Daily entries from the 17th century London diary
Sasha Clarkson has posted 90 annotations/comments since 16 February 2013.
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About Monday 25 March 1661
Were social differences accepted as "the natural order of things"?
Perhaps so, by many. But there was a long history of revolutionary thought in England: the Levellers etc were merely its latest products. Lollardy long predated the reformation: in 1381, John Ball preached the famous lines:
"When Adam delved and Eve span,Who was then the gentleman?"
Reprtedly , Ball had borrowed them from an earlier source too.
About Monday 18 March 1660/61
Glyn et al: the quote is from Queen Elizabeth's godson, Sir John Harington. The correct quote is:
"Treason doth never prosper, what's the reason?For if it prosper, none dare call it treason."
Harington also invented Britain's first flush toilet. According to Encyclopaedia Britannica, he installed one for the Queen in her palace at Richmond.
About Thursday 21 February 1660/61
" .... invented by people who desperatedly wanted English grammar to be just like Latin."
Err, not really: the roots of English grammar are German not Latin, although the syntax has "in a different direction evolved". I often find comparisons with German grammar instructive. Also, some case inflections survive, eg "he" nominative -> "him" accusative/dative, -> "his" genitive, etc.
It's also interesting that, as in French and German, Pepys uses "to be" as an auxiliary verb for intransitive verbs*, rather than the modern "to have". Eg "He was come home" rather than "he had come home".
*verbs without a direct object, typically like verbs of motion. Eg "I hit him": him being the direct object. "I went to the pub", the pub being an indirect object.
About Monday 18 February 1660/61
Mazarin's niece now has a Wikipedia Page:
Charles did propose to her at one point, but was rejected because, then, he seemed to have few prospects. Later the tables were turned.
Incidentally, George V was also a second son, only becoming heir apparent to his father (Edward VII, then Prince of Wales) at the age of (almost) 27 in 1892. At this point in the diary, James too is 27.
About Friday 15 February 1660/61
The US always had a Mint, founded by the coinage Act of 1792. Apart from the revolutionary 'Continental', it also had official paper money issued by its two national banks, the second of which was effectively killed by President Andrew Jackson in 1836. After this, until Lincoln's 'greenbacks', the only legal tender was Mint specie (gold and silver coins), though as Dick said private banks issued their own notes.
About Thursday 7 February 1660/61
To second what Helena said, the Montagus had been prominent for rather longer than the Villiers family, and were certainly not "nouveau riche".
The foundation of the Villiers family's fortunes was James I & VI personal attraction to Buckingham's father, the first duke. James other "favourites" also did well: Robert Kerr became Earl of Somerset. His character was, if anything, even worse than that of (either) Villiers.
About Wednesday 6 February 1660/61
Sam might think that the Sir Williams are rogues, but he always seems happy to keep them company when they aren't well.
About Sunday 22 November 1663
Unsurprising that Sam DID take the opportunity to drop Ned Pickering in the doo-doo. Sam has always been very loyal to his patron, especially in public. Ned had always been an embarrassment to the family, and his disloyalty to his kinsman shamed and disgusted Sam.
About Saturday 2 February 1660/61
As well as those mentioned by Alan Bedford, Will Hewer also lodges with Sam until 1663.
About Wednesday 30 January 1660/61
Interesting Tonyel - I believe that there was very little pine in England in those days: conifer plantations came in subsequent centuries! :)