Friday 10 July 1663

Up late and by water to Westminster Hall, where I met Pierce the chirurgeon, who tells me that for certain the King is grown colder to my Lady Castlemaine than ordinary, and that he believes he begins to love the Queen, and do make much of her, more than he used to do. Up to the Lobby, and there sent out for Mr. Coventry and Sir W. Batten, and told them if they thought convenient I would go to Chatham today, Sir John Minnes being already there at a Pay, and I would do such and such business there, which they thought well of, and so I went home and prepared myself to go after, dinner with Sir W. Batten. Sir W. Batten and Mr. Coventry tell me that my Lord Bristoll hath this day impeached my Lord Chancellor in the House of Lords of High Treason. The chief of the articles are these: 1st. That he should be the occasion of the peace made with Holland lately upon such disadvantageous terms, and that he was bribed to it. 2d. That Dunkirke was also sold by his advice chiefly, so much to the damage of England. 3d. That he had 6000l. given him for the drawing-up or promoting of the Irish declaration lately, concerning the division of the lands there. 4th. He did carry on the design of the Portugall match, so much to the prejudice of the Crown of England, notwithstanding that he knew the Queen is not capable of bearing children. 5th. That the Duke’s marrying of his daughter was a practice of his, thereby to raise his family; and that it was done by indirect courses. 6th. That the breaking-off of the match with Parma, in which he was employed at the very time when the match with Portugall was made up here, which he took as a great slur to him, and so it was; and that, indeed, is the chief occasion of all this fewde. 7th. That he hath endeavoured to bring in Popery, and wrote to the Pope for a cap for a subject of the King of England’s (my Lord Aubigny ); and some say that he lays it to the Chancellor, that a good Protestant Secretary (Sir Edward Nicholas) was laid aside, and a Papist, Sir H. Bennet, put in his room: which is very strange, when the last of these two is his own creature, and such an enemy accounted to the Chancellor, that they never did nor do agree; and all the world did judge the Chancellor to be falling from the time that Sir H. Bennet was brought in. Besides my Lord Bristoll being a Catholique himself, all this is very strange. These are the main of the Articles. Upon which my Lord Chancellor desired that the noble Lord that brought in these Articles, would sign to them with his hand; which my Lord Bristoll did presently. Then the House did order that the judges should, against Monday next, bring in their opinion, Whether these articles are treason, or no? and next, they would know, Whether they were brought in regularly or no, without leave of the Lords’ House? After dinner I took boat (H. Russell) and down to Gravesend in good time, and thence with a guide post to Chatham, where I found Sir J. Minnes and Mr. Wayth walking in the garden, whom I told all this day’s news, which I left the town full of, and it is great news, and will certainly be in the consequence of it. By and by to supper, and after long discourse, Sir J. Minnes and I, he saw me to my chamber, which not pleasing me, I sent word so to Mrs. Bradford, that I should be crowded into such a hole, while the clerks and boarders of her own take up the best rooms. However I lay there and slept well.

30 Annotations

TerryF   Link to this

E. of Clarendon accused of High Treason by the Earl of Bristol.
This Day the Earl of Bristol exhibited a Charge into this House, containing Articles of High Treason, and other heinous Misdemeanors, against Edward Earl of Clarendon, Lord Chancellor of England: Which were read; and then the Earl of Bristol subscribed his Name thereunto.
"Articles of High Treason, and other heinous Misdemeanors, against Edward Earl of Clarendon, Lord Chancellor of England

From: 'House of Lords Journal Volume 11: 10 July 1663', Journal of the House of Lords: volume 11: 1660-1666, pp. 554-57. URL: Date accessed: 10 July 2006.

There follow 20 Articles against him, anorder that the articles be sent the King, etc.

TerryF   Link to this

L&M note that Pepys's account of the articles is strange.

Read and see.

TerryF   Link to this

3rd. Of course, Pepys's account passed through other heads and a day until this Journall entry was recorded.

