By Jeannine Kerwin

Biographies and Portraits

Elizabeth Pepys, as beautifully depicted by artist James Thomson, after John Hayls here, as “immortalized” at St. Olave’s here and eulogized here, was the wife of Samuel Pepys. She was the daughter of Alexandre and Dorothea St. Michel, and a sister to Balty. Elizabeth was born 23 October 1640 at or around Bideford. Details of her childhood and life after the Diary are quite limited but presented here.

It is not known how Sam and Elizabeth met, but Elizabeth’s beauty and charm evoked such passion in Sam that the couple married when Elizabeth was 15 years old. Shortly after their marriage, but prior to the Diary, the couple had unspecified differences and separated for several months. It is believed that Sam’s jealousy, an issue that would continue for him throughout the Diary, was the cause of this split. By the start of the Diary, the two were reunited and living in Axe Yard.

Elizabeth in the Diary

Elizabeth’s role in the Diary is seen solely through the eyes of Sam as none of her letters survive. The marriage was not “smooth” for either of them. Periods of jealousy appeared on both sides. Sam was unfaithful to Elizabeth and although there was no indication that she was ever unfaithful to him, he often let his jealousy get the best of him, as seen during the months of her dancing classes with Mr. Pembleton. In spite of any jealousy, Sam’s intense feelings of love for Elizabeth were also evoked from time to time, as seen during a sudden illness, which caused such a fear in Sam that he wrote “I thought she would have died, and so in great horror, and having a great tryall of my true love and passion for her”. The couple also shared warm and tender moments together, and Sam truly missed her when they were apart.

Elizabeth’s health was an ongoing issue throughout the Diary. She often suffered from a recurring abscess, believed to be a Bartholin’s cyst, which often made sexual relations difficult for the couple. The couple had no children, and the cause of the infertility could easily have been Sam’s, perhaps due to his operation to remove his stone. Sam never fathered any children with any of his mistresses during his lifetime.

For the sake of spoilers, it is up to the readers of the Diary to assess the relationship as based on Sam’s perspective. Further details of their relationship during the Diary years will not be presented here.

Elizabeth After the Diary

Shortly after the Diary ended, Elizabeth and Sam traveled together to Paris with her brother Balty. In preparation for that trip Sam and his friend John Evelyn exchanged letters regarding Sam’s upcoming travels. The following three letters are excerpts from Howarth’s book, which is cited below. In his letter to Sam dated 21 August 1669, John shared with Sam some wonderful “must see” locations.

“Pray forget not to visit the Taille-Douce shops, and make Collection of what they have excellent, especially the Draughts of their Palaces, Churches, and Gardens, and the particulars you will have seen; they will greatly refresh you in your Study, and by the fire side, when you are many years return’d. Israel, Sylvestre, Morin, Chaveau, are great Masters, both for things of the kind extant, and Inventions extreamly pleasant. You will easily be acquainted with the best Painters, especially LeBrun, who is chief of them; and it would not be amiss to be present at their Acadamie., in which Monsieur du Bosse (a principal member) will conduct you. For the rest, I recommend you to God’s Almighty Protectio; augure you in a happy journey, and kissing you Lady’s Hands remain,

Sir, Your most humble and obedient Servant J. Evelyn

It is not know exactly what itinerary Sam and Elizabeth followed on their trip. The letter below from Sam to John was sent shortly after Sam’s return home and offers his apologies for not getting back to John sooner to thank him for his much appreciated advice. Upon their return home Elizabeth developed a severe fever. This letter, dated 2 November 1669, to a close and personal friend, captures the severity of Elizabeth’s illness and shows the emotional impact on Sam as he faced fears of her death.

SIR. I beg you to believe that I would not have been tens days returned into England without waiting on you, had it not pleased God to afflict mee by the sickness of my wife., who, from the first day of her coming back to London, hath layn under a fever so severe as at this hour to render her recoverie desperate; which affliction hath very much unfitted me for those acts of civilities and respect which, amongst the first of my friends, I should have paid to yourselfe, as he to whom singly I owe the much greater part of the satisfaction I have met with in my late voyage. Next to you, I have my acknowledgements to make to Sir Samuel Tuke, to whom (when in a condition of doing it) I shall beg your introducing me, for the owning of my obligations to him on the like behalfe. But, Sir, I beg you heartily to dispense with the ceremonie, till I am better qualified for paying it; and in the meane time receive the enclosed, which I should with much more satisfaction have delivered with my owne hand.

