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San Diego Sarah has posted 3,751 annotations/comments since 6 August 2015.

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About Wednesday 4 December 1667

San Diego Sarah  •  Link

"This day Gilsthrop is buried, who hath made all the late discourse of the great discovery of 65,000l., of which the King hath been wronged."

Too bad, Pepys ... another witness lost who could have testified to what Sir William Batten knew, and when he knew it. Did Gilsthrop tell you where the 65,000l. was buried? Nooooo ...

About Sir Edward/Richard Bishop

San Diego Sarah  •  Link

Sergeants at Arms at Court 1660–1837
1660 08 June Bulstrode, H.
1660 09 June Topham, J.
1660 11 June Harsnet, R.
1660 12 June Blaney, T.
1660 12 June Skynner, W.
1660 12 June Thorne, R.
1660 14 June Charnock, G.
1660 16 June Bettenson, J.
1660 19 June Bishop, R.
1660 20 June Turst, S.
1660 20 June Barton, J.
1660 22 June Langston, F.
1660 23 June Ward, J.
1660 25 June Bull, M.
1660 25 June Seale, G.
1660 29 June Beck, J.
1660 30 June Middleton, J.
1660 02 July Barcroft, J.
1660 20 July Haddon, A.
1660 22 Nov. Williamson, E.
1661 24 Sept. Gyde, R.
1662 08 Feb. Fitzsimmons, O.
1662 31 Dec. Harrington, B.
1663 21 Feb. Payne, T.
1664 14 Mar. Houlker, W.
1666 15 Oct. Kent, R.
1667 23 Dec. Smith, G.
1669 07 Aug. Charnock, R.

Sergeant at Arms in Ordinary w/o Fee 1666–1676; 1681–1682
n.d. Meux, -
1666 16 Oct. Barcroft, J.
1670 01 Apr. Kent, R.
1676 09 Aug. Deerham, H. (in Extraordinary)
1681 18 May Gardiner, T. (in Extraordinary)

Sergeant at Arms to the Lord Chancellor 1660–1837
1660 Leigh, H.
1673 10 July Charnock, Sir G. (joint)
1673 10 July Charnock, R. (joint)

Sergeant at Arms to the Lord Chancellor in Extraordinary 1668–73
1668 14 Apr. Wood, E.
1671 21 Feb. Charnock, Sir G.

Sergeant at Arms to the Speaker 1660–1837
1660 25 Apr. Norfolk, J.
1675 08 Oct. Bishop, W.

Sergeant at Arms to the Treasury 1660–1832
[1660] Dandy, E., sen.
1660 13 July Warner, T.
1663 27 June Stephens, F.
1673 12 June Ramsey, J.

Sergeant at Arms to the City of London 1660–1782
1660 Barker, M.
1672 21 Aug. Mann, W.

The above is excerpted to cover the Diary period:
https://www.british-history.ac.uk/office-holders/…

About Sir Edward/Richard Bishop

San Diego Sarah  •  Link

Sergeants at Arms 1660–1837

The sergeants at arms to the court generally waited in the presence chamber, carrying the maces before the King when he processed to the chapel or the House of Lords. As this implies, they assisted in providing security in the public rooms, and might be required to arrest or detain malefactors. They were appointed by lord chamberlain's warrant. As a general rule their appointments were embodied in letters patent under the great seal. They included a corps of sergeants attached to the court, designated in the lists below simply `sergeants at arms' and individual sergeants serving particular officers.

They all enjoyed the same basic remuneration. This originally consisted of a salary of 12d a day and an allowance in lieu of diet of 15d a day.
In 1663 these sums were raised to 3s and 2s 6d respectively amounting to an annual total of £100 7s 6d. This was paid at the Exchequer except in the cases of the lord chancellor's sergeant who was paid at the hanaper and the city sergeant who was paid from the revenues of London and Middlesex. The sergeants at arms were provided with maces and collars and were also allowed riding wages, fees of honour and fees on the commitment of prisoners.

Originally numbering 16, the court sergeants were reduced to eight in 1685.

These offices were granted for life until 1677 and during pleasure thereafter with the exception of Edmund Williamson who was appointed for life in 1698.

The sergeant at arms attending the lord chancellor was appointed for life until 1713 and during good behavior thereafter. He was regarded as an officer of the House of Lords and from 1693 received an allowance of 10s a day for every day for which the House sat.

The office of sergeant at arms attending the speaker of the House of Commons was held for life until 1693 and during good behavior thereafter. The position was complicated by the interest which the House of Commons took in the identity of the individual whom they regarded as their own officer.