Miss Ann   Link to this

Setting aside the exciting news of the High Treason charge - our Sam is an old romantic, isn't he! He really wants the King and Queen to be happily married, notwithstanding the fact that Sam finds Lady Castlemaine to be a beauty he always seems optimistic regarding the King and Queen. How unfortunate that the Queen hasn't been able to bear children, does anyone know why? Maybe this has a bearing on Sam's feelings towards the royals ... just a thought.

jeannine   Link to this

"How unfortunate that the Queen hasn’t been able to bear children, does anyone know why?"
Miss Ann, Queen Catherine will be able to become pregnant but will never carry a baby to full term. Historians disagree on exactly how many miscarriages she had (most think 2-4). None of them have ever ventured to put forth an "educated guess" as to the cause of her inability to carry full term. In his book "Royal Confinements" the author, Sir Jack Dewhurst (a professor of Obstetrics and Gynecology) refers to Sam's Diary and Charles' letters to his sister Minette regarding this topic. Dewhurst states that "there is no evident explanation for her failure to produce an heir...." (p. 12). What most of Catherine's biographers have put forth is that they do believe that had she given birth that Charles would have made the effort to be a "better" husband, which I am sure Sam (and MANY others) would have loved to have seen.

Bradford   Link to this

"my chamber, which not pleasing me, I sent word so to Mrs. Bradford, that I should be crowded into such a hole. . . . However I lay there and slept well."

Martha Bradford, "Housekeeper, Hill House, Chatham dockyard." So the L&M Companion, tout court, p. 41. But my namesake might well protest that had Mr. Pepys been given the best room in the house, and slept ill therein, he would have been no better off, so he should be grateful for the good night's rest of a quiet conscience, even in a hole.

TerryF   Link to this

Why does Pepys judge the "impeachment" of Clarendon "good news"?

Hyde has been a mild ally of Sandwich, albeit is mildly opposed by Mr. Coventry, or so The Pepys Sociogram by Dirk Van de putte, of last 29 Sept.

Paul Chapin   Link to this

Why does Pepys judge the “impeachment” of Clarendon “good news”?
He doesn't. He calls it "great news", meaning big news, which it surely is.

Australian Susan   Link to this

Best room

Although Sam sleeps in the "hole" as he designates it, he is making sure that the Bradfords know that such a personage as he (because of his office) should be offered better accomodation. Here in Australia, it was the accepted norm in the Anglican Church that Rectories should always have a best bedroom designated as being for the Bishop when he visited the Parish (for confirmations etc). This was in recognition of the dignity due to his office. I think that's what is going through Sam's mind. Let's have a touch more grovelling, please!

There is a temptation to read the first item Sam gives us (about Lady C) as being on a par with tabloid headlines (as today: "Brad to split with Angelina"), except that these people were in a position to really wield power and influence in the Government of the country and so Sam's interest goes beyond the merely salacious. (of the Brad and Angelina variety - though that comes into it... remember Lady C's underwear?).

Sam casually mentions the Queen's barrenness as an accepted fact, but surely this is the first time he has alluded to it? Why so casual? It is an alarming piece of news: without an heir, the throne will pass to James, who although not Catholic yet, is possibly suspected. So far, he has fathered a daughter (Mary, b. 1662) and it would be assumed he was likely to father sons who would then inherit.

TerryF   Link to this

"So far, [C Rex II] has fathered a daughter (Mary, b. 1662) and it would be assumed he was likely to father sons"

Aus. Sue, what about James Crofts, ah, James Scott, 1st Duke of Monmouth and of Buccleuch?

Miss Ann   Link to this

Thanks Jeannine, my reading so far is limited to this site and the book by ... ... sorry can't remember her name, too much work here today and the brain is full ... ... however, will shortly spend time researching further to add to my knowledge (uni is just finishing so will have lots and lots of time on my hands soon). Your assistance is greatly appreciated.

On another subject occuring at the same time as Sam's diary -- due to the interest of certain little people in the family, I've been looking at pirates (wonder why??), looks like Henry Morgan, the well-known "privateer" was sailing his way around in waters Caribbean at about this time, do we know if Sam mentions him in his diary? I've seen something that says Morgan sailed with Penn at one stage. And, apparently there is a street named after Sam near to where Morgan was supposedly born in Wales - how wonderful is that?

Mary   Link to this

It's James who has fathered Mary, not Charles.

Pedro   Link to this

“do we know if Sam mentions him (Morgan) in his diary?”

Miss Ann…

Henry Morgan sailed to Jamaica as an ensign under Venebles (army) and under Penn as Naval Commander in 1655, but there is no details as to whether he took part in Penn’s botched raid on Hispaniola. At this time in the Diary Morgan commands his own privateer, has sailed under Mings on the raids on Santiago and Campeche, and is a legend for his exploits in Jamaica itself, it is only at the end of the Diary period that he was recognized as Admiral/General. And so unfortuneately he may not be mentioned.

Robert Gertz   Link to this

"Up to the Lobby, and there sent out for Mr. Coventry and Sir W. Batten, and told them if they thought convenient I would go to Chatham today, Sir John Minnes being already there at a Pay, and I would do such and such business there, which they thought well of..."


