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San Diego Sarah has posted 3,006 annotations/comments since 6 August 2015.

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About Saturday 6 April 1667

San Diego Sarah  •  Link

Hi Louise ... yes, he has mentioned her death in rather confusing ways. He got the news on Tuesday, 26 March 1667
having been warned it was coming, and he appears to be deeply moved. Then he orders new clothes for everyone (plus 2 new French periwigs for himself), and doesn't mention his mourning until the clothes arrive. He gets his on a Sunday, so strutts off to church looking very fine. Yes, he wrote a letter to his father ... but no suggestion he or Elizabeth should go to Brampton. Of course, the funeral would have happened very fast, and the department is under scrutiny, so leaving would have been unwiise ... he could easily have come home to find himself the scapegoat for Parliament and a nice cell in the Tower awaiting. But it has been ... odd.

About West Indies

San Diego Sarah  •  Link

One institution established by William III in 1695 was the Lords of Trade and Plantations. This was the start of the Colonial Office, and was to provide oversight of colonial legislatures, with the right to over-rule their laws if they conflicted with English trade policies - ie the Navigation Acts.

The board of the Lords of Trade and Plantations also nominate Crown governors and recommended laws affecting the colonies to Parliament. In effect, it was formalising England's Empire and the fact that it had the appendix 'and Plantations' clearly demonstrated that the Caribbean colonies were the central concern of this new institution.

Obviously the priorities of the influential settlers often conflicted with those of the English government, but the government held strong cards by providing defence for these isolated colonies, and also providing access to markets for their products. Often colonial legislatures would vent and discuss policies at length before accepting the Lords of Trade and Plantations' "recommendations".

One Caribbean scheme that had unexpected ramifications in the British Isles was the attempt by the Scottish to create a trading company at Darien on the Isthmus of Panama in 1698. This was a mercantile response by Scottish traders and politicians who were concerned that they would be frozen out of international trade unless they had their own colonies.

Panama was selected for its location between the economically important Caribbean and the Pacific, and between North and South America. There were dreams of building a canal between the two tantalisingly close oceans.

Unfortunately, it was not appreciated that the Darien peninsular was little more than a malarial swampland surrounded by hostile Spanish concerns who would attack the Scottish settlement had it demonstrated form of success. An attack was unnecessary as it was obvious that the under-capitalised and naive Scottish trading company was barely surviving, let alone thriving.

In 1700, the isolated Darien forlornly surrendered to the Spanish. This failure caused a major economic depression in Scotland, and was a prime reasons Scotland sought Union with England in 1707.

The Act of Union specifically agreed to repay the Darien creditors any money lost on their imperial adventure. Additionally Scotland was no longer barred by the Navigation Acts from trading with English colonies and ports.

Scottish traders and merchants soon become an influential group of colonialists. Many established trading houses and develop commercial ties with what were now the British Caribbean colonies. Glasgow became a hub in the tobacco trade whose 'Tobacco Lords' rose to be some of the richest people anywhere in the British Empire.

Much more available from…

About West Indies

San Diego Sarah  •  Link

In 1688 England experienced a significant political shift that caused long term ripples in the Caribbean. The Glorious Revolution brought the Dutch William of Orange with his Stuart wife, Mary, to the throne.

The consequence of this in the Caribbean was that the Netherlands were no longer the main colonial rival for England. France now became the principal rival, as the relative power of Spain and Portugal continued to wane.

France had considerable imperial ambitions. Almost immediately William III declared war with France, which raged until 1697.

During this war the isolated Caribbean colonies of all European nations became pawns which were attacked, sacked and captured with alarming regularity. All the effort expended was often undermined by generous peace treaties which tended to return the colonies to their ante-bellum status.

Often the planters did not want to capture rival European islands as they did not want to expand the amount of sugar available to sell (reducing their profit margins). They were happy to raid and pillage other colonies, but the established plantocracy was generally content with the privileged and monopolistic access to British and colonial markets.

The Navigation Acts appeared to be a burden, but corruption and bribery could often be used to circumvent the more onerous aspects of these laws. The constant fighting tended to put yet more power into the hands of the planter elite, as they sent the poorer whites to do the fighting, then buying the lands vacated by the deaths of these smallholders.

