By , .

Biographies and Portraits

Edward Mountagu (also referred to as Montagu), the Earl of Sandwich as depicted by artist Peter Lely here and from the National Portrait Gallery, was the generous benefactor and patron of Samuel Pepys. Several wonderful websites offer excellent short biographies and related background information on Lord Sandwich: British Civil Wars; 1911 Encyclopedia; Mountagu’s Regiment site; Montague Millennium; Hinchingbrooke House. For those subscribing to the Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, the biography by J.D. Davies is well worth reading.

Sandwich’s surviving papers and letters are located in the British Museum and the Bodleian Library at Oxford. In the Clive Powell article referenced below, it appears that the Montagu family sold the remaining family papers to the National Maritime Museum. Powell tells us that the 5 volumes acquired from the family cover the period of 1656-1669 (overlapping Sam’s Diary) and provide “many insights into a soldier, politician, diplomat and naval commander who moved from one side to the other of the political divide”. In addition, there are letters between Pepys and Sandwich in the Maritime collection.

“My Lord” in the Diary

Prior to the Diary Mountagu was a strong supporter of Oliver Cromwell and upon his death, supported his son Richard for the role of Protector. With the overthrow of Richard in April 1659, Mountagu slipped out of the political whirlwind, moved back to Hinchingbrooke, and remained publicly silent as the political factions maneuvered for control. In the first few months of the Diary, Mountagu secretly transitioned his loyalties to the Royalist cause and supported the reinstatement of Charles II. He was elected as a member of the Council of State, co-General at Sea (a role he shared with Monck), and Commissioner of the Admiralty. He prepared the fleet for the Restoration of the King and set sail (with Pepys on board), welcomed Charles II on board the Naseby on May 23, 1660 and arrived in Dover two days later. In return for this dutiful service Charles II made Mountagu the first Earl of Sandwich, Knight of the Garter and Master of the Wardrobe.

Sandwich was given honorable naval duties including bringing other Royal exiles home to England, arranging for the cession of Tangier and bringing the betrothed Queen, Catherine of Braganza (and a portion of her promised dowry) from her homeland of Portugal. These activities, captured so well by Pepys in his Diary were also recorded first hand by Sandwich in his own Journal.

In 1663, Sandwich, who had been ill early in the year, spent visibly less time at the King’s Court. During much of this time away he was taking care of family matters, although gossip began regarding an alleged relationship with a girl in Chelsea. As the gossip became more rampant, Sam decided to send his Lord a letter of reproof, which brought an abrupt stop to Sandwich’s visits to Chelsea, but perhaps damaged the closeness between the two men.

In early 1665 during the Second Dutch War Sandwich had great success as a naval commander in the first Battle of Lowestoft . Later that year his reputation was unfortunately marred by the “prize-goods” incident and Sandwich was subsequently relived of his command. In 1666 he was sent to Spain as an Ambassador, where he remained until 1668. During this time he proved his value through his tactful negotiation and mediation, which led to an end to the ongoing war between Spain and Portugal.

After Sam’s Diary ended, Sandwich returned to Naval duty and took an active role commanding a squadron in the Third Dutch War. He died aboard the Royal James during the Battle of Solebay in May of 1672. He was given a well-deserved hero’s funeral, regaining in his death the grand status that his lifetime of achievements so well deserved.

His Character

Sandwich’s biographers and contemporaries offer interesting insights into Sandwich’s character. In his ODNB article, J. D. Davies states that:

If Sandwich was often the subject of popular and political attack in life, his reputation was fortunate in death. The publication of Pepys’s diary presented a picture of his “my lord” almost as a true Renaissance man: the generous patron, the cheerful if sometimes moody companion, the hopeless manager of money, the competent artist and musician. He had an ear for languages, mastering Spanish by the end of his embassy, and his fascination with topography, mathematics, astronomy, and navigation emerges clearly from his manuscript journals.

The F.R. Harris biography offers a detailed character sketch of Sandwich, from which the following condensed sections are quoted:

The interest in Lord Sandwich’s life lies in achievement rather than in character, but some fragments of evidence may be collected to show what manner of man he was… He was excellent company, even for the King; though he made no epigrams like Buckingham or Rochester, he could deliver himself of an occasional droll remark, which balanced the want of a ready and scintillating wit. He was tolerant in opinion… For political intrigue he had no relish. His lonely youth gave him a certain detachment of opinion, and an independence of judgment, which made him appear a trimmer. In reality he lacked finesse; he put his country first, and followed whom he liked; he put principles before persons. He hated disorder, and he hated persecution. Three times he chose his path, and each time for security and good government. He left Manchester, who was weak, for Cromwell, who was strong; he left Cromwell when the law was outraged; he left Richard when he felt that Richard was incapable. His passion for order made him a monarchist; it mattered little whether Cromwell or Charles Stewart were King. And since he saw the Stewart monarchy was bound up with settled law and an established Church, he favored uniformity. Dissent spelt difference, and to Sandwich a settled horizon was all that mattered. He had been in England throughout all her troubles, and detested those who bade fair to shake the settlement.

To his friends he was kindly and affectionate, not one of those who, in fickle times, rejoiced over the misfortunes of others. He bore no malice, and forgave as he had been forgiven… His friends were young and well-informed, and were not chosen for their political influence. Sandwich was as happy with John Evelyn, Sam Pepys… as he was with the most influential statesman… Any estrangement that came between Sandwich and Pepys was not due only to my Lord… The politician whom Sandwich best knew was Lord Clarendon, and everywhere in Clarendon’s writings Sandwich is spoken of with the greatest warmth, and not as one who ever acted the part of an enemy.

It is a pity that he was careless over money matters, but it was a carelessness which quickly brought its own punishment, and for which he suffered and paid… The mistake over the prize-goods came of this flaw in Sandwich’s character, and can be excused upon no other grounds… Kind as a father, affectionate as a husband, it would scarcely be necessary to touch upon My Lords’ moral character were it not that he is the victim of an unfortunate mistake. The indictment brought against him [see Wheatley’s, Samuel Pepys And the World He Lived In, page 175], that he was of ‘a committee with somebody else for getting of Mrs. Stewart for the King’ does not refer to Lord Sandwich [but to his cousin Edward Mountagu], and the indictment breaks down (see the November 6, 1663 entry). Pepys, in addition to the Becke incident, gives some gossip about Lady Castlemaine, but in no case has he anything to offer worthy of credence. …Evelyn speaks of Sandwich as sober and chaste, while the Puritans regarded him as one who could check the spirit of profaneness then upon the nation.

The mists of enmity cannot obscure his ability as a naval commander. He began his career at the age of thirty, without any previous training; he was conjoined in the command with one of our greatest Admirals, and proved a ready and an apt pupil, worthy of a higher place than that allotted to him in the ranks of our great seaman. His sailors appreciated, loved, and revered him. His powers of discipline were at once shown to be effective; through he never treated the men with undue harshness. In later years, he was looked upon as rather too lenient to them, but that was when cruelty was rife. From the age of eighteen he had been accustomed to leadership; he had the necessary sympathy and power, and his jovial personality gave him the right temper for the work.

