Monday 10 November 1662

Up betimes and to set my workmen to work, and then a little to the office, and so with Sir J. Minnes, Sir W. Batten, and myself by coach to White Hall, to the Duke, who, after he was ready, did take us into his closett. Thither come my Lord General Monk, and did privately talk with the Duke about having the life-guards pass through the City today only for show and to fright people, for I perceive there are great fears abroad; for all which I am troubled and full of doubt that things will not go well. He being gone, we fell to business of the Navy. Among other things, how to pay off this fleet that is now come from Portugall; the King of Portugall sending them home, he having no more use for them, which we wonder at, that his condition should be so soon altered. And our landmen also are coming back, being almost starved in that poor country. Having done here I went by my Lord Sandwich’s, who was not at home, and so to Westminster Hall, where full of term, and here met with many about business, among others my cozen Roger Pepys, who is all for a composition with my uncle Thomas, which upon any fair terms I am for also and desire it. Thence by water, and so by land to my Lord Crew’s, and dined with him and his brother, I know not his name; where very good discourse; among others, of France’s intention to make a patriarch of his own, independent from the Pope, by which he will be able to cope with the Spaniard in all councils, which hitherto he has never done. My Lord Crew told us how he heard my Lord of Holland say that, being Embassador about the match with the Queene-Mother that now is, the King of France1 insisted upon a dispensation from the Pope, which my Lord Holland making a question of, and that he was commanded to yield to nothing to the prejudice of our religion, says the King of France, “You need not fear that, for if the Pope will not dispense with the match, my Bishopp of Paris shall.” By and by come in great Mr. Swinfen, the Parliament-man, who, among other discourse of the rise and fall of familys, told us of Bishopp Bridgeman (brother of Sir Orlando) who lately hath bought a seat anciently of the Levers, and then the Ashtons; and so he hath in his great hall window (having repaired and beautified the house) caused four great places to be left for coates of armes. In one, he hath put the Levers, with this motto, “Olim.” In another the Ashtons, with this, “Heri.” In the next his own, with this, “Hodie.” In the fourth nothing but this motto, “Cras nescio cujus.” Thence towards my brother’s; met with Jack Cole in Fleet Street, and he and I went into his cozen Mary Cole’s (whom I never saw since she was married), and drank a pint of wine and much good discourse. I found him a little conceited, but he had good things in him, and a man may know the temper of the City by him, he being of a general conversation, and can tell how matters go; and upon that score I will encourage his acquaintance. Thence to my brother’s, and taking my wife up, carried her to Charing Cross, and there showed her the Italian motion, much after the nature of what I showed her a while since in Covent Garden. Their puppets here are somewhat better, but their motions not at all. Thence by coach to my Lady’s, and, hiding my wife with Sarah below, I went up and heard some musique with my Lord, and afterwards discoursed with him alone, and so good night to him and below, having sent for Mr. Creed, had thought to have shown my wife a play before the King, but it is so late that we could not, and so we took coach, and taking up Sarah at my brother’s with their night geare we went home, and I to my office to settle matters, and so home and to bed. This morning in the Duke’s chamber Sir J. Minnes did break to me his desire about my chamber, which I did put off to another time to discourse of, he speaking to me very kindly to make me the less trouble myself, hoping to save myself and to contrive something or other to pleasure him as well, though I know not well what. The town, I hear, is full of discontents, and all know of the King’s new bastard by Mrs. Haslerigge, and as far as I can hear will never be contented with Episcopacy, they are so cruelly set for Presbytery, and the Bishopps carry themselves so high, that they are never likely to gain anything upon them.

  1. Louis XIII., in 1624.

47 Annotations

Terry F   Link to this


Some of Latham & Matthews's several notes to this day's entry

"And our landmen also are coming back, being almost starved in that poor country."

