Thursday 22 December 1664

Up and betimes to my office, and then out to several places, among others to Holborne to have spoke with one Mr. Underwood about some English hemp, he lies against Gray’s Inn. Thereabouts I to a barber’s shop to have my hair cut, and there met with a copy of verses, mightily commended by some gentlemen there, of my Lord Mordaunt’s, in excuse of his going to sea this late expedition, with the Duke of Yorke. But, Lord! they are but sorry things; only a Lord made them. Thence to the ‘Change; and there, among the merchants, I hear fully the news of our being beaten to dirt at Guinny, by De Ruyter with his fleete. The particulars, as much as by Sir G. Carteret afterwards I heard, I have said in a letter to my Lord Sandwich this day at Portsmouth; it being most wholly to the utter ruine of our Royall Company, and reproach and shame to the whole nation, as well as justification to them in their doing wrong to no man as to his private [property], only takeing whatever is found to belong to the Company, and nothing else. Dined at the Dolphin, Sir G. Carteret, Sir J. Minnes, Sir W. Batten, and I, with Sir W. Boreman and Sir Theophilus Biddulph and others, Commissioners of the Sewers, about our place below to lay masts in. But coming a little too soon, I out again, and tooke boat down to Redriffe; and just in time within two minutes, and saw the new vessel of Sir William Petty’s launched, the King and Duke being there. It swims and looks finely, and I believe will do well. The name I think is Twilight,1 but I do not know certainly. Coming away back immediately to dinner, where a great deal of good discourse, and Sir G. Carteret’s discourse of this Guinny business, with great displeasure at the losse of our honour there, and do now confess that the trade brought all these troubles upon us between the Dutch and us. Thence to the office and there sat late, then I to my office and there till 12 at night, and so home to bed weary.

  1. Pepys was wrong as to the name of Sir William Petty’s new doublekeeled boat. On February 13th, 1664-65, he gives the correct title, which was “The Experiment.”

24 Annotations

jeannine   Link to this

Sam to Lord Sandwich (from “Further Correspondence of Samuel Pepys” edited by Tanner)

…Yesterday came the ill news we have long expected from Guinny of De Ruyter’s retaking all the Dutch had lost, and that in the most advantageous circumstances to themselves they could have wished. First, to the possessing themselves of all our wealth (landed and then upon delivering) there, to the utter ruin of our Company's stock of above 100,000£., and leaving them in debt 100,000£. more, and defeating them in their great contract with Spain for blacks. Next, to the foulest reproach of cowardice that hath ever been found due to so many English ships as we had there, under the protection too of two forts, there being not the least show of opposition made by us, but all (and more than was asked) calmly surrendered to them. Lastly, to a too seeming justification of themselves among people willing to find fault with his Majesty's proceedings towards the Dutch, for they have not only forborne any violent act towards his Majesty's officers and effects there, but done the same to every private man for continuing him in quiet possession of whatever he said was his, to the value of 6d. Only where they found the Royal Company's mark could prove that anything did belong to them, they seized it and hold it, giving our men and ships (all but one that was our Company's) liberty of disposing of themselves [as] they pleased, and our masters' bills of exchange for their freight upon their own West India Company, the ship that brings the news having a bill in that manner for 700£. 'Tis hard to say whether this news be received with more anger or shame, but there is reason enough for both.
This day was launched (present the King and Duke) Sir Wm. Petty's new double boat; how she proves your Lordship shall hear hereafter, but wagers are laid of all sizes in her defence.

Pedro   Link to this

I hear fully the news of our being beaten to dirt at Guinny, by De Ruyter with his fleete.

Seems like the purveyors of doom are already jumping the gun. De Ruyter took the surrender of Goree on the 14th of October and news would be reaching England, but besides a trip up the Senagal river to an English settlement, he has done little of his intended businees. At this present time he would be nearing Cape Three Points

Pedro   Link to this

And John Evelyn on this day…

22nd. I went to the launching of a new ship of two bottoms, invented by Sir William Petty, on which were various opinions; his Majesty being present, gave her the name of the Experiment: so I returned home,

Terry F   Link to this

A reminder of what Pepys has done and will do from the Carte Calendar,

Ormond to Henry Coventry
Written from: [Whitehall]

Date: 22 December 1664

Shelfmark: MS. Carte 145, fol(s). 81
Document type: Copy

Recommends Thomas Roome, bearer of this letter, for a servant's place, in some outgoing ship of war. He will produce a certificate of former service & of his loyalty.
http://www.bodley.ox.ac.uk/dept/scwmss/projects...