To state his exact contribution is impossible, but the man who outmaneuvered the Dutch in the Sound, who anticipated the Vicomte de Morogues’ idea of tactical concentration, who led through the enemy’s line off Lowestoft, who drew up the instructions for 1665, and who endeavored to save our fleet from the errors perpetrated in the third Dutch war, must be allowed at least a flash of the genius which inspired the greatest of his successors. In the end he showed that he was of the stuff of which seamen are made. His career was fitly crowned by the bravery of his last fight: the way in which he bore the brunt of the battle, and the manner of his death, are eloquent of his tenacity and courage. He wiped out all stains, and the pageantry of his funeral was a worthy memorial. In a conclave of seamen he need no longer sit below the salt.

Both Ollard and Davies leave the final words about Lord Sandwich to his contemporary and friend, the dignified and highly perceptive John Evelyn who recorded in his diary on May 31, 1672:

My L: Sandwich was prudent as well as Valiant, & allways govern’d his affairs with successe, and little losse, he was for deliberation & reason… Thus this gallant Person perish’d … & deplorable was the losse, of one of the best accomplish[ed] persons, not onely of this Nation but of any other: He was learned in Mathematics, in Musique, in Sea affaires, in Political: Had ben divers Embassies, was of a sweet obliging temper, Sober, Chast, infinitly ingenious & a true noble man, an ornament to the Court & his Prince, nor has he left any that approach his many Virtues behind him … I am yet heartily griev’d at this mightly losse, nor do I call it to my thoughts without emotion.

Further Resources

Biographies about Lord Sandwich and his Journal are listed below. These books tend to be rare and may be available through your local library (with the help of the research department) or are sometimes available through the used book search.

  • The Life of Edward Mountagu, K.G. First Earl of Sandwich, (1625-1672) by Frank Reginald Harris
  • Cromwell’s Earl: A Life of Edward Mountagu, 1st Earl of Sandwich by Richard Ollard
  • The Journal of Edward Montagu: First Earl of Sandwich, Admiral and General at Sea, 1659-1665 (Publications of the Navy Records Society)
  • Oxford Dictionary of National Biography article entitled ‘Montagu, Edward’ by J. D. Davies, (note: this is an online paid subscription service)
  • ‘The papers of Edward Montagu, first Earl of Sandwich (1625-72)’ by Clive Powell of the National Maritime Museum appearing in the Mariner’s Mirror volume 84 issue 4 (November 1998): 470 ff.

Additional Background


This text was copied from Wikipedia on 4 July 2024 at 6:10AM.

The Earl of Sandwich
Portrait by Peter Lely
Ambassador to Spain
In office
Ambassador to Portugal
In office
Joint Lord Lieutenant of Huntingdonshire
In office
September 1660 – May 1672
Member of Parliament
for Dover
In office
May 1660 – August 1660
General at sea
In office
English Council of State
In office
Member of Parliament
for Huntingdonshire
In office
October 1645 – December 1657
Personal details
Born27 July 1625
Barnwell, Northamptonshire, England
Died28 May 1672(1672-05-28) (aged 46)
Sole Bay, Suffolk, England
Resting placeWestminster Abbey
Jemimah Crew
(m. 1642)​
Children10, including Edward, Sidney, and John
Parent(s)Sir Sidney Montagu
Paulina Pepys
ResidenceHinchingbrooke House
OccupationArmy and naval officer, diplomat
Military service

Edward Montagu, 1st Earl of Sandwich, 27 July 1625 to 28 May 1672, was an English military officer, politician and diplomat from Barnwell, Northamptonshire. During the First English Civil War, he served with the Parliamentarian army, and was an Member of Parliament at various times between 1645 and 1660. Under The Protectorate, he was also a member of the English Council of State and General at sea.

In the political infighting that followed the death of Oliver Cromwell in 1658, he played an important role in bringing about the Stuart Restoration in May 1660. Created Earl of Sandwich by Charles II, he served as Ambassador to Portugal from 1661 to 1662. Appointed Ambassador to Spain in 1666, he helped negotiate the 1667 Treaty of Madrid.

When the Second Anglo-Dutch War began in 1665, he commanded a naval squadron but was later suspended in a dispute over prize money. Restored to command when the Third Anglo-Dutch War began in May 1672, he was killed at the Battle of Solebay in June. Montagu is one of the best-known characters of the 1660s, being a central figure in the diaries of his distant cousin, the naval official Samuel Pepys.

Personal details

Montagu was born on 25 July 1625, only surviving son of Sir Sidney Montagu (c. 1572-1644) and his first wife Paulina Pepys (died 1638), great-aunt of Samuel Pepys. On 7 November 1642, Montagu married Jemima Crew, daughter of John Crew, 1st Baron Crew and Jemima Waldegrave, whom Pepys in his Diary refers to with great affection as "My Lady". The couple had ten children:[1]

  • Jemima (1646–1671)
  • Edward (1648–1688)
  • Paulina (1649–1669)
  • Sidney (1650–1727)
  • Oliver (c. 1655–1689)
  • John (c. 1655–1729)
  • Charles (1658–1721)
  • Anne (1660–1729)
  • Catherine (1661–1757)
  • James (b. 1664)
Paulina Pepys, Mother of the First Earl of Sandwich

Paulina's death in February 1669, aged only twenty, was a great source of grief to her father. Pepys, who called her "a peevish lady", called to pay his condolences, but found him "shut away for sorrow".[2]

First English Civil War and Interregnum

Although his father was a Royalist, when the First English Civil War began in August 1642 Montagu served in the Eastern Association army led by his Parliamentarian cousin, the Earl of Manchester. He raised a regiment of infantry which during the 1644 campaign fought at Marston Moor, the Siege of York and Second Newbury. Despite his family relationship, Montagu supported those in Parliament who expressed dissatisfaction with the conduct of the war by Manchester and Essex.[3]

This resulted in the creation of the New Model Army in February 1645 and the passing of the Self-denying Ordinance, requiring those holding military commissions to resign from Parliament. As members of the House of Lords, Manchester and Essex were automatically removed, since unlike MPs they could not resign their titles.[4] Montagu's regiment was incorporated into the New Model, taking part in the June 1645 Battle of Naseby, followed by the capture of Bristol. In October, he resigned from the army as required by the Ordinance when was appointed MP for Huntingdonshire, a seat formerly held by his father who died in September 1644.[5]

Montagu played no part in the Second English Civil War and retired from Parliament after Pride's Purge in December 1648 to live quietly at home. He returned to politics in 1653 when his neighbour Oliver Cromwell nominated him to the Barebones Parliament as MP for Huntingdonshire, a seat formerly held by his father who died in September 1644.[5] He was also appointed to the English Council of State, an office he held until it was dissolved in 1659, and was re-elected to the First Protectorate Parliament in 1654, then the Second Protectorate Parliament in 1656.[6]

Portrait of Sandwich by Sir Peter Lely, painted 1666, part of the Flagmen of Lowestoft series.