L&M note: "Troops and ships had been sent this summer, under the terms of the marriage alliance, to help Portugal in her war of independence against Spain (1641-68). Alfonse VI, newly come to the throne in June, did not order them back, but made so many difficulties about port facilities and pay that the English government altered their decision to keep a squadron in winter station, and ordered Capt. Allin home. The Portuguese, emboldened by the withdrawal of two Spanish armies, hoped for a peace, and god two months' truce in December. As for the 'landmen', two of their commanders (Morgan and Inchiquin) had returned home; other officers were protesting against lack of pay and of good meat, and some troops deserted. But most remained to play a big part in late campaigns....Pepys's story of the solders' discontent perhaps derives from Inchiquin: 'he declared' (wrote the Venetian resident on 14/24 November) 'that the English who went are nearly all dead of hunger and...barbarous treatment...."

"France’s intention to make a patriarch of his own, independent from the Pope, by which he will be able to cope with the Spaniard in all councils, which hitherto he has never done"

L&M note: "At the end of August a quarrel over ambassadorial privileges had arisen between Louis XIV and Pope Alexander VII which was not composed until 1664....Both now and later, in the 1680's, rumours about the patriarchate were current, but never had much foundation in fact....The councils referred to are those of the church."

"says the King of France...."

L&M note: "The Earl of Holland (then Viscount Kensington) had shared with the Earl of Carlisle the conduct of these negotiations of 1624-5. Nothing in his dispatches...appears to confirm the statement here attributed to Louis XIII."

Bradford   Link to this

"the Italian motion"---these would be automatons. Can some industrious soul dig up the previous reference? I have to go devise some mottos for my storm windows.

Terry F   Link to this

"the Italian motion"

L&M note: "Cf. http://www.pepysdiary.com/diary/1662/05/09/ ...These puppet plays were given by an Italian, Antonio Devoto, in a wooden booth on waste ground near Whitehall, on a site now occupied by Le Sueur's statue of Charles I. By 'motion' Pepys may mean the manipulation of puppets or possibly the plays they acted...."

dirk on Tue 10 May 2005: “Thence to see an Italian puppet play”

History records that
“1662: May 9 - Samuel Pepys witnessed a Punch and Judy show in London; the first on record.”

http://who.knows-everything.com/1662

Bradford, that image should inspire mottos for your storm windows.

A. De Araujo   Link to this

"being almost starved in that poor country"
The wealth came a little later with the discovery of gold and diamonds in Brazil and it financed the industrial revolution in England.

Terry F   Link to this

I seems who.knows-everything.com no longer exists; but....

"In May of 1662 at London's Covent Garden, the famed diarist Samuel Pepys observed a Punch & Judy Show performed by an Italian Punchman named Signor Bologna. Pepys described the event in his diary: "...an Italian puppet play, that is within the rails there, which is very pretty, the best that I ever saw, and great resort of gallants." This event is considered the first written record of a Punch and Judy performance. A plaque in Covent Garden commemorates the event and can be seen today." http://www.punchandjudyworld.org/WWFPJ/PJhist.html

Has anyone here seen that plaque?

Australian Susan   Link to this

It's entries like these which make Sam's Diary the unique and amazing document it is! Full of national and international news,(Portugal and the state of the Church) but also small scale matters (Sam's law suit) and cultural matters (Italian puppet plays and the "play before the King)"and family life (comings and goings with Elizabeth, her maid and the clothes). I would love to know what Sam discussed with sandwich in private. Does anyone else think it odd that Sam could dine with someone and not know his name? Is this because Lord crew and his brother hosted the dinner, but there were many others present? And Sam did not get formally introduced? Note Sam's misgivings about the Church: he shows that there was much discontent about the re-establishment of episcopacy in the Church and Sam thinks there will be an overthrow of the Bishops, who have been proud and tactless since their re-instatement.

Terry F   Link to this

Punch and Judy - to clarify

"May 9, 1662 is reckoned the birthday of Mr. Punch, for that was the first time the diarist Samuel Pepys observed a Punch and Judy show near St. Paul's Church in London's Covent Garden. It was performed by an Italian Punchman, Pietro Gimonde operating as "Signor Bologna". Pepys described the event in his diary: "...an Italian puppet play, that is within the rails there, which is very pretty, the best that I ever saw, and great resort of gallants." This is considered the first written record of a Punch and Judy performance. Pepys went back several more times and continued to be amused. The Punch he saw was a marionette not a glove-puppet, and worked his show within a tent." http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Punch_and_Judy

Indeed, a marionette moves like an automaton, putting up storm windows in season -- been one, done that.

dirk   Link to this

The Latin mottos:

olim = once (upon a time)
heri = yesterday
hodie = today
cras = tomorrow

Cras nescio cuius = tomorrow, I don't know for whom...