First, something sounds fishy here...Sam has an ulterior motive for going to Chatham I think that has not yet been revealed. His words have that conspiratorial tone and if his real purpose were solely to do "such and such" he'd give us details. Second, this sudden deference to Sir William B suggests the interesting idea that Sam grumbles and grouses in private but in public his face to Sir Will is a lot more subordinate than he's led us to believe. It's interesting considering he's discussed Batten's deficiencies with Coventry before. I wonder if perhaps he's picked up hints from Coventry that a little more deference in public would be more seemly or again if he simply paints himself a lot more independent and defiant in the Diary than he actually is.

Which might lead us to wonder if perhaps...

"I shall endeavor to reassert my authority with my wife on her..."

"Sam'l? I'm back! What are you writing?"

"Eh, nothing dear..."

jeannine   Link to this

"Lord Bristoll hath this day impeached my Lord Chancellor in the House of Lords of High Treason" (slight spoiler)
It should be noted that in the background to all of Bristoll's charges, that Ollard tells us that the grounds for these charges "were so absurd that even those who had been itching to get rid of Clarendon hastened to dissociate themselves from the move ("Clarendon and his Friends", p 266), which would backfire on Bristoll and restore Clarendon's "relations with the King to something approaching their old wary correctness."

Lurker   Link to this

"Lords' House" is interesting... I'm not LH, but that's the 1st time I'd ever seen it refered to that way, usually the abbreviation is just "Lords".

TerryF   Link to this

"Sam grumbles and grouses in private but in public his face to Sir Will is a lot more subordinate than he’s led us to believe."

Probably so, and he surely doesn't call Sir J. Mennes "coxcomb" to his face. In this instance, protocol likely requires him to seek the acquiescence of the others to be away from the office.

Robert Gertz   Link to this

“Sir…” Hewer sighs…Knowing all too well what to expect.

“That Mrs. Bagwell is here and would like to see you about a note her husband sent by her.”

Ahhhh…An eager Sam beams…

Dinner time and only the hard-working Pepys and his faithful minion Hewer are at hand…Yes.

The mouse has come into view and the hawk…Is ready to pounce…

And Bess arrival day is still a week or so off…Yeah. “Now, my boy…”
He waves Will over…

“Listen and watch, Will, and learn the gentle arts of seduction from the Master.”

Uh-huh…Hewer sighs.

Somehow I don’t think skill in administrative work translates to…

“First…Choose your quarry…carefully. Hewer? Are you paying attention, boy?”

“Aye, sir. Choose quarry carefully.” As in someone who can’t possibly risk complaining about your lewdness or who, like Fat Betty Lane over in Whitehall is ready to grab anything she can get her ham-fisted hands around…

Last week, Adventures in Creative Accounting with guest lecturer John Creed, this week Arts Amorous with Don Juan Pepys…At least my uncle’s certainly getting his 100Ls worth.

“Next…See the prey is isolated from any protector.” Shrewd, lewd look to Will as Sam carefully opens his closet’s door a crack to view a nervous-looking Mrs. Bagwell in the outer office…

Right, protector…As if that ambitious little weasel Bagwell couldn’t see Mr. Pepys leering at his wife a mile off all the other day. Poor lady, she seems modest enough.

“But sir, doesn’t the Bible say…”

“Heeeweer…We put our good Book away under the covers in these arts. After all…” sly grin… “God himself is a man, Will.” Knowing wink.

He must be not to destroy us all for our folly. Will mutters to himself.

“Sir…We do have so much work to do…” he tries.

“And we’ll do it all the better for a little…Sport, lad. This is the Restoration, Hewer…We are Restored and Reinvigorated in man and state. New ideas are pulsating and throbbing across our great nation, Will. And we must pulsate and throb with the times, my boy.” Sam has shifted to one of his wall peepholes, lifting the sea painting that had covered it.

“Pulsate and throb, right, sir.” Pulsate and throb where the Missus kicks him right in the… if she ever catches him.


TerryF   Link to this

Re "Pepys’s account of the articles [of impeachment] is strange"

Next Tuesday it will be reported he spent part of the morning "making up my journal from Wednesday last to this day" - no wonder things are a bit askew 'today'. Cf.

Pedro   Link to this

Lord Aubigny.

He is the Almoner to Queen Catherine, and his name is mentioned in the accusations of Bristol against Clarendon see background…

Perhaps Jeannine can provide more information, but I believe that not only are the accusations aimed at Clarendon, but also in a way against Catherine on the instigation of Castlemaine. There are letters that she sent to Rome concerning the “promotion” of the said Aubigny.