During the Anglo-Spanish War (1654–1660), he was appointed joint General at Sea with Robert Blake, taking part in an expedition into the Mediterranean. This experience made him a leading advocate of establishing a British naval base in the region, an ambition realised with the acquisition of English Tangier in 1661.[7] In February 1657, he was one of the so-called "New Cromwellians" who supported the Humble Petition and Advice, inviting Cromwell to declare himself king and advocating the re-establishment of a national church. The measure was opposed by army radicals including Charles Fleetwood and John Lambert and ultimately rejected.[8]

In June 1658 he commanded the naval squadron that blockaded Dunkirk and when Cromwell died in September, Montagu remained loyal to his son and appointed successor Richard Cromwell. During his brief and disastrous rule as Lord Protector, Montagu remained at sea and in early 1659 was sent to mediate between Sweden and Denmark; however, he was suspected of secret communication with the exiled Charles II and the republicans Algernon Sidney and Sir Robert Honywood were sent to monitor his activity.[9] He was recalled and investigated by the newly installed Rump Parliament; although no evidence was found, he was dismissed from command.[10]


Charles leaves the Dutch Republic for England, 24 May 1660

By the end of 1659, England appeared to be drifting into anarchy, with widespread demands for new elections and an end to military rule. In February 1660, George Monck, military commander in Scotland, marched into London and declared his support for the Rump against the Republican faction led by John Lambert. Montagu resumed command of the navy and was returned as MP for the important port of Dover when elections were held for a Convention Parliament in April.[11]

This placed him in a powerful position during negotiations for the Restoration; when Parliament resolved to proclaim Charles king and invited him to return to England, Montagu commanded the fleet that brought him from the Dutch Republic on 24 May.[12] Two months later, on 12 July 1660, he was created Baron Montagu of St Neots, Viscount Hinchingbrooke, and Earl of Sandwich. King Charles also made him a Knight of the Garter and appointed him Master of the Great Wardrobe, Admiral of the narrow seas (the English Channel and southern North Sea), and Lieutenant Admiral to The Duke of York, Lord High Admiral of England. He carried St. Edward's staff at Charles' subsequent coronation. Edward Hyde, 1st Earl of Clarendon, who liked and admired Sandwich, wrote that the conferring of these honours caused much resentment among those Royalists who had gone into exile with their King, and regarded Sandwich as a "diehard" Cromwellian; yet adds that his charm of manner made it almost impossible to dislike him.

He was appointed Ambassador to Portugal in 1661, and strongly favoured the Portuguese marriage, through which England obtained Mumbai and Tangier. Sandwich, like others, saw a great future for Tangier as an international trade centre, and he commanded the fleet which took possession of the city in January 1662, purchasing a house there. Returning to England, in his capacity as Ambassador, he escorted the new Queen, Catherine of Braganza, from Lisbon.[13]

Montagu was a signatory to The Several Declarations of The Company of Royal Adventurers of England Trading into Africa, a document published in 1667 which led to the expansion of the Royal Africa Company.[14][15][16]

The Prize Goods Scandal

In the Second Anglo-Dutch War of 1665 to 1667 he fought at the Battle of Lowestoft, an English victory, but defeat at the Battle of Vågen led to him being removed from active service. His reputation suffered another serious blow when he failed to prevent his sailors from plundering a number of Dutch VOC prize ships, loaded with precious spices from the East Indies, which he had brought in. By long-standing custom the sailors could take any goods they found between the decks, but they were strictly forbidden to "break the bulk" i.e. ransack the ship's hold; yet this is just what Sandwich, an easy-going man with a notoriously poor understanding of money matters, permitted. When this became widely known, the rumour spread that Sandwich had unlawfully helped himself to a fortune (in fact he seems to have taken less than he was entitled to), and the public, who were still enduring the horrors of the Great Plague of London, reacted with such unexpected fury that a minor mishap became a national affair: "the Prize Goods Scandal". Although Clarendon wrote that Sandwich was too likeable to have any personal enemies, he did have political opponents, including his own superior at the Admiralty, James, Duke of York, and James' influential secretary Sir William Coventry, who were happy to exploit the scandal. He felt obliged to obtain a royal pardon: the King, mindful of his good services at the Restoration, willingly granted it.[17][16]

Ambassador to Spain

During his absence from battle, Sandwich served as England's ambassador to Spain, replacing Sir Richard Fanshawe. This is further evidence that despite his unpopularity, he retained the King's confidence, although his political fortunes, like those of his friend and patron Clarendon, were in decline. Sandwich himself had told Pepys the previous year not to put too much reliance on the friendship of any "great man". After the Great Fire of London Sandwich downplayed the damage to the Spanish King, claiming that London's slums were the only thing in ashes. This slant on the events was also practised by England's ambassadors throughout Europe.[18]

As Ambassador his most notable achievement was the Anglo-Spanish Commercial Treaty of 1667, which laid the foundations for a prosperous trading relationship between the two countries which lasted for over a century.[19] He also acted as mediator in the peace negotiations between Spain and Portugal which resulted in the Treaty of Lisbon. Like all Ambassadors of the era, he found the cost of running an embassy ruinous (he had never had a good head for business) and on his return to England in the autumn of 1668 one of his first actions was to borrow money from his cousin Samuel Pepys.[20] On his way back from Spain, he again visited Tangier to report on the condition of the garrison there.

In 1670 he escorted the King's sister Henrietta of England, Duchess of Orleans, from France to England to negotiate the Secret Treaty of Dover between her brother and Louis XIV. Of the existence of the Treaty's secret clauses, notably that by which Charles II pledged to convert to the Roman Catholic faith, Sandwich, like the general public, was quite unaware.[21] In the same year he was appointed President of the Privy Council Committee on Foreign Plantations; he had always had a keen interest in international trade, despite his notorious inability to keep his own finances in order.

Last campaign and death

Montagu in the 1660s

He was subsequently reappointed to a naval command, and by 1672 at the start of the Third Anglo-Dutch War, he was Vice-Admiral of the Blue with the Royal James as his flagship. At the Battle of Solebay on 28 May, his ship was attacked by a group of fire ships and was destroyed with the loss of many lives, including Sandwich himself. His body was washed ashore a week later, recognisable only from his clothing; it was unmarked and he appeared to have drowned.[10] Sandwich opposed the war and is said to have predicted his own death. Certainly, he told his friend John Evelyn, just before he sailed, that "he would see him no more".[22]

On Wednesday 3 July 1672 he was buried in Westminster Abbey after a state funeral that started with a procession along the River Thames of five decorated barges from Deptford. The body was landed at Westminster at about 5 pm and carried to the Abbey in a grand procession.[23]

Sandwich and Samuel Pepys

Sandwich on his mother's side was the first cousin of John Pepys, the father of Samuel Pepys. Pepys started his career as a minor member of the Sandwich household and owed his appointments first to the Wardrobe and then as Clerk of the Acts to the Navy Board to Sandwich's influence. Pepys' diary provides a detailed primary source of Sandwich's career in the 1660s.

