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San Diego Sarah has posted 2312 annotations/comments since 6 August 2015.

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About British East India Company

San Diego Sarah  •  Link

An informative cautionary tale about the East India Company (it's actually a book review) -- a long read, but well worth it.

The Stuart info is in the middle, and for the sake of the Diary I think these facts are the most relevant here:

Sir Thomas Roe, the ambassador sent by King James to the Mughal court, appeared before the Emperor Jahangir in 1614 –- at a time when the Mughal empire was still at its richest and most powerful. Jahangir inherited from his father Akbar one of the two wealthiest polities in the world, rivaled only by Ming China. His lands stretched through most of India, all of what is now Pakistan and Bangladesh, and most of Afghanistan. He ruled over five times the population commanded by the Ottomans – roughly 100 million people. His capitals were the megacities of their day.

In Milton’s Paradise Lost, the great Mughal cities of Emperor Jahangir’s India are shown to Adam as future marvels of divine design.

This was no understatement:
Agra, with a population approaching 700,000, dwarfed all of the cities of Europe,
while Lahore was larger than London, Paris, Lisbon, Madrid and Rome combined.
This was a time when India accounted for around a quarter of all global manufacturing.

In contrast, Britain then contributed less than 2% to global GDP, and the East India Company was so small that it was still operating from the home of its governor, Sir Thomas Smythe, with a permanent staff of only six. [After the Diary.]
It did, however, possess 30 tall ships and own its own dockyard at Deptford on the Thames. [Don't know how many ships it owned at the time of the Diary.]

Emperor Jahangir’s father, Akbar, had flirted with a project to civilize India’s European immigrants, whom he described as “an assemblage of savages”, but later dropped the plan as unworkable.

Akbar was right, IMHO.…

About Wednesday 13 June 1666

San Diego Sarah  •  Link

"And I do in several little things observe that Sir W. Coventry hath of late, by the by, reflected on the Duke of Albemarle and his captains, particularly in that of old Teddiman, who did deserve to be turned out this fight, and was so; but I heard Sir W. Coventry say that the Duke of Albemarle put in one as bad as he is in his room, and one that did as little."

General-at-Sea George Monck, Duke of Albemarle was broadly-speaking a "tar" -- one of the fighting men promoted by Cromwell for talent and ability.

William Coventry was a Royalist who had shared Charles II and James' exile. He seeks "balance" by putting into the Navy line-up some gentlemen of the Court, known as "Gentlemen Captains." (The unspoken fear is of a coup ... the tars joining the Dutch fleet, which represents a republic.)

And of course, Jean-Baptiste du Teil and Louis Duras, Marquis de Blanquefort were French, and who knew what Louis XIV and the French fleet were up to.

The conflict between the tars and the Gentlemen Captains would simmer for years.

About Wednesday 23 January 1666/67

San Diego Sarah  •  Link

"… Sir William Temple sends advertisements … that the French preparations are bent for Ireland, and that the design is like to be executed betwixt this & May …"

Former Parliamentarian Sir William Temple was the Envoy to Brussels from 1665 to 1667. He was also Lord Treasurer Thomas Osborne, Earl of Danby's Brother-in-Law.

He was created the 1st Bart. on 31 Jan. 1666. He was strongly pro-Dutch, and was recognized as the principal architect of the Triple Alliance in 1668. Consequently he was Ambassador to The Hague from 1668 to 1671, and supported the idea of teenage William of Orange marrying Princess Mary.…

About Friday 17 August 1666

San Diego Sarah  •  Link

No notes, Matt -- Bank of England the paper money arrive at the end of the century.

My guess is gold. Silver would be too bulky and heavy.

About Tuesday 27 March 1666

San Diego Sarah  •  Link

Pepys missed a big event today:

On 27 March 1666, Charles II, James, Duke of York and Prince Rupert attended launch of the Defiance, a 64-gun [64 guns comprising 22 demi-cannon, 28 culverins and 14 demi-culverins] third rate ship of the line of the English Royal Navy, ordered on 26 October 1664 under the shipbuilding program of that year. The launch was at William Castle's private shipyard at Deptford.

Robert Holmes was appointed captain and knighted during the occasion. (Was that why Pepys ignored the event?)

This is an opportunity to explain some of the rivalries amongst the "Gentlemen Captains" and the Tars (professional seamen, from the Commonwealth navy) to which Pepys will refer in the next few months, with frustration.

And this is also an opportunity to explain that the fleet was usually divided into three squadrons or vans, the Red, White and Blue. When sailing in line, one squadron leads, one is in the middle, and one brings up the rear. When the Generals-at-Sea display a particular set of flags (those famous bewpers), each van does whatever they have to do to change course, or adjust to take advantage of the wind, or attack a particular squadron of the enemy, etc. It takes practice when you have 80-plus ships and lots of people who have no idea what they are doing.