CGS   Link to this

or as Alice be mis quoted, doth say "jam yesterday , jam to morrow ,but there no jam now"

Paul Chapin   Link to this

Would that be window jams you refer to, CGS?

OzStu   Link to this

Does anyone else think it odd that Sam could dine with someone and not know his name?

I wondered at that, but put it down to the common human failing (particularly a male one I believe) of being unable to remember the name of someone you've just been introduced to.

Terry F   Link to this

The "no name" is a brother of Lord Crew’s, so no sweat, no threat: L&M note that Lord Crew “had three brothers: Thomas (of Crawley, Hunts.), Nathaniel (of Gray’s Inn), and Salathiel (of Hinton, Northants.)"

Pedro   Link to this

For the King of Portugal read Castello Melhor...(Please ignore if not interested in Portuguese History or long entries).

The King of Portugal, Afonso

Sam's entry on the 19th November 1662 mentions the King of Portugal sending the fleet and landmen back to England, but in reality this should read the Conde de Castello Melhor who is virtually running the country. Perhaps drawing together some points together may be of interest.

On the death of Catherine's father D.Joao, and her elder brother Teodosio in 1653, Afonso became heir to the throne at the age of 10 years. The Courts were divided as to whether to confirm this succession due to his health (discussed above) and his behaviour problems. Some hesitated but it was decided that, in those days of struggle against Spain, that a King must exist, and so Catherine's mother D. Luisa became Queen Regent. Although being of Spanish origin, she was well respected and considered one of the driving forces behind her husbands decision to lead the rebellion in 1640.

Luisa chose the Conde de Odemira to govern the King, but this was a thankless task, and by the time Odemira died in 1661 he had become ungovernable. The King spent most of his time riding, coursing bulls, and watching cock and dog fights, although it is said that he had a most prodigious memory. He had taken to roaming the streets with the "lower order" people in the Square, especially with a gang led by one Antonio Conti, of Italian origin. Conti was given many favours by the King and assumed the air of the Royal Favourite, even setting himself up with rooms in the Palace. Some factions in the Court sided with the King for their own interests.

Meanwhile Luisa was doing her best to cement alliances, for the benefit of Portugal, by the marriage of her daughter Catherine. She had tried to stand aside from the differences in the Court, but things had got so bad in 1659 that the balance of power that she maintained was being destroyed. She threatened to resign the Regency, in the hope that it would bring the factions together, and as she was urged not to do so by many, it seems to have worked.

After successfully agreeing the marriage treaty with England in 1662, she must have felt that her job had been completed, and she was tired of the enormous pressures that had been thrust upon her. In June she announced that she would resign in two months. In response the factions favouring Afonso's younger brother Pedro, agreed to remove Conti and ship him off to Brazil, and Luisa appealed to her son to prepare for government, and to refrain from unscrupulous company. He took no interest at all.

After the removal of Conti, the leader of another faction Conde de Castello Melhor saw his chance to move. He told Afonso that the same fate awaited him, and that he should go to Alcantara where a force was waiting for his defence. From there he advised Afonso to announce his takeover of the government, but in effect Castello Melhor alone had access to the King and issued orders and decrees in his name. Catherine's mother retired to a convent, and he purged the Court of his enemies and held power for 5 years.

andy   Link to this

Sir J. Minnes did break to me his desire about my chamber, ...hoping... to contrive something or other to pleasure him....

Sam's looking to do a deal. Does Minnes really want the chamber, or is he just winding Sam up because he can, or is there something else he wants?

Jeannine   Link to this

Thank you Terry and Pedro for filling in alot of gaps.... but question of the day to all... do you think that Sam's life would have been better off if he also had a copy of the L&M Companion with him so he could figure out the details of himself,his world and the world around him?? Alas, we'd be lost without it.