They had a serious quarrel in 1663, when Pepys reprimanded Sandwich for living openly with his mistress, Elizabeth Becke, at her "mean house" in Chelsea.[24] Pepys was concerned at the damage to their family's reputation, Sandwich's neglect of his official duties (thus risking the loss of any remaining influence he had at Court) and also at the insult to Sandwich's wife, to whom Pepys was deeply attached. Following a brief estrangement, friendly relations were resumed, although the two men were probably never as close again as they had been (Pepys, for example, is not mentioned in Sandwich's last will). For Pepys to raise the issue at all took considerable courage, considering how much he owed to his patron, and his Diary shows that he was strongly tempted to let the matter lie. Even when he did raise it he chose to write rather than confront Sandwich face to face.

In 1668 Pepys was somewhat perturbed when his wife Elizabeth, during one of the violent quarrels which followed the discovery of his affair with her companion Deb Willet, told him that Sandwich had asked her to be his mistress.[25] Since Pepys was in no doubt that she had refused, he decided to treat the matter as being closed, and friendly relations continued: Sandwich dined at their house for the first time a few months later.[26] Pepys, on reflection, may have thought it possible that Elizabeth in her anger had invented the story to upset him, (as she undoubtedly invented the story that she was attending Roman Catholic services). Whatever their differences, Pepys in later life always remembered Sandwich, whom he called "that noble and unparalleled Lord", and his wife (who died in 1674) with affection and gratitude.


  1. ^ Latham 2000, p. 255.
  2. ^ Ollard 1994, p. 248.
  3. ^ Cotton 1975, p. 212.
  4. ^ Wedgwood 1958, pp. 398–399.
  5. ^ a b Healy 2010.
  6. ^ Henning 1983.
  7. ^ Corbett 1904, p. 11.
  8. ^ Catterall 1903, pp. 36–37.
  9. ^ Ollard 1994, p. 62.
  10. ^ a b Davies 2004.
  11. ^ Harris 1912, pp. 43–44.
  12. ^ Hutton 1989, p. 131.
  13. ^ Ollard 1994, p. 109.
  14. ^ Davies, K. G. (Kenneth Gordon) (1999). The Royal African Company. London: Routledge/Thoemmes Press. ISBN 0-415-19072-X. OCLC 42746420. Archived from the original on 15 June 2020. Retrieved 16 May 2020.
  15. ^ Pettigrew, William A. (William Andrew). Freedom's debt : the Royal African Company and the politics of the Atlantic slave trade, 1672-1752. Omohundro Institute of Early American History & Culture. Chapel Hill [North Carolina]. ISBN 978-1-4696-1183-9. OCLC 879306121. Archived from the original on 8 July 2020. Retrieved 16 May 2020.
  16. ^ a b Davies, J.D. (3 January 2008). "Montagu [Mountagu], Edward, first earl of Sandwich". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (online ed.). Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/19010. (Subscription or UK public library membership required.)
  17. ^ Ollard 1994, pp. 140–142.
  18. ^ Adrian Tinniswood (2003). By permission of heaven: the story of the Great Fire of London. Jonathan Cape. ISBN 978-0-224-06226-8.
  19. ^ Latham, Robert and Matthews, Charles Diary of Samuel Pepys 1983 Vol. X Companion p.254
  20. ^ Bryant, Arthur Samuel Pepys- the man in the making Reprint Society edition 1949 p.267
  21. ^ Ollard 1994, pp. 253–4.
  22. ^ Ollard 1994, p. 256.
  23. ^ Ollard 1994, pp. 262–3.
  24. ^ Ollard 1994, pp. 116–7.
  25. ^ Diary of Samuel Pepys 10 November 1668
  26. ^ Diary 23 January 1669


External links

1893 text

Sir Edward Montagu, born 1625, son of Sir Sidney Montagu, by Paulina, daughter of John Pepys of Cottenham, married Jemima, daughter of John Crew of Stene. He died in action against the Dutch in Southwold Bay, May 28th, 1672.

This text comes from a footnote on a diary entry in the 1893 edition edited by Henry B. Wheatley.

43 Annotations

First Reading

Phil  •  Link

Pepys and Edward Montagu/Mountagu are distant relations and attended the same school at Huntingdon, although several years apart. Montagu was a supporter of Oliver Cromwell and attained high positions within the Admiralty.

Pepys' first job in London was working for Montagu from some time in the 1650s. He and his wife lodged at Montagu's house and Pepys managed the household, particularly during the many occasions Montagu was at sea. Even after finding employment elsewhere, Pepys continued to perform some administrative duties for him.

David Gurliacci  •  Link

Montagu as of Jan. 1, 1660:

One of Cromwell's young colonels in the Civil War, Montagu broke with extremists in the army in 1648 but became a member of Parliament in 1653. Later that year he was made a "councillor of state" in the government.

Montagu had supported every proposal to make the protectorate hereditary and even the radical proposal to make Cromwell king. He also supported Cromwell's son, Richard, when he became protector.

When Richard fell from power in 1659, Montagu "distanced himself, in common with many other moderates, from the revolutionary cause," Robert Latham writes in his introduction to "The Shorter Pepys," a 1990 abridgement of the diary.

In the spring or summer of 1659 Montagu communicated with agents of Charles II. Montagu was suspected of disloyalty to the government and by winter he had retired to his country estate, Hinchingbrooke. Pepys remained in charge of his affairs in London.

Michael Fryer  •  Link

Edward Montagu was born on 27 July 1625 at Barnwell, Northamptonshire, and was admitted to the Middle Temple in 1635. He was commissioned to raise a regiment of 1,000 men for the Parliamentary forces in 1643, and was present at the siege of Lincoln as well as the Battles of Marston Moor and Naseby. After sitting as MP for Weymouth periodically from 1645 onwards and holding office in the Lord Protector's administration, he came to favour the Royalists after Richard Cromwell's fall and helped bring about the Restoration. For his services he was created a Knight of the Garter as well as being ennobled as Baron Montagu of Saint Neots, Viscount Hinchingbrooke and Earl of Sandwich in 1660. He was Master of the Great Wardrobe until 1670, and distinguished himself as a naval commander against the Dutch throughout the 1660s, before losing his life, probably by drowning, when his flagship was attacked by fireships at the Battle of Solebay on 28 May 1672. He is buried in Henry VII's Chapel in Westminster Abbey.