Paul Chapin   Link to this

Castlemaine and the accusations against Clarendon
If Pedro is right, that might explain why "the King is grown colder to my Lady Castlemaine than ordinary," since Charles has declared to Parliament that from his own knowledge a number of the accusations are false.

Paul Chapin   Link to this

Castlemaine and the accusations against Clarendon (correction)
Sorry, got my sequence wrong, should have said "Charles will soon declare to Parliament"

Pedro   Link to this

Castlemaine, Bristol and the Queen.

Form one of the books that Jeannine has brought to our attention, Davidson’s Biography of Catherine it says…

“In the gardens ladies in their satins and laces strolled and tittered, the King flung bowls, or sauntered jesting, or took a turn in the tennis courts. It was here that Charles was amazed to here that Buckingham, Bristol and Bennett, all partisans and upholders of Castlemaine, were audacious enough to draw up an impeachment of the Chancellor, nobody doubted that “The Lady” was the instigator.”

Around October of 1662 Catherine began to write letters, which is puzzling, as she had received several letters from her mother without any recorded reply. And as we know her English was still very poor. (my opinion).

From the same source she wrote to the Pope…

“The very special respect that I have for the person for the position of Your Holiness forces me not to defer any longer giving you those marks of my obedience which have always been my intention since my arrival in this Kingdom, and it is to that end that I now send Master Bellings, who will assure Your Holiness of the veneration I have for you, and inviolable attachment which I have and will always have to the throne you occupy so worthily. I beg of you not only to give credence to what he will tell you, but also to listen willingly to him on what he will tell you of the state of the Church and realm whence I have come, and in that which is specially concerned in prayer he will pray you to make for the state I have entered. I hope that in making your serious reflection on this, you will bring the necessary remedies to the ills which threaten it, and that you will believe that I am with submission,

Very Holy Father, your devoted daughter, CR
(Mons. D’Aubingney, my grand Almoner

Also on the same day she wrote to Cardinal Ursino (Ursini)

My Cousin,

Amidst the joy I have reason to possess, I cannot avoid being sensibly touched by the strange state of the Church, both in the realm of the King my brother, and that here. Nobody knows better than you what it is in Portugal, for you have so generously undertaken its protection, but I can tell you that I fear very greatly the evils which will follow the displeasure of the King My Lord and husband, and of his ministers if the court of Rome persists in refusing him the favour he asks for his relative Mons D’Aubigny, my grand Almoner. I trust to Master Bellings who I send to assure His Holiness of my obedience, and to expound to you all these things liberally, and beg of you to give him entire belief

jeannine   Link to this

Further Background on Bristol, Castlemaine, Clarendon and the Queen.

On the following 2 days there is some information about the relationship between Castlemaine and Bristol (Digby)

Castlemaine, Buckingham, Berkeley, Arlington are all working against Clarendon and will do so consistently. They will create "motives", "charges" etc. against him whenever possible in order to discredit him, etc. They hold Catherine's barrenness against him and will spread rumors that Clarendon knew about her barreness and set up the marriage so that his daughter (Anne, Duchess of York, James' wife) would be married to the next heir to the throne, etc. Catherine is really "clueless" to the whole political game, it's just not who she is. She is trying her best to have a child and be a "good wife" and will be the target throughout her marriage for all sorts of plots to get rid of her one way or another. (Spoiler, sort of) Of note, Buckingham will remain 100% committed to get rid of Catherine and will never waiver in his desire to do so, devising plots for Charles to divorce her, to have her kidnapped (and probably killed), etc. Getting rid of Catherine will become a point of friction when another member of this little Cabal decides over time that Catherine should stay. The politics at this time are fragile, Castlemaine has overstepped herself by supporting Bristol and in the background Charles is starting to look elsewhere for a lady to fancy (Frances Stuart has his eye), so Castlemaine is walking on thin ice now. Catherine's letters have nothing to do with Clarendon as he'd be the last person in the Kingdom to support popery and Charles knows this.

Australian Susan   Link to this

The unsavoury group described above by Jeannine were the original CABAL (from their initials).

Paul Chapin   Link to this

Origin of 'cabal'
I'm afraid I have to pull a LH here and disagree with Australian Susan.
[a. F. cabale (16th c. in Littré), used in all the English senses, ad. med.L. cab(b)ala (It., Sp., Pg. cabala), cabbala, q.v. In 17th c. at first pronounced "cabal (whence the abridged cab n.5); the current pronunciation was evidently reintroduced from Fr., perh. with sense 5 or 6.]