At the Restoration in 1660 four individuals, Michael Crake, Edward Birkhead, Richard Bishop and William Bishop, were living and in possession of letters patent from Charles I granting the office to them successively. Ignoring their interests, the House of its own motion appointed James Norfolk to the post on 25 April 1660.

By letters patent of 7 May 1661 the Crown suspended the previous grantees from the execution of the office and granted the reversion to Norfolk who was formally admitted on 23 May following.

The sergeant at arms to the Treasury held office for life until 1684 and during pleasure thereafter.

The office of sergeant at arms to the city of London was held on a life tenure until 1672 and during pleasure thereafter.

About Sir Robert Bruce Cotton

San Diego Sarah  •  Link

Sir Robert Bruce Cotton MP’s parliamentary career belongs to the Stuart period, although he was returned to Queen Elizabeth’s last Parliament for an Isle of Wight borough by Sir George Carey, to whom he may have been introduced by Thomas James. Bodley’s first librarian.

Cotton later put Thomas James’ nephew in charge of his own library.

A bill had been introduced into the 1597 Parliament to deal with Cotton’s lands, to which were appointed William Cotton and (Sir) Robert Wroth I, father of the second Newtown MP in 1601.

Sir Robert Bruce Cotton MP died 6 May, 1631 and was buried at Connington.

Since Cotton died long before the diary, here's a link to his Parliamentary bio for you to read if interested:
https://www.historyofparliamentonline.org/volume/…

About Sir Robert Bruce Cotton

San Diego Sarah  •  Link

Sir Robert Cotton (1571–1631) was a politician and antiquarian scholar, who began to assemble his collection of manuscripts as early as 1588, aged 17. Cotton's collecting interests focused on works central to the study of British history, such as chronicles, cartularies, maps and state papers.

The importance of these manuscripts for our knowledge of the past cannot be overstated. For example, Robert Cotton brought together the largest collection of Anglo-Saxon manuscripts in the world, including two early copies of Bede's Historia ecclesiastica gentis Anglorum and five manuscripts of the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, as well as the earliest surviving Anglo-Saxon charter, dating from AD 679.

After Robert Cotton's death, the library passed in turn to his son, Sir Thomas Cotton (d. 1662), and grandson, Sir John Cotton (d. 1702).

In 1702, the Cotton library was acquired by the British government, the first occasion that any library passed into national ownership in Britain – an important step in the creation of a national, public library.

Ever since the library's formation, the Cotton manuscripts have been made available for consultation by scholars worldwide.

You can view many of the Cotton manuscripts on the British Library's Digitized Manuscripts site. They recommend you type into the Manuscripts’ search engine on the homepage 'Cotton MS' or 'Cotton Ch' in order to see those currently available; more are being added all the time.

For a preview of some of the spectacular documents you can find at the British Library, check out
http://blogs.bl.uk/digitisedmanuscripts/2018/06/s…

About Tuesday 22 September 1663

San Diego Sarah  •  Link

We read last month that Charles II had grown cold towards Castlemaine ... maybe this is why:

"Henry 'the little' Jermyn's seduction of Barbara Villiers Palmer, Countess of Castlemaine was later described in all its erotic detail by Barbara’s lesbian lover, Delarivierre Manley. The affair, which ran parallel to Barbara's relationship with Charles II, almost certainly produced a child, the Duke of Grafton, whose paternity is usually attributed to Charles II."

http://anthonyadolph.co.uk/harry-jermyn/

About Saturday 3 May 1662

San Diego Sarah  •  Link

Meanwhile, in the Mediterranean:

Charles II, whose restoration was celebrated by an unsuccessful expedition against Algiers under Admiral Edward Montagu, Earl of Sandwich. This was soon followed by another, with a more favorable result, under Admiral Lawson.44

[44] Rapin's History of England, vol. ii. pp. 858, 864.

By a treaty bearing date May 3, 1662, the Algerian 'government' expressly stipulated, "that all subjects of the King of Great Britain, now slaves in Algiers, or any of the territories thereof, be set at liberty, and released, upon paying the price they were first sold for in the market; and for the time to come no subjects of his Majesty shall be bought or sold, or made slaves of, in Algiers or its territories."45

[45] Recueil des Traitez de Paix, tom. iv. p. 43.

Other expeditions and other treaties followed in 1664, 1672, 1682, and 1686 — showing, by their constant recurrence and iteration, the little impression they produced upon the Algerians.46

[46] Recueil des Traitez de Paix, tom. iv. pp. 307, 476, 703, 756.

Insensible to justice and freedom, the Algerians held in slight regard the obligations of fidelity to any stipulations in restraint of robbery and slaveholding.