David Quidnunc  •  Link

Montagu to Pepys, Pepys to Montagu, 1650s

Claire Tomalin's biography quotes these snippets from Montagu's "short and sharp" letters to Pepys in 1656 when Montagu was asea. The quotes give some flavor of the relationship (although it must certainly have had other aspects and must have changed over time):

-- ". . . my Servant Samuell Pepys at my Lodginges in Whitehalle"

-- "You are upon sight hereoff . . ."

-- "Hereoff you are not to faile"

Some quotes from Pepys to Montagu:

-- "your Honour"

-- "my honoured maister"

-- "My Lord"

All the above is from Tomalin's "Samuel Pepys: The Unequalled Self" p. 6.

Later, in December 1657, Pepys's job includes managing Montagu's servants at Whitehall, and Pepys was in trouble when a maid got married without getting Montagu's permission (something Pepys was also guilty of). Tomalin reports (p. 59) that "immediate forgiveness was not forthcoming" from Montagu to Pepys, so Pepys wrote this in a letter dated Dec. 26:

"The losse of your Honours good word I am too sure will prove as much my undoing, as hitherto it hath beene my best friend."

Al Barrs  •  Link

My ancestrial grand fathers rented strip farm land from Lord Mongagu in the 1600s and 1700s south of Dunchurch around a small village known as Toft Hamlet Warwickshire England. Their names were Abraham Barrs and his son John Barrs. They were prominent farmers there as was their ancestors and descendants. They paid hearth tax on 3 hearths during the 1600 period of the hearth tax.

S. Spoelstra  •  Link

Will of Elisabeth Montague 1618

According to this will I came across at…

Paulina Pepys was the trusted servant of Elisabeth Montague , witness to her will, who subsequently married Sidney, Edwards' father ?

"Item I give to Paulina Pepis now my woman and careful servant fifty pounds, the bed wherein she usually lies with the canopy and the rest of the furniture which belongs thereto and two pair of sheets out of the Iron bound chest which stands by the press in the chamber and the little black coffer also which stands in my 'cosett' with such trifles as are in it."

Phil Rodgers  •  Link

It should perhaps also be mentioned that this is not the Earl of Sandwich credited with the invention of the popular eponymous food item. Around 100 years have still to pass before the Fourth Earl invents the sandwich in 1762, to avoid interrupting a gambling game.

Pedro.  •  Link

Montagu's Movements.

Interested in the movements of Montagu since he left the English shores, to settle business in Algier, to secure Tangier ready for the handover, and to bring over the new Queen, I have tried to draw together Sam's comments. On the 26 Aug he received a letter dated 22 July, and so perhaps we could assume a months delay? I am wondering whether Sam receives some of the letters out of sequence and records them as they arrive, as taken in order they do not make sense.
I would think that Montagu would first sail through the Straits and settle the business in Algier. He may have had to call at Alicante first, where he was taken sick, or maybe he went there because he was sick? After Algier he seems to go back through the Straits and up to Lisbon. Sam says that this is to bring over the Queen, but Tangier has not yet been secured.

10 June 61:Early to my Lord's, who privately told me how the King had made him Embassador in the bringing over the Queen. That he is to go to Algier, &c., to settle the business, and to put the fleet in order there; and so to come back to Lisbone with three ships, and there to meet the fleet that is to follow him
(12 June) where I met my Lord, who told me he must have 300l. laid out in cloth, to give in Barbary, as presents among the Turks.
(13 June) (Montagu sails) So went and Captain Ferrers with me into our wherry, and my Lord did give five guns, all they had charged, which was the greatest respect my Lord could do me, and of which I was not a little proud. So with a sad and merry heart I left them sailing pleasantly from Erith, hoping to be in the Downs tomorrow early.
(7 Aug) but no news yet from my Lord where he is.
(12 Aug) and more for my Lord Sandwich himself, whom we are now confirmed is sick ashore at Alicante,
(26th Aug) At night at home I found a letter from my Lord Sandwich, who is now very well again of his feaver, but not yet gone from Alicante, where he lay sick, and was twice let blood. This letter dated the 22nd July last, which puts me out of doubt of his being ill.
(31 Aug) My Lord Sandwich in the Straits and newly recovered of a great sickness at Alicante.
(24th Sep) and letters from sea, that speak of my Lord's being well, and his action, though not considerable of any side, at Argier.
(27th Sep) come with some grapes and millons from my Lord at Lisbon, the first that ever I saw any, and my wife and I eat some, and took some home; but the grapes are rare things
(30th Sep) where we are now very busy about the business of sending forces to Tangier, and the fleet to my Lord of Sandwich, who is now at Lisbon to bring over the Queen, who do now keep a Court as Queen of England. The business of Argier hath of late troubled me, because my Lord hath not done what he went for, though he did as much as any man in the world could have done.
(7th Nov) I met with letters at home from my Lord from Lisbone, which speak of his being well; and he tells me he had seen at the court there the day before he wrote this letter, the Juego de Toro.1
(28th Nov) some letters from my Lord Sandwich, from Tangier; where he continues still, and hath done some execution upon the Turks, and retaken an Englishman from them, of one Mr. Parker's, a merchant in Marke-lane
(25th Jan) with letters from my Lord Sandwich, speaking of his lying still at Tangier, looking for the fleet; which, we hope, is now in a good way thither.

Pedro  •  Link

Montagu's Movements.

Summary from Richard Ollard's "Cromwell's Earl".

June 13th Sandwich sails straight for the Med.
July 4th Anchored off Malaga. Set off for Algiers but was struck down with fever. Off Alicante the fleet hove to and he was sent ashore. One week later he was well enough to return to the ship.
July 23rd Voyage resumed.
July 29th Arrived at Algiers. After a council of war, he sent demands to the Algerians. They were refused as they said the death of Cromwell had abrogated Blake's treaty. The weather favoured defence and the fleet stood of to wait for better weather. One week later he left for Lisbon with 5 ships, leaving Lawson with 10 ships of the line, to make as much nuisance of himself as he could.
Sep 6th He arrives at Lisbon, and stays for 4 weeks. Soon after arriving he receives the news of a substantial success gained by Lawson against the Algerians. Two merchant ships and two men of war had been captured and another driven ashore. Lawson is sent orders to join him in Tangier Bay. A few days before leaving he goes to the Bullfight.
Oct 3rd Sails for Tangier
Oct 10th Anchored in Tangier Bay.

Pedro  •  Link

The Bullfight.

Ollard and the Portuguese writer Casimiro both give description of the bullfight taken from Sandwich's Journal. Ollard mentions this in his biography, but only draws a few lines, and says that Sandwich reveals more of a talent as a fashion correspondent that that of a sports reporter. I find this a little strange as Casimiro, quoting from the same source, gives a much longer description. This of course is translated into Portuguese, and I translate back again, so sorry Sandy if there are a few errors!