3. A secret or private intrigue of a sinister character formed by a small body of persons; ‘something less than conspiracy’ (J.).
1646–7 Clarendon Hist. Reb. (1702) I. v. 439 The King+asked him, whether he were engaged in any Cabal concerning the army? 1663 J. Heath Flagellum or O. Cromwell, He was no sooner rid of the danger of this but he was puzzled with Lambert's cabal. 1707 Freind Peterboro's Cond. Sp. 171 The contrivances and cabals of others have too often prevail'd. 1824 W. Irving T. Trav. II. 30 There were cabals breaking out in the company. 1876 Bancroft Hist. U.S. VI. xlvi. 299 The cabal against Washington found supporters exclusively in the north.

Note that the first citation in this sense is from 1646-7, almost two decades before the events now under discussion.

language hat   Link to this


Paul is right, of course: the word is older and has a different derivation. It was just a pleasing coincidence that the five Privy Councillors (Clifford, Arlington, Buckingham, Ashley, and Lauderdale) had the initials they did, so that the word was peculiarly appropriate.

Australian Susan   Link to this

Should not rely on the word of ancient history teacher (now long dead so cannot castigate)
Any link with the Jewish Kabbala?

Paul Chapin   Link to this

Any link with the Jewish Kabbala?

Apparently so. The OED equates the two words in its first two definitions:
†1. = cabbala 1: The Jewish tradition as to the interpretation of the Old Testament. Obs.
1616 Bullokar, Cabal, the tradition of the Jewes doctrine of religion. 1660 Howell Lex. Tetragl., Words do involve the deepest Mysteries, By them the Jew into his Caball pries. 1663 Butler Hud. i. i. 530 For Mystick Learning, wondrous able In Magick, Talisman, and Cabal.

†2. = cabbala 2: a. Any tradition or special private interpretation. b. A secret. Obs.
a1637 B. Jonson (O.) The measuring of the temple, a cabal found out but lately. 1635 D. Person Varieties i. Introd. 3 An insight in the Cabals and secrets of Nature. 1660–3 J. Spencer Prodigies (1665) 344 If the truth+had been still reserved as a Cabbal amongst men. 1663 J. Heath Flagellum or O. Cromwell 192 How the whole mystery and cabal of this business was managed by the+Committee. a1763 Shenstone Ess. 220 To suppose that He will regulate His government according to the cabals of human wisdom.

Here's what the OED has to say about the use of the term in Sam's time:

6. Applied in the reign of Charles II to the small committee or junto of the Privy Council, otherwise called the ‘Committee for Foreign Affairs’, which had the chief management of the course of government, and was the precursor of the modern cabinet.
1665 Pepys Diary 14 Oct., It being read before the King, Duke, and the Caball, with complete applause. 1667 Ibid. 31 Mar., Walked to my Lord Treasurer's, where the King, Duke of York, and the Cabal, and much company withal. 1667 Ibid. (1877) V. 128 The Cabal at present, being as he says the King, and the Duke of Buckingham, and Lord Keeper, the Duke of Albemarle and privy seale.

b. in Hist. applied spec. to the five ministers of Charles II, who signed the Treaty of Alliance with France for war against Holland in 1672: these were Clifford, Arlington, Buckingham, Ashley (Earl of Shaftesbury), and Lauderdale, the initials of whose names thus arranged chanced to spell the word cabal.
This was merely a witticism referring to sense 6; in point of fact these five men did not constitute the whole ‘Cabal’, or Committee for Foreign Affairs; nor were they so closely united in policy as to constitute a ‘cabal’ in sense 5, where quot. 1670 shows that three of them belonged to one ‘cabal’ or clique, and two to another. The name seems to have been first given to the five ministers in the pamphlet of 1673 ‘England's Appeal from the private Cabal at White-hall to the Great Council of the nation+by a true lover of his country.’ Modern historians often write loosely of the Buckingham-Arlington administration from the fall of Clarendon in 1667 to 1673 as the Cabal Cabinet or Cabal Ministry.

JonTom Kittredge   Link to this

Origin of "Cabal"
"Note that the first citation in this sense is from 1646-7, almost two decades before the events now under discussion."

Granted, but I'm not sure Ms. Susan is so far off base here. The coincidence that the initials of the anti-Clarendon clique spelt C.A.B.A.L was remarked on at the time, and it seems that it did much to fix this meaning in the popular mind.

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