Ruben   Link to this

To CGS:
“salt yesterday , salt to morrow ,but there no salt now”

Ruben   Link to this

Thank you Terry and Pedro
If I know my geography, Alcantara is today a border town in Spain. Does it mean that it was then in Portuguese hands, or the King went really "abroad"?

Pedro   Link to this

Alcantara.

Apologies for the confusion, it appears to be a district of Lisbon see...

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alc%C3%A2ntara,_Li...

Ruben   Link to this

Alcantara
If our Alcantara is the same Lisbon district as today, then it is a 10 minutes walk from the Royal Palace that was standing in what is now the Praza do Comercio (and destroyed during the tsunami cum fire a hundred years later). Not far really.

Pedro   Link to this

"he having no more use for them, which we wonder at, that his condition should be so soon altered"

I can understand Sam's confusion here, but I think there may be an explanation for the fleet, in the fact that the Castello Melhor realizes that the battles with Spain will be on land in the future, and not during the coming winter. Persumeably he would not argue with the decision and may save money to try to make the payments of the Dowry. .

Portugal had gained independence from Spain in 1640 under Catherine's father D.Joao IV, and since that time had been fighting to keep it. There had been, up to 1657, engagements ranging from skirmishes to all out mobilisation, and periods, such as 46 to 56, of relative calm. D.Joao had died in 1656, and before him his eldest son Teodosio, which left Afonso as the heir at 13 years old.

When Sandwich handed Tangier over to Peterborough, he had been joined by Mennes and Lawson. He then sailed for Lisbon, and on reaching the Med he decided that he had such superiority over the Dutch that he could send Lawson back to Algiers. The Spanish and others were massing for a naval attack on Lisbon, but the sight of the English fleet put paid to any further attack from the sea, with great rejoicing in Lisbon.

From 1657 the battles became more intense with wins and losses for both sides. In 1659 Spain and France signed Treaty of the Pyrenees, leaving Portugal, in theory, exposed to the full force of Spain. For France the peace was tactical. One of her best Generals, Schomberg, was directed to Portugal to direct the war against Spain, and an important part of the forces he was to command was to consist of ex-cromwellian troops paid for by the Portuguese.

In 1660 D. Joao of Austria invaded and managed to take some major cities, and in May 1662 he nearly managed to reach the gates of Lisbon. Conde de Castello Melhor (who would be the one with power during the reign of Afonso from 1662) organised the forces to repel D. Joao. The long hot summer and the fevers of 1662 in the Alentejo, had forced D. Joao to retreat.

Robert Gertz   Link to this

"...hiding my wife with Sarah..." In order to avoid having her called up to my lady Jem and missing any chance of that play? Or is Sam now obliged to previously announce the matter when bringing his wife due to Montague's (or his own) position in the State and dodged the folderol?

language hat   Link to this

Phil:
The "Lord of Holland" link goes to the wrong page; should go here:
http://www.pepysdiary.com/encyclopedia/1179/

language hat   Link to this

There's only one l in Castelo.
I point this out not to be picky but because it makes it easier to look him up (as I just did) if you have the correct spelling. From the Britannica:

Luiz de Vasconcelos e Sousa, 3rd count de Castelo Melhor
born 1636, died August 15, 1720

Portuguese royal favourite who, as effective governor of Portugal from 1662 to 1667 during the reign of Afonso VI, was responsible for the successful prosecution of the war against Spain, which led, in 1668, to Spanish recognition of Portugal's independence.

http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-9020692

Glyn   Link to this

Terry F: the plaque is on the left side of the church, where the buskers perform and immediately opposite the Punch and Judy pub. Perhaps someone could add a picture of it to the picture gallery:

http://www.smartgroups.com/pictures/openalbum.c...

It's a pity that we'll never know which tavern in Fleet Street it was that Pepys and Jack and Mary Cole met for some glasses of wine. I'd like to think that it was the Cheshire Cheese.

Jeannine   Link to this

Castelo Melhor..tidbits for the future-SPOLIERS but not applicable to Sam.

