would have passed some comment upon it if it had been wet for the royal parade. Apart from anything else, he would have regretted the danger from rainspotting to his newly-donned velvet coat. All the signs are that Sam the Tailor's Son takes good care of his clothes

Glyn   Link to this

Although this is from a smaller, much less important procession it does give us some idea of what the streets might have looked at. Scroll down and click on the pictures at the very bottom of the page to enlarge them:

http://www.shakespeares-sonnets.com/cheapsd.htm

Pedro.   Link to this

Also Cry Shakespeare!

I should have added Shakespeare as the 23rd April was also the date of his death.

Emilio   Link to this

"and the ladies out of the windows. . . . So glorious was the show with gold and silver, that we were not able to look at it"

L&M note that the 'at' was actually written as "up" in the diary. I don't think Sam's mind had quite left the ladies yet. :-)

Emilio   Link to this

A couple of small diffs. in L&M

The. Turner was probably not there at cousin Tom's with Jane Birch; L&M read "T. Pepys the turner", a description we've often seen in the past.

And here's a nice turn of phrase that got streamlined out of Wheatley: "saw the Shew very well--in which it is impossible to relate the glory of *that* this day". I like the way the extra pronoun stretches out the sentence, giving a sense of Sam sitting back to bask in the day's experiences. With so many glories to think back on, what could be better than taking a little extra time to enjoy?

Emilio   Link to this

The King's Going from the Tower

This is a very special occasion indeed--not only is this procession especially opulent because of the Restoration, but it's also the last appearance of a dying custom. L&M note that in Charles I's time the procession was cancelled on account of the plague, and after today the event will never be held again.

Emilio   Link to this

They mean, I take it, a day-long procession from the Tower to Westminster Abbey held on the day before the coronation.

JWB   Link to this

"...and their horses and horses clothes,"
If you've ever ridden gussied-up horses, you know they're as vain as Sam in his velvet coat. Horses in a Cavalier parade- even this Roundhead looks back and doesn't scoff.

JBailey   Link to this

Glyn's posting of drawings of houses of this era are fascinating. Am I correct in that it looks as if the ground level has no windows but that the higher levels are full of windows? I assume windows meant less use of candles and better light during the day for tasks.

Did they really have that much glass for windows at that time? Wasn't it very expensive, or was that just in the "colonies" in America then? ALso, wouldn't these windows have resulted in chilly rooms in rainy, damp London?

Any ideas of how Pepys' home would have looked in 1661?

M.Stolzenbach   Link to this

Where Elizabeth was:

"So home, where Will and the boy staid and saw the show upon Towre Hill, and Jane at T. Pepys's, The. Turner, and my wife at Charles Glassecocke's, in Fleet Street.”

Emilio   Link to this

JBailey: "ground level has no windows"

I think what looks like the bottom floor are actually barriers set up for the procession--you'll notice that they not only have no windows, but no doors, and appear to be continuous until a gap in the third picture along. The actual ground floors would be behind them, and like the upper floors smaller than the floor above them.

Vicente   Link to this

Glyn: Fantabulous: note the protection from the elements{ or was it from the stink of horses}? for If were modern, one would say plastic sheeting: The detail is wonderful. So many little stories to be seen. Thanks

Ruben   Link to this

to see the history of English window glass see:
http://www.londoncrownglass.co.uk/History.html
In the 17 century glass was a very expensive luxury.
I presume the windows were closed, when necesary, with wood doors. This is probably the reason that upper floors were bigger, so the lower floors were protected from the rain.

Krzysztof   Link to this

'a company of men all like Turks; but I know not yet what they are for'. Perhaps, it's a far-fetched statement, but I suspect Pepys noticed the Polish mission to the coronation of Charles II. It was the first Polish diplomatic mission to England (as far as I know) and, interestingly, the efforts of 'my lord Montague' helped Polish 'foreign affairs' men to notice the emerging power of England (I mean my Lord's 'Baltic mission' and his efforts to end the war betweeen Sweden and the Polish/Danish coalition, rewarded by a gift from Carolus Gustavus of Sweden to Montague). The mission itself was quite modest, comparing to earlier diplomatic efforts, like the magnificent Polish 'cortege' in Rome or Paris. By the way and interestingly enough, the most precious Polish diarist, Jan Pasek, was Samuel Pepys's contemporary man. His entries for the year of 1661 also noticed an exceptionally warm winter (global warming amidst the 'small ice age' or what?). And one more thing ' I think all of us enjoy the fabulous English language of Sam's diaries. Believe me, the same is true for Pasek's Polish language, though interspaced with Latin. Some don't like it, though, as some of our Latin 'hostilis'. After all, 'equus Polonus sum, loquor Latine...'. There's something special in the 16th century.
And to conclude this somewhat extensive annotation, the Polish mission was a blatant PR failure. Quite possibly, his friend Hartlib, of Polish descent, wasn't around to explain the Turkish look of Polish noblemen. How the Polish mission could look like see:
http://www.kismeta.com/diGrasse/Costume/mtaguys...
http://www.kismeta.com/diGrasse/Costume/Dragoon...

Ruben   Link to this

Krzysztof:
your exceptional annotation opens new options to understand those "Turks" marching through London. The scene becomes almost tridimensional with your contribution.
As for Jan Pasek, I understand he wrote "memoires" in his old age, while Samuel Pepys wrote a diary.
There is no way to compare the spontaineity of every day events with recolections influenced by the time passed and the knowing of events that happened after what is being written.
Still as most of us do not read Polish, it is my hope you will compare both writers and annotate whatever you find fit for the enrichment of the site.
Jeszcze Polska!