I am, Sir Your most obliged and obedient Servant. S. Pepys

I most humbly kiss you ladies hands, and pray my service may be presented to Sir Richard Browne [John Evelyn’s Father-in-law, the diplomatist]

Elizabeth died on November 10, 1669. Sam did not attend any Navy Board activities for approximately 3-4 weeks. A selection from a belated letter which Sam sent to Captain Elliot dated 3 May 1669-70, to thank him for supporting him in his unsuccessful election contest some 4 months later follows. It gives an indication of the extent of the emotional impact of Sam’s loss.

CAPTAIN ELLIOT, I beg you earnestly to believe that nothing but the sorrow and distraction I have been in by the death of my wife, increased by the suddenness with which it pleased God to surprise me with therewith, after a voyage so full of health and content, could have forced me to so long a neglect of my private concernments; this being, I do assure you, the very first day that my affliction, together with my daily attendance on other public occasions of his Majesty’s, has suffered me to apply myself to the considering any part of my private concernments; among which, that of my doing right to you is no small particular: and therefore, as your charity will, I hope, excuse me for my not doing it sooner, so I pray you to accept now, as late as it is, my hearty thanks for your multiplied kindness in my late affair at Aldborough,……”

Although Sam did have a future long-term relationship with Mary Skinner, he never remarried. Sam commissioned a monument, a bust of Elizabeth to be made and placed in St. Olave’s facing the Navy Pew, where it remains today. Upon his death in 1703, and at his instruction, Sam was laid to rest beside his wife.

Resources for the above Article

  • Letters and the Second Diary of Samuel Pepys edited by R.G. Howarth. All of the letters presented above are from Howarth’s book.
  • The Diary of Samuel Pepys Companion compiled and edited by Robert Latham

Additional Background

Editor’s Note

This summary includes links to pictures provided by this site’s Glyn and Graham T. Their wonderful photography skills are very much appreciated.


This text was copied from Wikipedia on 25 March 2015 at 6:13PM.

Edward Montagu, 1st Earl of Sandwich, Portrait of Edward Montagu by Peter Lely, ca. 1660-65.

Edward Montagu, 1st Earl of Sandwich, KG FRS (27 July 1625 – 28 May 1672) was an English Infantry officer who later became a naval officer and a politician who sat in the House of Commons at various times between 1645 and 1660.


Montagu was the only surviving son of Sir Sidney Montagu, by his wife Paulina Pepys of Cottenham (great-aunt of Samuel Pepys) and was brought up at Hinchingbrooke House.

He served the Cause of Parliament by raising a regiment of infantry in June 1643. In 1645, he was elected Member of Parliament for Huntingdonshire as a recruiter to the Long Parliament.[1] He was nominated MP for Huntingdonshire in 1653 for the Barebones Parliament and was elected MP for Huntingdonshire in 1654 for the First Protectorate Parliament. He continued to serve in the army for the Commonwealth of England and, in 1656 he became a General at Sea. In 1656 he was re-elected MP for Huntingdonshire in the Second Protectorate Parliament.[1]

Sir Edward Montagu, 1st Earl of Sandwich, 1625–1672 by Sir Peter Lely, painted 1666, part of the Flagmen of Lowestoft series.

In 1660 Montagu was elected MP for Dover and Weymouth and Melcombe Regis and chose to sit for Dover in the Convention Parliament.[1] At the Restoration he served Charles II as Admiral, commanding the fleet that brought him back from exile in May 1660. Two months later, on 12 July 1660, he was created Baron Montagu of St Neots, Viscount Hinchingbrooke, and Earl of Sandwich. King Charles also made him a Knight of the Garter and appointed him Master of the Great Wardrobe, Admiral of the narrow seas (the English Channel), and Lieutenant Admiral to The Duke of York, Lord High Admiral of England. He carried St. Edward's staff at Charles' subsequent coronation.