When the British islands were sacked, it was the wealthy planters who had the economic ability to rebuild their plantations. Smallholders ended up joining military reprisals, or selling up, usually to the planters, and heading to North America to start over again. The unequal proportion of whites to blacks continued to fall -- the constant state of warfare exacerbated that trend.

About West Indies

San Diego Sarah  •  Link

War between England and Spain officially ended in 1670, with Spain agreeing to recognise England's claim to Jamaica. Unfortunately, England's ability to restrain the pirates and privateers operating on the opposite side of the Atlantic was less than its desire to do so.

One of Jamaica's more notorious freebooters, Henry Morgan, took a force to sack the Spanish settlement of Porto Belo in 1668 and then another even more impressive expedition across the isthmus to sack Panama in 1671. The problem with the sack of Panama was that it was conducted after the 1670 Treaty. Both Morgan and the governor of the island, Sir Thomas Modyford, were recalled to London to explain themselves.

Henry Morgan was able to sweet talk his way past Charles II, who sent him back to Jamaica as Governor, with the understanding he would bring piracy under control. Then in 1685, the first English naval squadron arrived in Port Royal for permanent patrol and defence of the region, and then an earthquake and tidal wave in 1692 devastated Port Royal (many contemporaries regarded that as divine intervention). Further earthquakes and hurricanes plagued the infamous port time and again over the subsequent years meaning that Port Royal soon became nothing more than a suburb of the relocated capital at Kingston.

The problem of piracy was reduced in Jamaica, but certainly not from the region as a whole as pirates and buccaneers sought alternative ports and bases for their operations. A significant number of pirates relocated to the Bahamas but these were also attacked and harried by naval vessels who eventually captured their main base at New Providence Island in 1718. By the 1730s piracy had been reduced to negligible instances by the increasingly professional and powerful Royal Navy.

External enemies were not the only threat to European planters on these isolated islands. As the number of slaves increased, so did the threat of revolt and rebellion. Slave owners felt that one way to guard against slave rebellion was to ensure that their slaves came from a variety of tribes from Africa and spoke many languages. Over time the slaves evolved a common creole which incorporated the overseers' English, so attempts to divide and rule became ineffective as slaves learned to communicate and work together.

Barbados, as the first island to transform itself into a plantation economy, experienced the first slave revolt, with more after 1670. The so-called Coromantee Plot of 1675 was planned meticulously for many years before being betrayed by a domestic slave who felt pity for the impending doom for her master and mistress. She was rewarded with her freedom whilst the conspirators were treated with great harshness: 6 slaves were burned alive, 11 were beheaded and 25 others were executed. The carrot and stick approach remained a powerful tool of the authorities for as long as slavery was a legal institution in the Caribbean.

About West Indies

San Diego Sarah  •  Link

Penn and Venables tried to save face by attacking the more lightly defended Jamaica in 1655. Initially successful landings were soon undermined by a determined guerilla war as the Spanish released their slaves into the interior and led harassing attacks on the diseased and increasingly hungry English invaders.

Penn and Venables returned to England in disgrace with a fraction of the forces they had set out with.

Jamaica was regarded as something of a disappointment as its large size, mountainous terrain and hostile ex-slaves (Maroons) made it more difficult to cultivate sugar on and to administer.

Two attempts to recapture Jamaica in 1657 and again in 1658 were only foiled by the inspired leadership of the military governor Edward D'Oyley.

The smaller islands of Antigua, Barbados, St. Kitts and Nevis were all much more manageable and hence profitable.

The Restoration did not bring a significant change in colonial policy. The Navigation Acts were reissued and many of the key governors, including Edward D'Oyley, were kept in place in order to maintain a sense of continuity.

All these initial colonies had been granted self-governing assemblies along the lines of those in North America. Therefore they had considerable powers and freedoms, generally concentrated in the hands of propertied, monied and well-connected settlers who used their powers to their own benefit. Increasingly harsh codes were enacted to keep slaves in their place and to punish any transgressions severely.

The isolation of these colonies from support from England meant that they felt vulnerable from attack from the French, Dutch and/or Spanish in the various wars that raged in the second half of the 17th Century.