As a friend of Prince Rupert's, and a part of the Red Squadron, Sir Robert Holmes was finally given acting flag-rank when the fleet was divided to shadow the Dutch and simultaneously intercept the French (which put him, satisfyingly, one step above John Harman, Rear Admiral of the White - a slighting of the principle of seniority which would have been unthinkable by the end of the century).

During the Four Days Battle, Admiral Sir Robert Holmes was reported to have "done wonders" (CSP Dom., 7 June 1666), and was confirmed as rear-admiral of the Red, his ship having received such a battering that he transferred his flag to the partially burnt and dismasted Henry, Rear Adm. Sir John Harman's ship, who had been wounded.

But again, Rear Admiral Sir Robert Holmes' rivals, Sir Jeremiah Smith (Admiral of the Blue) and Sir Edward Spragge (Vice Admiral of the Blue) were promoted above him.

These professional rivalries were a hallmark of the restoration navy, and Holmes used the conduct of the St. James' Day battle to start a bitter quarrel with Sir Jeremiah Smith, whose rear squadron had been routed by Cornelis Van Tromp.

The recriminations between the officers and their respective factions played a role in the subsequent Parliamentary investigation over embezzlement in the naval administration and the conduct of the war.

For more about Holmes

About Saturday 21 July 1666

San Diego Sarah  •  Link

"... and the truth is, the gentlemen captains will undo us, for they are not to be kept in order, their friends about the King and Duke, and their own house, is so free, that it is not for any person but the Duke himself to have any command over them."

Who are these 'Gentlemen Captains"? I want names ...

My favorite Stuart Naval historian and author, JD Davies, has a wonderful blog about the Four Days Fight in particular, and the Gentlemen Captains in particular:

Briefly, the main ringleaders he has identified are:
Sir Robert Holmes ... who sailed with Prince Rupert in the 1650's in his pirate days ...
Sir Wm Berkeley
Sir Wm Jennens
George Legge, 1st Baron Dartmouth
Captain Francis Digby

More names of Captains involved, but not necessarily of problem "Gentlemen", can be gleaned from the official list of wounded and killed of the English Fleet in the Four Days Battle:

Officers Slaine and Wounded:

Captains Whitty of the Vanguard, Wood of the Henrietta, Bacon of the Bristol, Mootham of the Princess, Terne of the Triumph, Reeves of the Essex, Chappell of the Clove Tree, Dare of the House of Sweeds, Coppin of the St George, all slaine.

Sir William Clarke, secretary to His Grace of Albemarle, slaine.
Sir Christopher Myngs, maimed, and since dead.
Captain Holles, his arm shot off.
Captain Miller, his leg shot off, since dead.
Captain Gethings, drowned.
Captains Jennens and Fortescue, maimed;
Harman, hurt by the fall of a mast;
Pearce, Earle, Silver and Holmes, all wounded
Sir George Ayscue, prisoner in Holland.
Sir William Berkeley of the Swiftsure, perhaps prisoner in Holland, perhaps slaine.
Lost on the English side, 6,000 men.

This list JD Davies adapted from ‘A Particular Account of the Last Engagement between the Dutch and British, June 1666’: Bodleian Library, Oxford

About Saturday 29 December 1660

San Diego Sarah  •  Link

Florence had an interesting tradition about wine consumed in their city. If you go there today you will see some places where the tradition is being brought back. The story:

Many wealthy Florentines had homes inside the city walls as well as vineyards in the nearby countryside. In 1559, Cosimo I de’ Medici made it legal for Florentine families, which of course included his own, to sell wine directly from their palaces, instead of through taverns and innkeepers or middlemen. By selling wine directly from their homes, families could avoid taxes.

Small wine windows were installed in many wealthy homes, and became so popular that, by the early 19th century, nearly every moneyed family had installed one in their palace.

The process of buying wine from a “buchetta del vino” was easy. Anyone could use the wooden or metal knocker to rap on a wine window during its open hours. A trusted, well-paid servant, called a cantiniere and trained in properly preserving wine, stood on the other side. The cantiniere would open the little door, take the customer’s empty flask and payment, refill the bottle from the cantina (wine cellar), and return it to the customer on the street.

The wine door is usually about one foot tall and eight inches wide — large enough for a flask of wine to pass through, but too small for a person, and they were decorated to represent the family. Maybe the customers couldn't read? -- there were no street addresses? -- whatever the reason, the renovated doors are lovely to look at.…

About Sole Bay

San Diego Sarah  •  Link _battleofsolebay.htm
Southwold Bay (called Sole Bay).
Southwold provided much to entertain sailors, especially the town’s ale houses, when the fleet assembled here to refit. Many seamen and soldiers were sent from London, and most of the crews enjoyed shore leave.