In the Second Anglo-Dutch War of 1665 to 1667 he fought at the Battle of Lowestoft but defeat at the Battle of Vågen led to him being removed from service. During his absence from battle Edward Montagu served as England's ambassador to Spain. After the Great Fire of London Montagu downplayed the damage to the Spanish King claiming that London's slums were the only thing in ashes. This slant on the events was also practiced by England's ambassadors throughout Europe.[2] He was subsequently reappointed however, and by 1672 at the start of the Third Anglo-Dutch War he was Vice-Admiral of the Blue with the Royal James as his flagship. At the Battle of Solebay his ship was attacked by a group of fire ships and was destroyed with the loss of many lives, including Sandwich himself, whose charred body was found washed ashore and only recognizable from the remains of his clothing.

On Wednesday 3 July 1672 he was buried in Westminster Abbey after a state funeral that started with a procession along the River Thames of five decorated barges from Deptford. The body was landed at Westminster at about 5 pm and carried to the Abbey in a grand procession.


On 7 November 1642, Montagu married Jemima Crew, daughter of John Crew, 1st Baron Crew, whom Pepys in his Diary refers to with great affection as "My Lady", and by whom he had ten children:

Montagu was the first cousin of the father of Samuel Pepys. Pepys started his career as a minor member of the Montagu household and owed his appointments first to the Wardrobe and then as Clerk of the Acts to the Navy Board to Montagu's influence. Pepys' diary provides a detailed primary source for Montagu's career in the 1660s.


London Gazette #691 Monday 1 July, to Thursday 4 July 1672

External links

Court offices
English Interregnum Master of the Great Wardrobe
Succeeded by
Sir Ralph Montagu
Honorary titles
English Interregnum Lord Lieutenant of Huntingdonshire
jointly with The 2nd Earl of Manchester 1660–1671
The 3rd Earl of Manchester 1671–1672
Succeeded by
The 3rd Earl of Manchester
Custos Rotulorum of Huntingdonshire
Diplomatic posts
Preceded by
Sir Richard Fanshawe, 1st Baronet
English Ambassador to Spain
Succeeded by
Robert Spencer, 2nd Earl of Sunderland
Peerage of England
New title Earl of Sandwich
Succeeded by
Edward Montagu

1893 text

Sir Edward Montagu, born 1625, son of Sir Sidney Montagu, by Paulina, daughter of John Pepys of Cottenham, married Jemima, daughter of John Crew of Stene. He died in action against the Dutch in Southwold Bay, May 28th, 1672.

This text comes from a footnote on a diary entry in the 1893 edition edited by Henry B. Wheatley.

28 Annotations

Phil  •  Link

Pepys and Edward Montagu/Mountagu are distant relations and attended the same school at Huntingdon, although several years apart. Montagu was a supporter of Oliver Cromwell and attained high positions within the Admiralty.

Pepys' first job in London was working for Montagu from some time in the 1650s. He and his wife lodged at Montagu's house and Pepys managed the household, particularly during the many occasions Montagu was at sea. Even after finding employment elsewhere, Pepys continued to perform some administrative duties for him.

David Gurliacci  •  Link

Montagu as of Jan. 1, 1660:

One of Cromwell's young colonels in the Civil War, Montagu broke with extremists in the army in 1648 but became a member of Parliament in 1653. Later that year he was made a "councillor of state" in the government.

Montagu had supported every proposal to make the protectorate hereditary and even the radical proposal to make Cromwell king. He also supported Cromwell's son, Richard, when he became protector.

When Richard fell from power in 1659, Montagu "distanced himself, in common with many other moderates, from the revolutionary cause," Robert Latham writes in his introduction to "The Shorter Pepys," a 1990 abridgement of the diary.

In the spring or summer of 1659 Montagu communicated with agents of Charles II. Montagu was suspected of disloyalty to the government and by winter he had retired to his country estate, Hinchingbrooke. Pepys remained in charge of his affairs in London.