1. During the Popish Plots Castel Melhor will stand beside and advise Queen Catherine as a steadfast friend and advisor. His letters back and forth to Portugal will provide some insight into the frightening situation that she will be faced with.

2. While Charles is at his deathbed, Castel Melhor will be attending to Catherine. When James, etc. is scrambling to find an English speaking priest (her group will all be of her native tongue) it will be Castel Melhor who will come up with and find Father Huddleston, who will perform Charles' documented conversion into the Catholic Church.

3. When Castel Melhor returns to Portugal, out of friendship he will name his home in honor of Catherine.

4. Although unable to attend her furneral due to his age, etc. his brother will represent the family.

A lifelong "friend" to the Portuguse cause and one of the few and most steadfast friends that Catherine will have.

Terry F   Link to this

Re "seat anciently of the Levers"
L&M note: "John Bridgman (d. 1652), Bishop of Chester (father, not brother of Orlando [see the Encyclopedia http://www.pepysdiary.com/encyclopedia/1427/ ]), had in 1629 bought Great Lever Hall, near Bolton, Lancs., once owned by the Asshetons [sic]. He rebuilt the Hall and built a chapel, but the glass mentioned by Pepys no longer survives. The mottoes are not unique...."

Pedro   Link to this

What’s in a name?

Mr. Hat you highlight an interesting problem in the use of names. A problem similar to this came up with the Portuguese Ambassador, and I presume the name in question has probably been changed over time?

The name that I quoted in the annotations above was taken from the book by Francisco da Silveira de Vasconcellos e Souza…
O Ministro de D. Afonso VI….(being)…Luis de Vasconcellos e Souza 3rd Conde de Castello Melhor.

This book also contains a number of letters written back to Portugal during his exile in England, and the reproduction at the end of the letters is Castello. However other Portuguese writers use Castelo Melhor, but I am not too sure at all about the use of Luiz by Britannica. I have a feeling that this maybe the Spanish version of Luis, and in which case the old Count would not be happy!

In future I will try to find the most accepted version for others to research.

A. Hamilton   Link to this

Of "l"s and "ll"s

To quote Ogden Nash,

A one-L lama is a priest.
A two-L llama is a beast.
But I will bet a silk pajama
There isn't any three-L lllama.

I refrain from quoting the footnote attached to this poem.

A. Hamilton   Link to this

among other discourse of the rise and fall of familys

How nice of Sam to extract from this stream of gossip the delightful tale of Bishop Bridgman's renovations and wry
comment on mutability.

Pauline   Link to this

Salathiel Crews
Perhaps it was this brother, and Sam is unfamiliar with the name and didn't quite get it--or even just didn't want to try spelling it.

Yet, it may not have been unusual to him.

language hat   Link to this

Pedro: I should have said "modern," not "correct."
It's silly to talk about "correct spellings" for the 17th century! I'm sure he and his contemporaries spelled it both ways, and probably the same goes for Luis/Luiz.

CGS   Link to this

re: double 'll: it be popular in English in the 17th Centurie too, so if ye want the lateft modern verfions then the unmarried verfion be good, but to find old texts then one has to use the ll verfion, similiar with the I. vs Y or U versus V, and any all other ways of writing the pronunciation of the times. 8n't that be rite.
Of course there be the Celtic and the Iberian versions to add to the awkward mouthings.
Then there be 'our' vs 'ur" as once said, we be divided by a COMMON language. Then there be the literal computer to keep us on our toes.
Writing of words that be confusing : Jam, it be Preserves in some localities.

Bradford   Link to this

40 Curses. I know I have seen a "motion" defined as an automaton, but apparently not in Pepys; the Large Glossary in the Companion cites this passage for "puppet play." Or maybe I just think the word better describes an automaton than a marionette. Pardon.

Australian Susan   Link to this

Portugeuse does not use "z" , Spanish does. The Portugeuse get tetchy if one tries to substitute a z for an s. Even today. I used to work with someone whose name I initially spelt with a "z", but I only made the mistake once! The name was Dias. He could be quite Anti-Spanish!

language hat   Link to this

True today, but maybe not in the 17th century.