(Hmmm....Is Thomas Roome's wife secure?)

Michael Robinson   Link to this

" ... met with a copy of verses ..."

Perhaps Pepys read a manuscript copy; a search of the ESTC database showed no currently known surviving copy in either broadside or pamphlet form, or a period record, of a relevant printed publication by or attributed to Mordaunt.

cape henry   Link to this

[Catching up from yesterday: knowing a raptor rehabber, I can tell you that because of their diet - meat, and lots of it, indelicately consumed - they are a huge mess to deal with indoors, and even large outdoor enclosures require constant attention. It is really difficult to imagine having such an animal in one's privy. All I can say is yikes.]

John MacDougall   Link to this

But, Lord! they are but sorry things; only a Lord made them.
Another example of how little things change... Just substitute "celebrity" for "Lord"!

Tony Eldridge   Link to this

to the utter ruin of our Company’s stock of above 100,000£., and leaving them in debt 100,000£. more, and defeating them in their great contract with Spain for blacks
Jeannine, is this a reference to slavery do you know?

jeannine   Link to this

Jeannine, is this a reference to slavery do you know?

Tony, there are no references or editor's notes accomanying this particular letter in the book, so I don't know exactly what this reference it to.

I know that Pedro has read a lot about the background of these sea transactions, etc. so perhaps he can add something here to help us out (or anyone else who may know).

JWB   Link to this

Biddulph Surname Origin

" Probably the same as Botolph, which Camden derives from Boat, and ulph (Saxon), Help, because, perhaps, he was the mariner's tutelar saint, and for that reason was so much adored at Boston, in England. "

Source: An Etymological Dictionary of Family and Christian Names With an Essay on their Derivation and Import; Arthur, William, M.A.; New York, NY: Sheldon, Blake, Bleeker & CO., 1857.

JWB   Link to this

17th Century Catamaran

http://web.ukonline.co.uk/lordcornell/iwhr/cat.htm

language hat   Link to this

Biddulph:

This is a better etymology (not surprisingly, research into names has improved in the last 150 years):

English (Midlands): habitational name from a place in Staffordshire, recorded as Bidolf in Domesday Book, from Old English bī ‘beside’ + dylf ‘digging’ (a putative derivative of delfan ‘to dig’), i.e. a mine or quarry.

From: Dictionary of American Family Names, ed. Patrick Hanks, Oxford University Press (2003).

Mary   Link to this

Slave trade?

Quite probably. The Portuguese had first started to exploit the West African coast for slaves in the 15th century and Lagos, in Portugal, was the site of the first established slave-market in Europe. Initially Africans were imported to work in Europe, but with the development of Portuguese, Spanish, British and Dutch colonies in South America, the transatlantic slave trade began.

JWB   Link to this

LH

Perhaps your right. My source could have been engaged in "gentrification". Theophilus begs a better companion than "slag heap", but then with thoughts of the Christmas season, maybe not.

cgs   Link to this

"...On February 13th, 1664-65, he gives the correct title, which was “The Experiment.” ..."
there was this reference to another boat?

Early Sir G. Carteret, both Sir Williams and I on board the Experiment, to dispatch her away

http://www.pepysdiary.com/diary/1662/03/24/

Pedro   Link to this

"And defeating them in their great contract with Spain for blacks"

I think again that this may be jumping the gun.

In September 1664 Fanshawe had been sent to Spain with the objective of bringing Portugal and Spain together, and putting pressure on the Portuguese by threat of withdrawal of support if they did not accept reasonable terms. With respect to an alliance with Spain he was to play safe until an ambassador was sent to London (actually arrived in April 1665), but in the meantime he was to keep well to the fore in the opening of freer trade, even an English monopoly in the Indies, and an assiento for the African Company.

A year later, around the present time, in the Diary nothing much had been achieved.

(Info from British Foreign Policy 1660-72 by Feiling)

Spain had been designated all land “beyond the line” by the Papal Bull, and Portugal this side which as Mary says was the West African coast. Portugal, I believe, argued that Brazil was this side of the line.

It seems the Spanish issued the contracts for slaves, assientos, for supply to South America and the West Indies.

flatul   Link to this

"...Pepys was wrong as to the name of Sir William Petty’s new doublekeeled boat. On February 13th, 1664-65, he gives the correct title, which was “The Experiment.” ..."
was double keeled/hulled or two boats one a catamaran the other with a inner and outer hulls, doubled hulled,[doubled bottomed]
there be many experiments.