Michael Fryer  •  Link

Edward Montagu was born on 27 July 1625 at Barnwell, Northamptonshire, and was admitted to the Middle Temple in 1635. He was commissioned to raise a regiment of 1,000 men for the Parliamentary forces in 1643, and was present at the siege of Lincoln as well as the Battles of Marston Moor and Naseby. After sitting as MP for Weymouth periodically from 1645 onwards and holding office in the Lord Protector's administration, he came to favour the Royalists after Richard Cromwell's fall and helped bring about the Restoration. For his services he was created a Knight of the Garter as well as being ennobled as Baron Montagu of Saint Neots, Viscount Hinchingbrooke and Earl of Sandwich in 1660. He was Master of the Great Wardrobe until 1670, and distinguished himself as a naval commander against the Dutch throughout the 1660s, before losing his life, probably by drowning, when his flagship was attacked by fireships at the Battle of Solebay on 28 May 1672. He is buried in Henry VII's Chapel in Westminster Abbey.

David Quidnunc  •  Link

Montagu to Pepys, Pepys to Montagu, 1650s

Claire Tomalin's biography quotes these snippets from Montagu's "short and sharp" letters to Pepys in 1656 when Montagu was asea. The quotes give some flavor of the relationship (although it must certainly have had other aspects and must have changed over time):

-- ". . . my Servant Samuell Pepys at my Lodginges in Whitehalle"

-- "You are upon sight hereoff . . ."

-- "Hereoff you are not to faile"

Some quotes from Pepys to Montagu:

-- "your Honour"

-- "my honoured maister"

-- "My Lord"

All the above is from Tomalin's "Samuel Pepys: The Unequalled Self" p. 6.

Later, in December 1657, Pepys's job includes managing Montagu's servants at Whitehall, and Pepys was in trouble when a maid got married without getting Montagu's permission (something Pepys was also guilty of). Tomalin reports (p. 59) that "immediate forgiveness was not forthcoming" from Montagu to Pepys, so Pepys wrote this in a letter dated Dec. 26:

"The losse of your Honours good word I am too sure will prove as much my undoing, as hitherto it hath beene my best friend."

Al Barrs  •  Link

My ancestrial grand fathers rented strip farm land from Lord Mongagu in the 1600s and 1700s south of Dunchurch around a small village known as Toft Hamlet Warwickshire England. Their names were Abraham Barrs and his son John Barrs. They were prominent farmers there as was their ancestors and descendants. They paid hearth tax on 3 hearths during the 1600 period of the hearth tax.

S. Spoelstra  •  Link

Will of Elisabeth Montague 1618

According to this will I came across at

Paulina Pepys was the trusted servant of Elisabeth Montague , witness to her will, who subsequently married Sidney, Edwards' father ?

"Item I give to Paulina Pepis now my woman and careful servant fifty pounds, the bed wherein she usually lies with the canopy and the rest of the furniture which belongs thereto and two pair of sheets out of the Iron bound chest which stands by the press in the chamber and the little black coffer also which stands in my 'cosett' with such trifles as are in it."

Phil Rodgers  •  Link

It should perhaps also be mentioned that this is not the Earl of Sandwich credited with the invention of the popular eponymous food item. Around 100 years have still to pass before the Fourth Earl invents the sandwich in 1762, to avoid interrupting a gambling game.

Pedro.  •  Link

Montagu's Movements.

Interested in the movements of Montagu since he left the English shores, to settle business in Algier, to secure Tangier ready for the handover, and to bring over the new Queen, I have tried to draw together Sam's comments. On the 26 Aug he received a letter dated 22 July, and so perhaps we could assume a months delay? I am wondering whether Sam receives some of the letters out of sequence and records them as they arrive, as taken in order they do not make sense.
I would think that Montagu would first sail through the Straits and settle the business in Algier. He may have had to call at Alicante first, where he was taken sick, or maybe he went there because he was sick? After Algier he seems to go back through the Straits and up to Lisbon. Sam says that this is to bring over the Queen, but Tangier has not yet been secured.