The show started with the entrance of a carriage with water, men and horses all in green, to water the arena and dampen down the dust. Following, various people grotesquely dressed in old fashioned costumes, with Guitars, rebecas, and tambourines, danced and circled in games and companies of artists.

The Administrator of the City, on horseback, a splendid steed, came under the window of the King, awaiting his orders. Accompanying him were twelve men in coloured jackets, mid-green, the other six in yellow.

Those in green, under orders from the King untied the first bull, injuring him with harpoons, forcing it to run about them, and dodging it, throwing their capes over its horns. Men with stakes also provoked it, and if it was chasing them, straightened the stakes and stopped it.

The yellow jackets, when the bull was to be killed, went to it, and the first holding the middle of the horns and the others soon after immobilising it, cutting its hocks and killing it. After, came six horses covered in green fabric, with coachmen and footmen, who tied a rope to its horns and dragged it out of the arena.

After three or four bulls were tired or killed by the footmen there was another let out and the Conde de Sarzedas came in upon a fine well-ranged horse, having seventy four lackeys came in before him, half in red liveries with silver lace, half in green with silver lace.

He advanced directly to the royal platform, retreated and advanced three times greeting the King of Portugal and the Queen of England. Afterwards he went, in a serious and serene pace, in search of the bull. When the bull ran around the horse, the Count picked up a spear from the hands of a foot soldier and buried it between the horns of the animal at the nape of the neck, breaking it, and, each time that the bull came he did the same. Three or four times he went out to change mounts. They killed in total thirteen bulls that afternoon.

When all the bulls had been killed, the Count came again to greet the King and Queen, and has had been done at the start, and went out. The dances started again and the feast ended at sundown.

Pedro  •  Link

Montagu and money.

From Ollard's biography of Montagu I cannot find any references of his finances under Cromwell, but he says that although he was an acute and informed student of economic affairs when in government, was lazy and careless about money. He tells us that Clarendon says kindly things about his friend's character, but concedes that "avarice" was the sole blemish (though it never appeared in any gross instance) that seemed to cloud many noble virtues in that Earl.

After the Restoration he granted lands worth L4000 a year: was made Privy Counsellor and a Commissioner of the Treasury and, richest of all prizes he had he bestirred himself to exploit it , Master of the Great Wardrobe. (He adds that the imagination boggles at what Pepys would have extracted from such a goldmine.) Other offices that came to him were Master of the King's Swans and Bailiff of Whittlesea Mere.

language hat  •  Link

The section from the ODNB (article by Davies) on the period we've been reading about lately is as follows:

Sandwich was one of the Garter knights who bore the canopy over the king's head at the coronation (23 April 1661). Additionally, he was elected to the Royal Society on 13 February 1661 and appointed master of the king's swans on 10 May, having become "lieutenant, or admiral and general of the narrow seas" (Journal, xxix) effectively vice-admiral of England on 18 March. The perennial disputes with the north African Barbary regencies over freedom of the seas, and the imminent marriage of Charles II to Catherine of Braganza, led to Sandwich's being sent with a fleet to the Mediterranean, with the additional title of ambassador-extraordinary to Portugal. He sailed in June 1661 and after recovering from a fever anchored before Algiers on 29 July and engaged in a desultory exchange of fire with the town. From September he was at Lisbon to begin the arrangements for the royal wedding, sailing on 3 October to take possession of Tangier, part of Catherine's dowry. His fleet oversaw the Portuguese evacuation and the arrival of the English garrison before sailing once more for Lisbon on 18 February. After a spectacular ceremonial entrance into the city, he spent two months conducting the protracted negotiations over the payment of Catherine's dowry. The fleet sailed on 15 April, arriving at Spithead on 14 May, and Sandwich attended the subsequent marriage ceremony at Portsmouth.

Jan Burton  •  Link

I have some interest in Her Ladyship the Duchess of Sandwich, Dorothy. How ancient is her Peerage? How did she come by it? What is the current status?
Can anyone answer me? Jan

Eric  •  Link

I would like to know details of the regiment, broken in 1660, of which Edward Montagu was colonel and Samuel Pepys secretary and muster master.

Samuel Pepys and Edward Montagu were first cousins once removed. I don't think this relationship is correctly described as distant.

Eric  •  Link

William of Impington was (according Wheatley's notes to Mynors Bright's transcription)the grandfather of the Earl of Sandwich and the great-grandfather of Samuel Pepys which I believe makes them first cousins once removed.

Lynn  •  Link

Half first cousins once removed
(according to Sam's family tree in Tomalin's book)

in Aqua Scripto  •  Link

Sam does not have any Montague genes, but Montague dothe have a few Pepis genes?

Eric  •  Link

The OED defines
first, second cousin, etc.: expressing the relationship of persons descended the same number of steps in distinct lines from a common ancestor.
Thus the children of brothers or sisters are first cousins to each other; the children of first cousins are second cousins to each other; and so on. The term second cousin, is also loosely applied to the son or daughter of a first cousin, more exactly called a (first) cousin once removed
Half-cousin The child of one's father's or mother's cousin; a second cousin. Sometimes applied to the child of one's own cousin, or to the cousin of one's father or mother.
and gives the example 1871 Carlyle in Mrs. Carlyle's Lett. II. 231 ‘Sophy’, an orphan half-cousin.
Therefore they were fisst cousins once removed. The issue of whole and half blood was relevant then but only in questions of inheritance of land
see New South Wales Law Reform Commission Issues Paper 26 April 2005
6.7 Distinctions between relatives of the whole and half blood appear to have been relevant for the purposes of identifying an heir under the English law relating to the inheritance of land under primo genitur, so that, for example, brothers of the half blood could only inherit after sisters of the whole blood, and so on.( Inheritance Act of 1833 (3&4 William IV c 106) s 9) This and other such distinctions in the law of heirship were described in 1881 (James LJ In re Goodman’s Trusts (1881) 17 ChD 266 at 299) as “precious absurdities in the English law of real property”. There would appear to be no justification for such a distinction in the law of intestate succession today.

Eric  •  Link

GEC (Vol 11 p. 430) descibes Paulina Pepys as the daughter of William of Cottenham by Edith Talbot his first wife. His footnote is:
For the connexion with Samuel Pepys, the diarist, see the corrected Pepys ped(egree)., recently recorded in the College of Arms, in Wheatley, Pepysiana, facing p. 4, ex inform. W. A. Lindsay, Windsor Herald. He was the great-nephew of Paulina, Sir Sydney Montagu's wife, who was a sister of his grandfather Thomas Pepys, the elder.

jeannine  •  Link

"Journal of the Earl of Sandwich" edited by R.C. Anderson (Appendix IV)

(Carte MSS. Vol 75, f. 193)

James, Duke of York and Albany, Earl of Ulster, Lord High Admiral of England and Ireland, etc. Constable of Dover Castle, Lord Warden of Cinque Ports and Governor of Portsmouth, etc.