"...and there Mr. Grant showed me letters of Sir William Petty’s, wherein he says, that his vessel which he hath built upon two keeles (a modell whereof, built for the King, he showed me) hath this month won a wager of 50l. in sailing between Dublin and Holyhead with the pacquett-boat, the best ship or vessel the King hath there;
http://www.pepysdiary.com/diary/1663/07/31/#ann...
[ref :July 31 63]
In 1663 he applied his ingenuity to the invention of a swift double-bottomed ship, that made one or two passages between England and Ireland, but was then lost in a storm.

file:///C:/Users/mikev/guttenburg/mkpa10h.htm

another ref to Sir Wm. Petty's skill as a naval architect
from Terry F

http://www.museumoflondon.org.uk/archive/exhibi...

http://www.pepysdiary.com/diary/1663/07/31/#ann...

another ref. to Petty's naval achievements
"...Early Sir G. Carteret, both Sir Williams and I on board the Experiment, to dispatch her away..."

http://www.pepysdiary.com/diary/1662/03/24/

A. De Araujo   Link to this

"that Brazil was that side of the line"
The Treaty of Tordesillas specified that all lands discovered were to be partitioned between Portugal and Spain; the line was to be 360 leagues(2100 Km)West of the Cape Verde Islands, the east being for the Portuguese, beyond the line to the Spaniards; but needless to say the French didn't aggree.1/3 of Brazil was on the Portuguese side but then Portugal lost its independence to Spain and the line did not make sense.

Pedro   Link to this

“as well as justification to them in their doing wrong to no man as to his private [property], only takeing whatever is found to belong to the Company, and nothing else.”

As this can only refer to the recapture of Goree by De Ruyter it may well be true, but the Dutch writer Block says…

“In England it was said that De Ruyter displayed considerable cruelty in the treatment of the prisoners, that he tied men, women and children together, back to back, and threw them into the sea; but these stories were sheer inventions.”

The English tabloids never change.

Robert Gertz   Link to this

Read all about it..."De Ruyter takes Guinea, England next!"

Pedro   Link to this

“And defeating them in their great contract with Spain for blacks”…I think again that this may be jumping the gun.

Not so according to the following around June when the Dutch Ambassador Van Gogh came to England…

VanGogh answered DeWitt that it was hopeless to think of inducing the English to return Cape Verde, in view of the preparations then in progress for carrying on trade to the west coast of Africa. He declared that already they were boasting in London that a contract was to be made with the Spanish for the delivery of 4,000 slaves per annum. As early as the middle of June the Royal Company had eight ships loading in London with goods worth 50,000 pounds destined for the Guinea coast.

The Journal of Negro History, Volume 4, 1919

cgs   Link to this

thanks for the follow up:

Harvey   Link to this

"Boat with two keels", ie catamaran. Pepys believed it would do well, and he was right as it proved much faster, and better to windward, than the best existing boats.

Ships of the era had poor ability to go to windward (sail closer than 90 degrees to the wind) and thus there was always the risk of being pushed onto a lee shore to destruction, or getting trapped in a bay hoping the anchor would not drag. In battle the ability to climb to windward was critical as the windward fleet could choose when to run downwind to attack and the leeward fleet had no choice but to accept battle when it arrived. Better windward ability also allowed a ship to climb back up to windward to safety if the battle was going badly.

Though apparently not recognised by anyone else, this was a major technological breakthrough by Petty, 250 years ahead of his time. Probably too far ahead to be acceptable by the traditionalists in power.

Capt. Petrus.S. Dorpmans   Link to this

22 December 1664.

For home-grown hemp, Francis Underwood had in 1661 with others taken a lease of several thousands of acres of reclaimed fen in the Bedford Level, where hemp might be grown.

"Lord Mordants in excuse of his going to sea-this late expedition, with the Duke of York".

Lord Mordaunt went to sea in November and returned on 7 December- the dates are estabilished by the dates of the prayers for him which his wife recorded in her diary:
The Diarie of Elizabeth Viscountess Mordaunt (ed.Earl of Roden), pp. 68, 72. The verses have not been traced. Pepys has a scathing reference to him as a good-for-nothing gentleman reformado in "Tangier Papers", p.120.

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