Jamaica came up with a novel way of defending itself by encouraging 'buccaneers' to settle in Port Royal, and to use it as a base for their operations (as long as it was against England's Catholic rivals).

These 'buccaneers' were usually a mixture of English and French Huguenots who had been ejected from St. Kitts in 1629 or Providence Island [Bahamas] in 1641 by the Spanish in one of their many attempts to reestablish control in the Caribbean. The buccaneers had settled in Tortuga or along the north coast of Hispaniola, hiding from the Spanish. They made a living by hunting and skinning wild cattle and selling the hides (boucan - which is where their name derives) to passing ships. Over time they had found piracy to be more profitable.

Therefore, the invitation to come to Jamaica and work with the small English fleet in the Western Caribbean, with a measure of defence provided by the newly-fortified Port Royal, was an attractive offer. Jamaica soon earned a reputation for piracy and violence, and as a result it was largely spared attack from rival European powers.

About West Indies

San Diego Sarah  •  Link

When news of Royalist and Scottish defeats in England filtered across the Atlantic, the isolated Royalist cause faltered. A generous settlement was initially offered to the Royalist ringleaders, although this generosity was later curtailed by Parliament.

The Parliamentarians also took the opportunity of despatching many of its Royalist captives to the Caribbean as indentured servants. These were later joined by Scottish and Irish indentured servants as Parliament's battle-hardened army swept all before them. These servants were treated far less leniently than the volunteer indentured servants of the 1620s and 1630s. This had the long-term consequence of establishing a sizeable population with Royalist and Catholic sympathies which would later welcome the Restoration.

Parliament sought to impose their control over the isolated colonies throughout the 1650s. The Navigation Acts (which banned English colonies from trading with foreign ships or markets) was aimed principally at the Dutch and provoked the First Anglo-Dutch War. The Navigation Acts were based on a mercantalist concept of how trade worked, and dominated trade policy for the next 200 years. Essentially, they believed that trade was a zero sum game and that if your competitors took your trade you were worse off. Consequently, policies forced English products to be transported in English ships to English ports. Although this kept prices higher than they needed to be, they did guarantee a market for the produce of the English colonies, and they also promoted the development of an English merchant marine that would ultimately challenge the Dutch and other European powers for pre-eminence throughout the world.

Oliver Cromwell's other major policy to assert control in the Caribbean was the 1653 'Western Design' concept.

At the end of the first Anglo-Dutch War, Cromwell turned his attention back to Catholic rivals. The 'Western Design' was a building block in the development of the Empire. Until now all colonies were set up as private ventures by interested parties who generally were in the pursuit of profit or religious freedom. Attacks on enemy settlements had generally been raids for plunder and/or supplies.

Cromwell's decision to send a fleet to the Caribbean to attack and capture Spanish colonies and turn them into English colonies was a change in policy. The English government was now actively expanding her empire. Spain was the obvious target for Protestant England, and her Caribbean colonies were easy targets for the well-oiled English Army to plunder and capture.

A large fleet sailed under Admiral William Penn and Commander Robert Venable to the Caribbean, where it was swelled in Barbados by additional English recruits from across England's colonies. Their target was the main Spanish settlement on Hispaniola, but unexpected Spanish resistance, tropical diseases and poor morale from the recently raised local rabble saw the attack end in ignominious failure.

About West Indies

San Diego Sarah  •  Link

Disease was a constant problem in the Caribbean settlements: the tropical weather, poor hygiene, poor medical care, and huge population shifts including thousands of slaves transported in appalling conditions meant that settlers had a high chance of dying of nasty tropical diseases. It is estimated that in the 17th Century, one third of all new settlers were dead within 3 years of arrival. The others were afflicted, but survived to tell tales of lost loved ones. Slaves, although hardier than the local Amer-Indians, also suffered appallingly.

The settler population in the New World tended to migrate from the Caribbean to the North American colonies. About 2,000 settlers moved from Barbados to Virginia in the mid-17th Century. Their views on slavery and plantations moved with them.

But Europeans wanting to make their fortunes were still more likely go to the Caribbean than North America as stories of the wealth of sugar planters eclipsed those of tobacco planters. It was also an overwhelmingly male destination with 90% of settlers to the Caribbean being men. It was no place to raise a family.