To Edward Earl of Sandwich my Lieutenant and Admiral and Captain General of the Narrow Seas, and Admiral of his Majesty's Fleet, now bound forth to the sea.

So soon as his Majesty's ships (now in the Hope) shall be fully provided of their victuals and stores for four months, you are to order them to take the first opportunity of sailing into the Downs, where you are to take upon you the charge and command not only of the said ships, but likewise of such other of his Majesty's ships as you shall find there, or shall hereafter be sent thither for his Majesty's service, within his Majesty's seas.

You are to take care that Almighty God be duly served on board the ship under your command twice every day by the whole ship's company, according to the Liturgy of the Church of England, and that blasphemy, drunkenness, swearing and profaneness be discountenanced, restrained and punished.

You are from time to time to send out such of his Majesty's ships or vessels under your command as you shall judge fit, toward the coast of Holland, or to any other parts where you shall understand the Dutch fleet or any considerable part thereof shall be, to the end you may by that means have frequent and certain information of their number, strength and motion.

You are to instruct the commanders of such ships or vessels as you shall so send forth, and all others, that they do not attempt any hostility against any of his Majesty's Allies, unless they shall refuse or neglect to strike sail unto his Majesty's ships, or to do such other things as are customarily done in acknowledgement of his Majesty's right and Sovereignty of the Sea.

You are upon all occasions to take care that his Majesty's hounour be preserved, and his subjects protected and defended.

You are to take care to preserve good order and discipline in his Majesty's fleet under your command, and to that end (as occasion shall require) you are to put in execution the Articles of War established by Act of Parliament, and to hold Courts Martial for punishing offenders, according to the Commission particularly granted to you on that behalf.

You are to give me frequent notice of all occurrences which may any way concern his Majesty's service, to the end you may receive such further orders as may conduce to the good of his Majesty's service.

Given under my hand at St. James's this ninth day of July 1664.


By command of his R: Highness
W. Coventry

(Endorsed by Sandwich) July 9, 1664. His Royal Highness. Instructions upon my first going to sea this summer.

Michael Webb  •  Link

Correspondence of Edward Mountagu (Montagu), 1st Earl of Sandwich, forms part of the Carte collection at the Bodleian Library. An online calendar of the papers from the Restoration period (1660-1687) is available.…

Second Reading

Bill  •  Link

A two volume biography (1912) by F.R. Harris is available in a Kindle edition. ($1.98 in North America)

"The Life of Edward Montagu, K. G., First Earl of Sandwich (1625-1672)"

San Diego Sarah  •  Link

The British Civil War Project has a good article about Sandwich ... as you know, there is more than one Edward Montagu to select from at this time, and unfortunately the link is too long for this site, so I have to make a break in the middle so the important part doesn't get lost (i.e. you'll have to manually relink before pressing ENTER): biography/edward-montagu-earl-of-sandwich

San Diego Sarah  •  Link

Robert Boyle, a biography, by Flora Masson - Page 292…

The death of the great admiral, Edward Montagu, Earl of Sandwich, at the battle of Solebay, on May 28, 1672, removed the other splendid father-in-law of the Burlington family. His funeral, "by water to Westminster, in solemn pomp," must have affected the inmates of the house in Pall Mall as well as the families in the two Piccadilly palaces. "They will not have me live," Lord Sandwich had said sadly to John Evelyn before he sailed. [1]

It is certain the whole trend of politics at this time — the crypto-Catholic movement, burrowing its way into Protestant England; the capuchins flitting about between Whitehall and St. James's; the alliance with the French against the Dutch, and the prolonged war with Holland; the plottings and placings of the Cabal, and the quarrels and changes in the royal harem, which had pushed up to the very door of the house in Pall Mall — must have been utterly distasteful to Robert Boyle and his passionately Puritan sister.[2]
[1] Evelyn's Diary,
[2] Katharine Boyle Jones, Lady Ranelagh

San Diego Sarah  •  Link

Why was Rupert so opposed to Sandwich?

I consulted “Rupert, Prince Palatine”
Late Scholar of Somerville College, Oxford

Scott was also in the dark on the origins of Rupert’s supposed personal aversion to Sandwich, which she thought may or may not have been well grounded.[23]
[23] Rupert to Henry Bennet, Lord Arlington, 2 July, 1665.

Admiral Edward Montagu, 1st Earl of Sandwich's character has been variously represented, and his honesty was certainly suspected. Pepys, confided to his diary his concern for his cousin in "that cursed business of the prizes," and his vehement disapproval of the whole affair.[24]
[24] Pepys. 11 Oct., 31 Sept 1665, 12 Jan. 1666, 23 Oct. 1667.

On the other hand, both John Evelyn and Chancellor Clarendon esteemed Sandwich highly.

Be the reasons what they may, Rupert was averse to sharing the command with Sandwich, and hesitated to accept it. A conference with Charles II at Hampton Court at last won him over; he submitted "very cheerfully," and forthwith made ready to sail.[25]
[25] Clarendon Life, II. 402.

Unfortunately, Coventry, who disliked Rupert "for no other reason than for not esteeming him at the same rate he valued himself," says Chancellor Clarendon, succeeded in persuading Charles II that the result of such a union must be disastrous.

When all was ready, and Rupert's personal retinue on board, Charles II affectionately informed his cousin that he could not dispense with his society that summer. Rupert, "though wonderfully surprised, perplexed, and even brokenhearted," offered no resistance.


Rupert quietly disembarked his retinue, and returned, "with very much trouble," to Court.[26]
[26] Clarendon Life, II. 403.

Rupert may have found consolation in the fact that the Earl of Sandwich did nothing all summer, and, on his return, fell under a cloud on charges of peculation. Rupert seems to have treated him with kindness, giving him support,[27] but the sympathies of the Parliament were evidenced by a proposal to vote to Rupert a gift of £10,000, and to Sandwich half-a-crown.[28]
[27] Pepys. 25 Oct. 1665.
[28] Pepys. 6 Nov. 1665.

San Diego Sarah  •  Link


Sandwich being thus disposed of, the command of the fleet was offered in 1666 to Rupert, in conjunction with Gen. George Monck, Duke of Albemarle. To this new colleague Rupert had no objections, and there was, happily, "great unanimity and consent between them." True, Rupert would preferred to have sailed in a separate ship, but, it being represented that this might cause confusion in orders, he yielded to the argument.

Albemarle left much to Rupert's management, "declaring modestly, upon all occasions, that he was no seaman;" and this was doubtless pleasing to the Prince, who loved to rule. As both Generals-of-the-Sea were "men of great dexterity and indefatigable industry," the outlook was exceedingly favorable.[29]
[29] Clarendon's Life, III. 69.

The sailors welcomed Rupert gladly; on February 13, 1666 "several sea-captains who had served under Prince Rupert, invited him to dinner, and spoke cheerfully of going against the Dutch again together."[30]
[30] Dom. State Papers, Feb. 16, 1666.