During a long succession of years, complaints of the sufferings of English captives continued to be made.

http://www.gutenberg.org/files/35222/35222-h/3522…
Title: White Slavery in the Barbary States
Author: Charles Sumner
Character set encoding: ISO-8859-1
LONDON: LOW AND COMPANY.
1853.

About Sunday 1 December 1667

San Diego Sarah  •  Link

"The cuckold story was untraced elsewhere."

Pepys judging others by himself again.
Usual male stereotyping of the 17th century.

About Roger L'Estrange

San Diego Sarah  •  Link

Roger L'Estrange was a Royalist and a member of the Church of England. He was
acutely aware that Charles II had brought back his church, and so they were
closely allied. This somewhat simplistic point of view led him to translate and
love Seneca, especially during the Popish Plot; people either loved him or
hated him.

L’ESTRANGE HIS LIFE: PUBLIC AND PERSONA IN THE LIFE AND CAREER OF
SIR ROGER L’ESTRANGE, 1616-1704
BY DARRICK N. TAYLOR
Copyright 2011
https://www.researchgate.net/publication/27946768…'Estrange_His_Life_Public_and_Persona_in_the_Life_and_Career_of_Sir_Roger_L'Estrange_1616-1704

I think Pepys was affected by studying Seneca at University as well
https://dailystoic.com/seneca/

About Seneca

San Diego Sarah  •  Link

Some Seneca quotes from my favorite Stoic:

“Think your way through difficulties: harsh conditions can be softened, restricted ones can be widened, and heavy ones can weigh less on those who know how to bear them.”

“Let all your activity be directed to some object, let it have some end in view.”

“Often a very old man has no other proof of his long life than his age.”

“We say that nothing happens to the wise man against his expectation.”

“Believe me it is better to understand the balance-sheet of one’s own life than of the corn trade.”

“We are not given a short life but we make it short, and we are not Ill-supplied but wasteful of it.”
https://dailystoic.com/seneca/

About Monday 14 November 1664

San Diego Sarah  •  Link

Liz, Pepys does mention arriving at people's homes, and finding the table full, or some other reason it wasn't appropriate to join the group. He leaves, and it doesn't appear to be considered a blunder or ill-mannered on either side. I suspect the doorman/maid says something like, "Good afternoon, Mr. Pepys. I'm sorry, but dinner has begun and the table is full. Perhaps tomorrow ...?"

And I also appreciate the BBC maintaining their links and podcasts for years.

About Saturday 30 November 1667

San Diego Sarah  •  Link

"Williamson was Secretary to Arlington, whose political security was in jeopardy in this crisis."

I should think so. All year I have been wondering at the lack of actionable intelligence, or the wanton ignoring of the intelligence. Pepys was reporting that the Dutch were off the coast, but Charles never alerted his volunteers to round up their usual suspects and prepare to repel the invaders, or recalled his available ships which he had stationed in Southampton, Portsmouth, Hull, Leith, etc.
The debacle at Chatham squarely falls on Secretary of State Henry Bennet, Lord Arlington in my book.
(It must be the King's bad councilors again! Sound familiar?)

Diary of Ralph Josselin (Private Collection)
6.6.1667 (Thursday 6 June 1667)
document 70015520
June. 6 the Dutch on Harwich coast. Thursday –
June. 12. Wednesday. they attempt Chatham river to destroy our great ships with success and continued their pleasure.
June. 27. they came up near Gravesend, they put a stop to all trade, and forced us to defend the whole shore. to our charge and amazement.

About Bear Garden

San Diego Sarah  •  Link

Bear baiting and animal fights were banned as public entertainment during the Interregnum, and reinstated by Charles II. Both Pepys and Evelyn document attending at least one afternoon at the Bear Garden.

"Near the end of his 1606 play Macbeth, William Shakespeare included a scene in which the doomed title character says that his enemies,
“have tied me to a stake; I cannot fly,
But, bear-like, I must fight the course.”

"The line might seem inconsequential to modern readers, but for the audiences who watched the Bard’s plays 400 years ago, it would have been an obvious reference to one of the most popular pastimes of the day: bear-baiting.

"Many of the same Londoners who flocked to Shakespeare’s Globe Theatre were also patrons of the nearby “Bear Gardens,” where bears, dogs, bulls, chimps and other creatures routinely fought to the death in front of roaring crowds.

"Along with the theater, animal blood sports were among the most beloved entertainments of 16th and 17th century England. In London, the shows took place in the seamy Bankside district, which was home to several purpose-built arenas.

“There,” wrote one 1639 visitor, “you may hear the shouting of men, the barking of dogs, the growling of the bears, and the bellowing of the bulls, mixed in a wild but natural harmony.”