Krzysztof   Link to this

Ruben:
You are right, Pasek was more "memoirist" than diarist, though it is generally agreed that his "memoirs" are based on a diary he used to keep throughout his life. He re-worked and "enriched" the diaries in his late age, to regale the posterity with his poorly penned but still captivating poetry, I suppose.
In fact, Pasek's memoirs are available in English, at least Mr. Google says so:
At http://www.kismeta.com/diGrasse/PolishLinks.htm I found
The Memoirs of Jan Pasek, Translated by M. Swiecicka, The Kosciuszko Foundation, Warsaw 1978. A 17th century soldier speaks out "much valuable information for building a persona, a very violent persona (???)
And at:
http://pl.bookchecker.com/0520027523
Memoirs of the Polish Baroque: The Writings of Jan Chryzostom Pasek, a Squire of the Commonwealth of Poland and Lithuania, University of California Press February, 1980 Hardcover ISBN: 0520027523

dirk   Link to this

"upper floors were bigger"

Re - Ruben

Protection from the rain would not have been the main reason for protruding upper floors - increasing the available floor space to the maximum was the issue here. The size of the plot on which the house was constructed could of course not be made any bigger than it was, but gaining a few feet of space on each one of the subsequent upper storeys was what you went for when building the house. It did occasionally make the front of the house structurally unstable - and some have been known to collapse even before they were finished...

Susan   Link to this

Thank you Krzysztof for the wonderful pictures - I think such costumes would have seem "Turkish" to Sam.

Ruben   Link to this

Krzysztof:
Thank you for the links. They are very interesting, but I could find only a few sentences by Pasek. Still, from SP's point of view they are exactly what we looked for. He wrote:
"Foreigners were not generally able to tell the various eastern fashions apart. While a Pole could spot a Hungarian in any crowd, westerners sometimes could not tell the Poles and Hungarians apart from the Turks. The Poles had to wear very conspicuous field signs of straw rope at the battle of Vienna to ensure the Austrian allies would not become confused."
Extraordinary!

Sjoerd Spoelstra   Link to this

This picture goes well with today's entry as well (though I am not sure "Restoration" and "Coronation") are the same occasion... no doubt someone will put me right if not ?

http://www.kipar.org/resources/resources-images...

Sjoerd Spoelstra   Link to this

Sorry, some more information: the picture is called "Procession of Charles II's Restoration to the Throne", 1661. Dirk Stoop. The procession as it leaves the Tower of London for Westminster.

I came across this rather good collection of paintings at http://www.kipar.org , including for instance this one of Charles II on this, his Coronation Day:

http://www.kipar.org/resources/resources-images...

Emilio   Link to this

"Procession of Charles II?s Restoration to the Throne"

Wow, thanks for more great picture links. It's interesting being able to see all the men in their red finery, and maybe that figure with its back to us in the foreground is one of the 'Turks'? The mounted figure behind Charles is Albemarle leading the (spare) "Horse of Estate".

Bill   Link to this

"Remarquable were the two men that represent the two Dukes of Normandy and Aquitane."

John Carie and Sir Francis Lawley, two gentlemen of the Privy Chamber, represented the Dukes of Normandy and Aquitaine.
---Wheatley, 1899.

Bryan   Link to this

The current link for Glyn's posting above:

http://www.shakespeares-sonnets.com/Archive/che...
"The print shows the visit of Mary de Medici, daughter of the grand duke of Tuscany, in 1639."

The current link for "Procession of Charles II's Restoration to the Throne" previously posted by Sjoerd:

http://www.kipar.org/period-galleries/paintings...

john   Link to this

JWB wrote: "If you've ever ridden gussied-up horses, you know they're as vain as Sam in his velvet coat."

They also rode stallions, not mares or geldings, so the analogy fits well.

joe fulm   Link to this

More interesting than whether Lady faulconbridge's name was Mary would be what she thought about the Restoration of the monarchy, or would she be attending today's ceremonies, considering her father's head was on a Whitehall railing spike possibly along the route(where it would remain for over twenty years before being blown away in a gale).

Gerald Berg   Link to this

"made myself as fine as I could..." Neither complaint, nor vanity? Proudly I suppose.
"them that rid..." Curious past tense. Good riddance?

Chris Squire UK   Link to this

Re: OC’s head: ‘ . . [It] was stuck on a post, and displayed in Westminster Hall, where it remained until at least 1684. Pepys mentions going to look at it. It then went missing (the legend is that it was blown off in a gale and taken by a sentry), and turns up again in 18th London as a collectors item – much sought after as an investment by proprietors of then fashionable ‘museums of curiosities’. It became a more settled possession in 1824, when it was bought by the Wilkinson family from Kent – who kept it until 1960.

But was this macabre object really Cromwell’s head? Much time and ink was spent trying to answer that question . When the British Archaeological Institute examined it in 1911 a photo was published in the Daily Express – which led to calls for it to be bought for the nation. Prime Minister Asquith answered questions about it in the Commons. Finally in 1935 a major forensic examination was undertaken by two scientists whose 100 page report is, by their own admission, “neither pleasant nor lightweight to read.” They confirmed the identity of the head.

Eventually in 1960 the head was accepted by Cromwell’s Cambridge College, Sidney Sussex, and buried in an unmarked place in the chapel.’

[http://www.eyes-and-ears.co.uk/squaredog/detail...]

'in Westminster Hall' should be, I suggest, 'ON Westminster Hall', i.e outside for all to see and take a lesson from - and to be finally blown away . .

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