The English Civil Wars were a time of political turmoil. The links between Dutch settlers and traders meant that the isolated English colonies found it easier to supplying the profitable Dutch re-export market through Amsterdam than do business in London.

The English Civil War also strengthened the trading ties between the North American English colonies and the Caribbean. Whilst Barbados in particular was converting virtually all of its available land for sugar cane production, it was no longer growing enough food stuffs to provide for its sizeable population. Barbados was the most populous English colony in the New World by the 1640s reaching a population of 30,000, and by 1650 had more than twice as many people as the Virginia and Massachusetts colonies combined. New England producers clubbed together to build their own ships in order to provide the Caribbean with food. Rhode Island in particular traded heavily with Barbados.

The colonies were in the process of becoming self-sufficient as the Civil War forced the colonies to fend for themselves for an extended period of time. Yes, Parliamentarian forces were evident from time to time, and Royalist privateers sometimes attacked merchant ships and isolated communities, but so long as the Civil War raged, English attention was on the British Isles and little thought was given to those communities across the seas.

The fledgling Caribbean colonies stayed mostly neutral during the Civil War, but feelings and loyalties were strained by the 1649 execution of King Charles.

Bermuda declared for Charles II, as did Barbados and Antigua. Parliament sent out a fleet under Admiral Ayscue to bring their most important colony, Barbados, under Parliamentarian control. A tense stand off occurred with several skirmishes between the forces loyal to Parliament and those loyal to Charles II.

About West Indies

San Diego Sarah  •  Link

At the start of the 17th century the Spanish claimed the Americas as a whole, but did little to deter settlers in North America. The vast distances combined with Spanish satisfaction with the wealth from their two viceroyalties of Mexico and the Caribbean and Peru (meaning the rest of South America) meant they had little reason to spend any effort searching for and evicting interlopers. But they continue to claim exclusive rights to all of the Americas.

The English colony of Virginia, established 1607, had a profound impact on English interests in the Caribbean. To cross the Atlantic, the trade winds make it easiest to cross westward to the Caribbean and then sail up the East Coast of North America; from there the winds blow eastward to Europe. When ships needed fresh food and water after making the westward crossing, they naturally visited the Caribbean islands.

However, the first island to attract English colonial attention, initially because of ships being wrecked there, was on the northern return route: Bermuda.

Additionally, Virginia only survived because of profitable tobacco, which is easy to plant and cultivate, although it quickly exhausts the land, creating its own expansion dynamic. Early on people learned that tobacco was native to the Caribbean, and so entrepreneurs set up plantations on St. Kitts from 1623, Barbados in 1627 and Nevis in 1628.

Tobacco thrived in the tropical climate of the Caribbean islands, but most of the settlers succumbed to disease. Attempts to boost population with indentured servants did no better. Then the price of tobacco crashed in the 1630s as over-production in Virginia and the Caribbean islands undermined its value.

Diversification of crops and workforce was soon necessary. Maize and cotton found limited success, but it was sugar that provided the economic foundation of the Caribbean economy for the next two centuries.

When Dutch sugar planters were forced to flee from Brazil when the Portuguese reconquered their colonies, many settled in the Caribbean. The first successful transplantation of sugar was to Barbados and organised by James Drax, who started the process before the Dutch were evicted from Brazil, so when the Portuguese seized the Dutch sugar plantations in 1645, the price of sugar increased massively. Drax and other early adopters in Barbados became wealthy overnight.

The Dutch also brought their slaves with them, which helped solve the second problem of maintaining a healthy workforce. African slaves were resilient to the tropical diseases found throughout the Caribbean. Africans could also be brought over relatively cheaply, if brutally, by the favorable Trade Winds from Africa. Sugar soon eclipsed all other plantation crops as the insatiable demand for it in Europe outstripped supply.