Southwold is a small town on the English North Sea coast at the mouth of the River Blyth within the Suffolk Coast and Heaths Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty.

The town is about 11 miles south of Lowestoft, 29 miles north-east of Ipswich and 97 miles north-east of London.

Quaker George Fox was attacked by a mob in St. Edmund’s Church, Southwold in 1659.

Southwold’s economic fortunes also fell in 1659 when a fire destroyed most of the town in 4 hours. The Town Hall and the town records it contained, the market place, prison, shops, granaries and warehouses all went. Three hundred families were made homeless.

In May 1672 James, Duke of York and Admiral Sir Edward Montegu, Earl of Sandwich, had their headquarters at Sutherland House in the High Street. This was one of the few buildings to escape the 1659 fire.

Many people remained destitute for years after the fire, despite charitable donations from all over the country. The town’s famous greens are evidence of early town planning designed to prevent the spread of fire in the future.

The Southwold Town Preacher, Mr. Woodward, found himself evicted from town in 1662 at the Restoration.

People in Southwold 1,000 years ago ate herring nearly every day, fresh in season, salted at other times. For centuries, shoals of these silvery fish meant food and wealth for the town. Rich boat-owners, fishermen and merchants paid to build St. Edmund’s Church in the 1400s. The industry was still buoyant in the 1600s, with a fleet of 50 boats sailing from Southwold for herring, cod and sprats.

Soon afterwards the harbor mouth silted up, putting the industry into decline.
The risk of storms, pirate attack and shipwreck had always been a reality for fishermen. But Southwold’s neighbor, Dunwich, is in trouble: Every year some of the village falls into the sea – it has lost 8 churches since 1236.

Sole Bay was once protected by two promontories, Easton Ness to the north, and Dunwich Ness to the south. Both headlands have disappeared as the sea eats away about a meter of coast every year. One by-product of the sea’s attacks on the beaches and cliffs is the treasure-trove of fossils discovered over the years -- deposits of amber (fossilized resin from plants or trees), jet (the mineral-like remains of ancient trees) and petrified wood and 17th century salt pans.

Over the last 400 years, Sole Bay has seen hundreds of shipwrecks. The coastline isn’t rocky, but the combination of North Sea storms and shifting sands and sandbanks make it treacherous.

In 1672, the huge Royal James went down during the Battle of Sole Bay along with 700 of its crew.

About François de Vendôme (Duc de Beaufort)

San Diego Sarah  •  Link

Charles II probably didn't like or trust Francois de Vendome, Duc de Beauford.

During the Protectorate, France had also had a civil war, the Fronde. It was a power play by the French Princes to rout juvenile Louis XIV and the Mother-Regent, Anne of Austria. In an effort to discredit Charles and run the English Court out of the country, Charles was asked to mediate a sticky situation. Beaufort didn't like the deal so he ran back to Paris (where he was very popular) and told everyone that the English were meddling, etc. Riots erupted for months, and Henrietta Maria and her Court were frightened and isolated. Nasty deal -- but they did not leave, which was one of the Machiavellian plot behind the riots.

See THE KING IN EXILE -- By EVA SCOTT -- Pages 352-359…

Once Louis XIV became of age and had sent his mother into retirement, he found useful things for all these bad uncles to do.

To make a long story short, in 1658 François de Vendôme, Duc de Beaufort was named general superintendent of navigation, or chief of the naval army, and faithfully served Louis in naval wars from then on.

Starting in 1664, Beaufort directed the expedition against the pirates of Algiers.

To honor the French Treaty with the Dutch, Louis XIV seems to have told them he was sending Beaufort to help their landing in 1666. Beaufort never left the Med., so perhaps Louis was trying to make the Dutch overplay their hand?

Again in 1668, Beaufort appeared to be helping the Dutch without actually doing so. Clearly, if France/Louis XIV/Beaufort had wanted to make things worse for England, they could have.

In 1669, during the siege of Candia (today Heraklion on Crete), Beaufort led the French troops defending Candia against the Turks, and was killed on 15 June 1669. His body was take back to France with great pomp for a hero's burial.

During the Ottoman-Venetian Wars, Candia withstood one of the longest sieges in history, from 1648–1669. The Venetians had ruled there since the Fourth Crusade, as Candia was a key position in the Med. The commander, Gen. Francesco Morosini, knew the siege was over as he had no supplies and only 3,600 fighters left. On 27 August he surrendered to the Grand Vizier Ahmed Köprülü. According to the peace agreement, Venetia was allowed to keep the Aegean islands of Tinos and Kythera and some fortresses important for trade.…

Yes, the Barbary Pirates/Ottoman Empire was still wrecking havoc on shipping and taking Christian slaves. Every time you see a Navy squadron being sent to the Streights, it is to provide protection for the merchant ships.