10 June 61:Early to my Lord's, who privately told me how the King had made him Embassador in the bringing over the Queen. That he is to go to Algier, &c., to settle the business, and to put the fleet in order there; and so to come back to Lisbone with three ships, and there to meet the fleet that is to follow him
(12 June) where I met my Lord, who told me he must have 300l. laid out in cloth, to give in Barbary, as presents among the Turks.
(13 June) (Montagu sails) So went and Captain Ferrers with me into our wherry, and my Lord did give five guns, all they had charged, which was the greatest respect my Lord could do me, and of which I was not a little proud. So with a sad and merry heart I left them sailing pleasantly from Erith, hoping to be in the Downs tomorrow early.
(7 Aug) but no news yet from my Lord where he is.
(12 Aug) and more for my Lord Sandwich himself, whom we are now confirmed is sick ashore at Alicante,
(26th Aug) At night at home I found a letter from my Lord Sandwich, who is now very well again of his feaver, but not yet gone from Alicante, where he lay sick, and was twice let blood. This letter dated the 22nd July last, which puts me out of doubt of his being ill.
(31 Aug) My Lord Sandwich in the Straits and newly recovered of a great sickness at Alicante.
(24th Sep) and letters from sea, that speak of my Lord's being well, and his action, though not considerable of any side, at Argier.
(27th Sep) come with some grapes and millons from my Lord at Lisbon, the first that ever I saw any, and my wife and I eat some, and took some home; but the grapes are rare things
(30th Sep) where we are now very busy about the business of sending forces to Tangier, and the fleet to my Lord of Sandwich, who is now at Lisbon to bring over the Queen, who do now keep a Court as Queen of England. The business of Argier hath of late troubled me, because my Lord hath not done what he went for, though he did as much as any man in the world could have done.
(7th Nov) I met with letters at home from my Lord from Lisbone, which speak of his being well; and he tells me he had seen at the court there the day before he wrote this letter, the Juego de Toro.1
(28th Nov) some letters from my Lord Sandwich, from Tangier; where he continues still, and hath done some execution upon the Turks, and retaken an Englishman from them, of one Mr. Parker's, a merchant in Marke-lane
(25th Jan) with letters from my Lord Sandwich, speaking of his lying still at Tangier, looking for the fleet; which, we hope, is now in a good way thither.

Pedro  •  Link

Montagu's Movements.

Summary from Richard Ollard's "Cromwell's Earl".

June 13th Sandwich sails straight for the Med.
July 4th Anchored off Malaga. Set off for Algiers but was struck down with fever. Off Alicante the fleet hove to and he was sent ashore. One week later he was well enough to return to the ship.
July 23rd Voyage resumed.
July 29th Arrived at Algiers. After a council of war, he sent demands to the Algerians. They were refused as they said the death of Cromwell had abrogated Blake's treaty. The weather favoured defence and the fleet stood of to wait for better weather. One week later he left for Lisbon with 5 ships, leaving Lawson with 10 ships of the line, to make as much nuisance of himself as he could.
Sep 6th He arrives at Lisbon, and stays for 4 weeks. Soon after arriving he receives the news of a substantial success gained by Lawson against the Algerians. Two merchant ships and two men of war had been captured and another driven ashore. Lawson is sent orders to join him in Tangier Bay. A few days before leaving he goes to the Bullfight.
Oct 3rd Sails for Tangier
Oct 10th Anchored in Tangier Bay.

Pedro  •  Link

The Bullfight.

Ollard and the Portuguese writer Casimiro both give description of the bullfight taken from Sandwich's Journal. Ollard mentions this in his biography, but only draws a few lines, and says that Sandwich reveals more of a talent as a fashion correspondent that that of a sports reporter. I find this a little strange as Casimiro, quoting from the same source, gives a much longer description. This of course is translated into Portuguese, and I translate back again, so sorry Sandy if there are a few errors!

The show started with the entrance of a carriage with water, men and horses all in green, to water the arena and dampen down the dust. Following, various people grotesquely dressed in old fashioned costumes, with Guitars, rebecas, and tambourines, danced and circled in games and companies of artists.

The Administrator of the City, on horseback, a splendid steed, came under the window of the King, awaiting his orders. Accompanying him were twelve men in coloured jackets, mid-green, the other six in yellow.

Those in green, under orders from the King untied the first bull, injuring him with harpoons, forcing it to run about them, and dodging it, throwing their capes over its horns. Men with stakes also provoked it, and if it was chasing them, straightened the stakes and stopped it.

The yellow jackets, when the bull was to be killed, went to it, and the first holding the middle of the horns and the others soon after immobilising it, cutting its hocks and killing it. After, came six horses covered in green fabric, with coachmen and footmen, who tied a rope to its horns and dragged it out of the arena.