Much more plus woodcuts
https://www.history.com/news/the-gruesome-blood-s…

About General resources

San Diego Sarah  •  Link

Vocabulary:
Dr. Ros Barber recommends the following site for information on the origins of words, and what was correctly used when.
She is a senior lecturer in the Department of English and Comparative Literature at Goldsmiths, University of London, and Director of Research at the Shakespearean Authorship Trust and is three times winner (2011, 2014, 2018) of the Hoffman Prize for a distinguished work on Christopher Marlowe.

The Historical Thesaurus of English is available from the University of Glasgow. Their thesaurus allows you to find out how language is used through the ages. As an example, you can search “toilet” and find out how to refer to that in 1563, or parts of a person’s body in 1603, etc.

Explore at https://ht.ac.uk/

About History resources

San Diego Sarah  •  Link

Vocabulary:
Dr. Ros Barber recommends the following site for information on the origins of words, and what was correctly used when.
She is a senior lecturer in the Department of English and Comparative Literature at Goldsmiths, University of London, and Director of Research at the Shakespearean Authorship Trust and is three times winner (2011, 2014, 2018) of the Hoffman Prize for a distinguished work on Christopher Marlowe.

The Historical Thesaurus of English is available from the University of Glasgow. Their thesaurus allows you to find out how language is used through the ages. As an example, you can search “toilet” and find out how to refer to that in 1563, or parts of a person’s body in 1603, etc.

Explore at https://ht.ac.uk/

About Sunday 12 February 1659/60

San Diego Sarah  •  Link

Since we are discussing vocabulary, Dr. Ros Barber recommends the following site for information on the origins of words, and what was correctly used when.
She is a senior lecturer in the Department of English and Comparative Literature at Goldsmiths, University of London, and Director of Research at the Shakespearean Authorship Trust and is three times winner (2011, 2014, 2018) of the Hoffman Prize for a distinguished work on Christopher Marlowe.

The Historical Thesaurus of English is available from the University of Glasgow. Their thesaurus allows you to find out how language is used through the ages. As an example, you can search “toilet” and find out how to refer to that in 1563, or parts of a person’s body in 1603, etc.

Explore at https://ht.ac.uk/

About Friday 29 November 1667

San Diego Sarah  •  Link

"Next morning, I heard he was gone; though I am persuaded that, had he gone sooner, though but to Cornbury, and there lain quiet, it would have satisfied the Parliament. That which exasperated them was his presuming to stay and contest the accusation as long as it was possible: and they were on the point of sending him to the Tower."

Cornbury is the name of the Hyde's estate in Oxfordshire
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cornbury_Park

I'll miss you Clarendon, even if you had become a curmudgeon.

About Friday 29 November 1667

San Diego Sarah  •  Link

How about the noise being a small child climbing through the flues, knocking down the soot as s/he went? Tudor chimneys had stone steps inside for this purpose.

"Chimney Sweeps came to prevalence in the 17th century around the time of the Great Fire of London in 1666. The great fire brought about far more concern related to fire safety, and small children were introduced into the world of chimney sweeping. It was believed that small children could do a better job removing all of the combustible soot from the chimney to prevent chimney fires. Around this time, chimneys were also made smaller in order to increase the velocity of the smoke travelling up the chimney and increase the temperature in the flue so the amount of soot produced was reduced, and chimneys were less likely to ignite.

Children were apprenticed by a Master Sweep. Often these apprentices were orphans. It was an unfortunate job for the children, who could have been as young as 3, and the life expectancy was low. Children would often become wedged in the chimneys, which were as small as 9 inches by 9 inches (230mm x 230mm), and little fires would sometimes be lit in the fireplace to speed up the child. Master Sweeps were often known to have sticks with sharp ends that they would use to stab the children in the feet to hurry them if they were at all scared or hesitant. It wasn’t as uncommon for a child to die in the flues If they became stuck. Sometimes they could not remove the child without breaking a hole in the chimney wall further up in the house. This depended on the homeowner valuing the life of a child more than the decor of their house."
https://www.thelocalchimneysweep.co.uk/the-histor…

About Friday 29 November 1667

San Diego Sarah  •  Link

"Why is it safer to get out of bed on his wife's side?"

Having been in a few very old houses, there are sometimes squeaks where there's give in the floorboards. Perhaps there was one on Pepys' side of the bed, but Elizabeth was closer to a wall so there was less give. By getting out on her side, he could quietly pick up the firebrand (hard to imagine him wandering around the house with a piece of glowing wood in his hand, but that's what he says) and get to the door.

We had a loose board under fitted carpet in a hallway when I was growing up. My sheltie loved to run down the hallway, purposely landing on the loose board a couple of times. I think it made him feel like a BIG dog, but drove my parents nuts.