A. De Araujo   Link to this

"was responsible for the succesful prosecution of the war against Spain"
Affonso VI came down to History as " O Vitorioso"

Peter   Link to this

Portuguese doesn't use "z"? Tell that to someone from Belo Horizonte!

Terry F   Link to this

The family here called Braganza was Bragança in Portugal: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Portugal

Pedro   Link to this

Affonso VI came down to History as “O Vitorioso”.

It is interesting that the inept monarch could manage in history the nickname of the “Victorious”. While lesser acknowledgements go to Catherine’s mother for her diplomacy and courage after her husband’s death. Even less acknowledgement to Castelo Melhor for his military organization of the defence of the country, seizing power and leading virtually them to the point where Spain had to make peace.

Xjy   Link to this

Inept monarchs
Castelo Melhor would have done better (heh) to usurp the throne, of course. It's the same in business. Mr Ford doesn't build the cars, but gets the credit and the biographies.
I wonder what soubriquet our own Charles the Patient will be blessed with?

language hat   Link to this

"Castelo Melhor would have done better (heh)"
As Xjy implies, Castelo Melhor means 'Castle Better'; this page (where you can see a picture of the town by that name) says it was so called because there was a Castelo Bom 'Castle Good' in the region:
http://www.cm-fozcoa.pt/php/concelho/freguesias...

inaquascripto   Link to this

He who gets to be in charge of the Press and allies writes 'istory. Tis always with a pinch of salt one reads any topic bar Mathematiquics and doubt be good when it be economic theory.

Paul Dyson   Link to this

Bishopp Bridgman bought his hall in Great Lever, nowadays part of urban Bolton, Greater Manchester (or Lancashire as is sometimes preferred). There is a Bridgeman Street and an Orlando Bridge, as well as a CofE primary school named after him. His descendants included Earls of Bradford who still own a great deal of the land roundabout and are commemorated in Bradford Road and Newport Street. I wonder what, if any, conception Sam had of Bolton and the North West with its small and insignificant towns far from London. He never seems to have travelled further north than Huntingdon.

Pedro   Link to this

“I wonder what, if any, conception Sam had of Bolton and the North West with its small and insignificant towns far from London.”

This question had interested me for some time. Some facts from Pickard’s Restoration London…

Englands population is 5 million.
The total population of the 5 major provincial cities, Norwich, Bristol, Newcastle, York and Exeter was only 80,000.
300,000 people, one sixteenth of the population, lived in London.
In the known world only Paris and Constantinople were bigger, and they were flagging, and London was bigger in 1700 and 1750.

So London is an ideal place for Sam! I feel that other places would be far from his mind, unless they had any naval influences.

Phil Gyford   Link to this

I've corrected the "Lord Holland" link -- it was going to the correct page (for the 1st Earl of Holland) but that page had the wrong name, "Rich" rather than "Sir Henry".

pedro   Link to this

“And our landmen also are coming back, being almost starved in that poor country. “

The troops sent to Portugal were termed auxiliary forces, enabling a state to help another without committing itself to a formal declaration of war against that state’s enemies, and without being involved in the expense of keeping a standing army.

Charles bore the expenses of recruiting, arming and transporting to Portugal, but once landed their pay was the responsibility of the King of Portugal. Portuguese countrymen did not welcome foreign troops, and the Portuguese government had been forced to issue proclamations to the effect that the Church was forbidden to protect citizens murdering or wounding Englishmen.

The troops were treated abominably, and Fanshawe told the King that they were being shown invincible apathy. The troops’ pay had not been specified in the Treaty, and after seven months they had only received one month’s pay, and their numbers were reduced to 250 horse and 1400 foot by death and desertion. (Originally 3000)

(Summary from LME Shaw...The Anlo-Portuguese Alliance.)

marc   Link to this

Re one l or two lls in Castello; at this point has Castilian developed to the point that ll is a distinct letter in the abecedarium? I don't know the hows and whens of the separation of the Portuguese from the Spanish but it may be that this process has something to do with how Castelo spelt his name.

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