After three or four bulls were tired or killed by the footmen there was another let out and the Conde de Sarzedas came in upon a fine well-ranged horse, having seventy four lackeys came in before him, half in red liveries with silver lace, half in green with silver lace.

He advanced directly to the royal platform, retreated and advanced three times greeting the King of Portugal and the Queen of England. Afterwards he went, in a serious and serene pace, in search of the bull. When the bull ran around the horse, the Count picked up a spear from the hands of a foot soldier and buried it between the horns of the animal at the nape of the neck, breaking it, and, each time that the bull came he did the same. Three or four times he went out to change mounts. They killed in total thirteen bulls that afternoon.

When all the bulls had been killed, the Count came again to greet the King and Queen, and has had been done at the start, and went out. The dances started again and the feast ended at sundown.

Pedro  •  Link

Montagu and money.

From Ollard's biography of Montagu I cannot find any references of his finances under Cromwell, but he says that although he was an acute and informed student of economic affairs when in government, was lazy and careless about money. He tells us that Clarendon says kindly things about his friend's character, but concedes that "avarice" was the sole blemish (though it never appeared in any gross instance) that seemed to cloud many noble virtues in that Earl.

After the Restoration he granted lands worth L4000 a year: was made Privy Counsellor and a Commissioner of the Treasury and, richest of all prizes he had he bestirred himself to exploit it , Master of the Great Wardrobe. (He adds that the imagination boggles at what Pepys would have extracted from such a goldmine.) Other offices that came to him were Master of the King's Swans and Bailiff of Whittlesea Mere.

language hat  •  Link

The section from the ODNB (article by Davies) on the period we've been reading about lately is as follows:

Sandwich was one of the Garter knights who bore the canopy over the king's head at the coronation (23 April 1661). Additionally, he was elected to the Royal Society on 13 February 1661 and appointed master of the king's swans on 10 May, having become "lieutenant, or admiral and general of the narrow seas" (Journal, xxix) effectively vice-admiral of England on 18 March. The perennial disputes with the north African Barbary regencies over freedom of the seas, and the imminent marriage of Charles II to Catherine of Braganza, led to Sandwich's being sent with a fleet to the Mediterranean, with the additional title of ambassador-extraordinary to Portugal. He sailed in June 1661 and after recovering from a fever anchored before Algiers on 29 July and engaged in a desultory exchange of fire with the town. From September he was at Lisbon to begin the arrangements for the royal wedding, sailing on 3 October to take possession of Tangier, part of Catherine's dowry. His fleet oversaw the Portuguese evacuation and the arrival of the English garrison before sailing once more for Lisbon on 18 February. After a spectacular ceremonial entrance into the city, he spent two months conducting the protracted negotiations over the payment of Catherine's dowry. The fleet sailed on 15 April, arriving at Spithead on 14 May, and Sandwich attended the subsequent marriage ceremony at Portsmouth.

Jan Burton  •  Link

I have some interest in Her Ladyship the Duchess of Sandwich, Dorothy. How ancient is her Peerage? How did she come by it? What is the current status?
Can anyone answer me? Jan

Eric  •  Link

I would like to know details of the regiment, broken in 1660, of which Edward Montagu was colonel and Samuel Pepys secretary and muster master.

Samuel Pepys and Edward Montagu were first cousins once removed. I don't think this relationship is correctly described as distant.

Eric  •  Link

William of Impington was (according Wheatley's notes to Mynors Bright's transcription)the grandfather of the Earl of Sandwich and the great-grandfather of Samuel Pepys which I believe makes them first cousins once removed.

Lynn  •  Link

Half first cousins once removed
(according to Sam's family tree in Tomalin's book)

in Aqua Scripto  •  Link

Sam does not have any Montague genes, but Montague dothe have a few Pepis genes?