So, Rupert was a Royalist, through and through. Sandwich was not, until he came over in the summer of 1659 – which you can also say of Albermarle.

Perhaps some lingering distrust, fueled by the prize scandal, and/or personal jealousy, created this rift. My guess is that there was something more which has gone unrecorded.

It’s a shame Pepys was implicated in this. The needs of the fleet would seem to be more important than any of this.

San Diego Sarah  •  Link


Yes, something had gone before, which is unrecorded.

I had forgotten this incident:

'... it was late in September, 1660 when he [PRINCE RUPERT] arrived in London.

'Prince Rupert’s coming had been for some time anxiously expected, although he was evidently regarded as still in the Emperor's service. "For ambassadors," it was said, "we look for Don Luis de Haro's brother from Spain, with 300 followers; Prince Rupert, with a great train from the Emperor; and the Duc d'Epernon from France, with no less State."[4]
[4] Hist. MSS. Com. Rept. V. App. I. p. 173. Sutherland MSS., 4 Aug. 1660.

'Rupert came in a strictly private capacity. On September 29, 1660, Pepys recorded in his diary: "Prince Rupert is come to Court, welcome to nobody!"[5]
[5] Pepys Diary, Sept. 29, 1660.

Why 'Prince Rupert had, this early, incurred the diarist's enmity is puzzling. Later, the causes of it are perfectly understandable. Although unwelcome to Pepys, Rupert was welcome to many people, and not least so to the Royal family, who received him as one of themselves.'

I can find no mention of Rupert carousing through Huntington, or visiting Hinchingbrooke, or even Cambridge, during the Civil Wars ... but maybe Pepys had heard bad things? I can't think of where Rupert and Admiral Montagu could have met before the Restoration. It's very odd, but here it is. The seeds of enmity were sown before 1660.

Lightly edited from “Rupert, Prince Palatine”
by EVA SCOTT -- Late Scholar of Somerville College, Oxford


Third Reading

San Diego Sarah  •  Link

BEFORE THE DIARY: Montagu was given his large suite of rooms at Whitehall by Cromwell when he took up residence there as Lord Protector, some (including Montagu) wanted him to be a King. Stephen Coote notes: "the changing tone of Whitehall...Cromwell had taken on monarchical powers and these were now suggested by the increasing pomp with which he was surrounded. The palace was no longer a chaotic scrimmage, unregulated and swarming with people."

There was now ceremony which was usually associated with a king, Sir Gilbert Pickering was Lord Chamberlain, and Col. Jones, Controller, with his white staff of office. Montagu was a favored member of this new "court",

That remained true under Cromwell's son Richard ("Tumbledown Dick"), until he retired to the country.

Montagu did the same, but his apartment was never lost as there was no one authorized to take it away. One of Pepys' jobs was to look after these premises, and he was allocated his own room in the attic.…

L&M Companion: From 1653 until the date of his death, Adm. Edward Montagu had an official residence in Whitehall Palace. These lodgings comprised part (all?) of the gatehouse of the King's Gate together with rooms adjacent to it on both sides of the street.

He also had official lodgings at The Wardrobe in the years 1660-1668 and, from 1664 onwards, rented other premises in Lincoln's Inn Fields and Hampstead.

Thus, Sandwich had residences in both London and Westminster and also a 'country' residence in Hampstead as well as his country seat at Hinchingbrooke.

San Diego Sarah  •  Link

Edward Montagu and Samuel Pepys both attended the same Grammar school in Huntingdon, and they both went to University (some years apart). But the education they received was very different.
Pepys at University…
Montagu at University…
That was followed for Montagu by a spell at the Middle Inns in London…

Pepys knew his Latin and Greek -- Montagu not so much, But he didn't have to. He could employ Pepys.

San Diego Sarah  •  Link

Montagu’s journal provides details of the various expeditions in which he was involved, during the period 1658/9 and 1665, notably a major deployment to the Baltic (the ‘Sound’) and operations in the Mediterranean against Algiers and in support of the acquisition of Tangiers, as well as (in the Second Dutch War) the battle of Lowestoft, the attack on Bergen and the Dutch East India fleet.

Throughout the account, there are interesting insights into the evolution of line of battle tactics and worries about whether merchant ships should be routinely grouped with warships in action (common practice up to that time). Most usefully, there are details of orders of battle and a variety of letters, minor journals and accounts that supplement the main journal narrative. This is also remarkable in reflecting the unusually close (for a nobleman) personal interest that Sandwich took in all aspects of navigation and seamanship, especially astronavigation, through the regular use of ‘my sea quadrant’.

To read the journals, please become a member of the Naval Records Society.…

San Diego Sarah  •  Link

Greenwich had a display from Sandwich's journals in 2017; their webpage showing his writing and a letter from Henry Bennet, Lord Arlington to Sandwich after the Great Fire is still available…

San Diego Sarah  •  Link

The 1659 trip to the Baltic -- what happened to Adm. Edward Montagu:

Personally devoted to the House of Cromwell, Adm. Edward Montagu had made his submission to the new government so plainly contre coeur that it was thought well to keep him at a distance, and for this reason he was joined with the plenipotentiaries, sent to mediate between Denmark and Sweden, and placed in command of the fleet that conducted them to the Sound.

Charles II sent Sir Thomas Whetstone to the Baltic, charged with delivering private offers to the men and officers of the fleet, and with overtures to be made to the Admiral through his cousin, Edward “Ned” Montagu.

Montagu disliked the choice of Whetstone as the messenger, who alarmed him by showing himself freely in the streets of Copenhagen, and although he consented to receive Charles II's letter, he refused to intrust Whetstone with any reply.

Montagu was next visited by his relative, Charles Hatton, to whom Montagu admitted Charles II 'should not want servants in the fleet when opportunity occurred,’ and on August 6, 1659, Montagu wrote to assure Chancellor Hyde of his readiness to embrace the royal cause.

In pursuance of these promises, Adm. Montagu hastened his fleet homeward on the outbreak of the subsequent rising [BOOTH'S].

On September 14, 1659, Montagu and the remains of his fleet arrived in the Channel too late to be of service, whereupon he excused his conduct to the Rump Parliament as best he could, resigned his commission, and retired into the country. 2
2 Carte, Letters, ii. pp. 202, 211; Clarendon, History, xvi. pp. 153-158; Clarendon State Papers, iii. p. 493; Clarendon MSS., Ix. ff. 499, 560; Ixi. ff. 162, 276, 280, 291; Ixii. fol. 114, July 25, 29, 1659; Ixiii. August 6, 1659, Montagu to Hyde. May- July 1659

The collapse of the insurrection was due to the usual causes, and chiefly to the lack of unanimity among its devisors.

From THE TRAVELS OF THE KING Charles II in Germany and Flanders 1654-1660
Edinburgh: T. and A. CONSTABLE, Printers to His Majesty…

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Chart showing the number of references in each month of the diary’s entries.