Eric  •  Link

The OED defines
first, second cousin, etc.: expressing the relationship of persons descended the same number of steps in distinct lines from a common ancestor.
Thus the children of brothers or sisters are first cousins to each other; the children of first cousins are second cousins to each other; and so on. The term second cousin, is also loosely applied to the son or daughter of a first cousin, more exactly called a (first) cousin once removed
Half-cousin The child of one's father's or mother's cousin; a second cousin. Sometimes applied to the child of one's own cousin, or to the cousin of one's father or mother.
and gives the example 1871 Carlyle in Mrs. Carlyle's Lett. II. 231 ‘Sophy’, an orphan half-cousin.
Therefore they were fisst cousins once removed. The issue of whole and half blood was relevant then but only in questions of inheritance of land
see New South Wales Law Reform Commission Issues Paper 26 April 2005
6.7 Distinctions between relatives of the whole and half blood appear to have been relevant for the purposes of identifying an heir under the English law relating to the inheritance of land under primo genitur, so that, for example, brothers of the half blood could only inherit after sisters of the whole blood, and so on.( Inheritance Act of 1833 (3&4 William IV c 106) s 9) This and other such distinctions in the law of heirship were described in 1881 (James LJ In re Goodman’s Trusts (1881) 17 ChD 266 at 299) as “precious absurdities in the English law of real property”. There would appear to be no justification for such a distinction in the law of intestate succession today.

Eric  •  Link

GEC (Vol 11 p. 430) descibes Paulina Pepys as the daughter of William of Cottenham by Edith Talbot his first wife. His footnote is:
For the connexion with Samuel Pepys, the diarist, see the corrected Pepys ped(egree)., recently recorded in the College of Arms, in Wheatley, Pepysiana, facing p. 4, ex inform. W. A. Lindsay, Windsor Herald. He was the great-nephew of Paulina, Sir Sydney Montagu's wife, who was a sister of his grandfather Thomas Pepys, the elder.

jeannine  •  Link

"Journal of the Earl of Sandwich" edited by R.C. Anderson (Appendix IV)

(Carte MSS. Vol 75, f. 193)

James, Duke of York and Albany, Earl of Ulster, Lord High Admiral of England and Ireland, etc. Constable of Dover Castle, Lord Warden of Cinque Ports and Governor of Portsmouth, etc.

To Edward Earl of Sandwich my Lieutenant and Admiral and Captain General of the Narrow Seas, and Admiral of his Majesty's Fleet, now bound forth to the sea.

So soon as his Majesty's ships (now in the Hope) shall be fully provided of their victuals and stores for four months, you are to order them to take the first opportunity of sailing into the Downs, where you are to take upon you the charge and command not only of the said ships, but likewise of such other of his Majesty's ships as you shall find there, or shall hereafter be sent thither for his Majesty's service, within his Majesty's seas.

You are to take care that Almighty God be duly served on board the ship under your command twice every day by the whole ship's company, according to the Liturgy of the Church of England, and that blasphemy, drunkenness, swearing and profaneness be discountenanced, restrained and punished.

You are from time to time to send out such of his Majesty's ships or vessels under your command as you shall judge fit, toward the coast of Holland, or to any other parts where you shall understand the Dutch fleet or any considerable part thereof shall be, to the end you may by that means have frequent and certain information of their number, strength and motion.

You are to instruct the commanders of such ships or vessels as you shall so send forth, and all others, that they do not attempt any hostility against any of his Majesty's Allies, unless they shall refuse or neglect to strike sail unto his Majesty's ships, or to do such other things as are customarily done in acknowledgement of his Majesty's right and Sovereignty of the Sea.

You are upon all occasions to take care that his Majesty's hounour be preserved, and his subjects protected and defended.

You are to take care to preserve good order and discipline in his Majesty's fleet under your command, and to that end (as occasion shall require) you are to put in execution the Articles of War established by Act of Parliament, and to hold Courts Martial for punishing offenders, according to the Commission particularly granted to you on that behalf.

You are to give me frequent notice of all occurrences which may any way concern his Majesty's service, to the end you may receive such further orders as may conduce to the good of his Majesty's service.

Given under my hand at St. James's this ninth day of July 1664.


By command of his R: Highness
W. Coventry

(Endorsed by Sandwich) July 9, 1664. His Royal Highness. Instructions upon my first going to sea this summer.

Michael Webb  •  Link

Correspondence of Edward Mountagu (Montagu), 1st Earl of Sandwich, forms part of the Carte collection at the Bodleian Library. An online calendar of the papers from the Restoration period (1660-1687) is available.

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Chart showing the number of references in each month of the diary’s entries.