About Tuesday 14 February 1659/60

San Diego Sarah  •  Link

Pepys Diary is an advanced study of human nature, Kyle. Times of stress like this bring out the best -- and the most selfish, roughest and most unvarnished -- sides of human beings. Be kind, and assume people are making the best of their circumstances in order to take care of their friends and family. Taking care of the country and doing the right thing on principle turn out to be fair low on the Hierarchy of Needs. In my opinion, the Diary does seem to support Abraham Maslow's theories:

About Tuesday 2 April 1667

San Diego Sarah  •  Link

Sadly no, Kyle ... I started reading around 1663, and have several times tried to not only stay current but also read the start, but it's too much. Also I had an operation a couple of years ago and missed a few weeks; I'm pretty sure I never caught up on those days either. By using the search tool a lot I check earlier references in an effort not to embarrass myself too much. Plus I read other materials because I believe context is everything, and Pepys can't help being very subjective. I really like being a few days ahead in reading the Diary so I can alert Phil to mis-links, etc., but some Pepys posts take me 3 or 4 days to understand. Hope I answered your question.

About Tuesday 2 April 1667

San Diego Sarah  •  Link

And Pepys never mentions envoy Sir William Temple:

Former Parliamentarian Sir William Temple was the Envoy to Brussels from 1665 to 1667. He was also Lord Treasurer Thomas Osborne, Earl of Danby's Brother-in-Law.

Sir William Temple was created the 1st Bart. on 31 Jan. 1666. He was strongly pro-Dutch, and was recognized as the principal architect of the Triple Alliance in 1668.

Consequently he was Ambassador to The Hague from 1668 to 1671, and supported the idea of the teenage William of Orange marrying Princess Mary.…

About Tuesday 2 April 1667

San Diego Sarah  •  Link

On rereading the letter, Churchill is one of the subjects, not the author. Sorry.

The other subject is Lord Kingston. I happened across the website for his home in Ireland which may -- or may not -- hint at his reward for taking care of Ormonde's business:…

Sir Robert King, 1st Baronet PC (I) (circa 1625 – March 1707) was an Anglo-Irish politician. In 1667, Lord Kingston was granted over 23,000 acres in Connacht and over 14,000 acres in Munster.

The King estate was one of the largest in Connacht – stretching from the main estate in County Roscommon to lands in Leitrim, Mayo, and Sligo. The estate was centered around Boyle in County Roscommon, firstly at King House and later at Rockingham.

The family also held extensive lands in other parts of the country notably around Mitchelstown, Co. Cork (held under the Earls of Kingston) and in Co. Tipperary.

Now open to the public, a visit to King House is a walk through almost 300 years of history. Its collections include the History of Boyle, the King Family, the Connaught Rangers, the Boyle Civic Art Collection, and more. Here, you can marvel at the grandeur, savor the magnificence of the period rooms, or just have fun exploring the interpretive exhibitions.

About Tuesday 2 April 1667

San Diego Sarah  •  Link

So why was Sir Winston Churchill, MP writing to Ormonde?

According to his Parliamentary bio:

Winston Churchill MP helped to prepare reasons on confirming ministers in their livings and compensating the loyal and indigent officers, and on 10 May, 1662 he was sent to the Lords to desire a conference on the militia bill.5

5. Cal. Cl. SP, v. 208; Hutchins, ii. 442; CJ, viii. 302, 308, 311, 314, 356; Clarendon, Life, ii. 207-10; CSP Ire. 1666-9, p. 99; CSP Dom. 1661-2, p. 176.

Churchill was rewarded with a seat on the Irish land commission, in which capacity he was regarded as one of Charles II’s men, bent on resisting the excessive claims of the Cromwellian settlers, although this position was compromised by his strenuous and successful efforts to secure a large forfeited estate for his bff, Henry Bennet, later Lord Arlington

His daughter, Arabella, had a long affaire with James, Duke of York, and his oldest son, John, was soon to be exchanging "favors" with Barbara Villiers Palmer, Countess of Castlemaine -- and went on to be the Duke of Marlborough, married to Sarah Jennings (niece of a really nasty Captain Pepys had to deal with).…

This is a family with whom I would love to have had Christmas dinner.

About Tuesday 2 April 1667

San Diego Sarah  •  Link

"... for the weakening of the King's power in Parliament, by the Duke's cabals."

There's the "cabal" word again ... the concept must be making the rounds at Court, and so people wanting to be seen as part of the "in-crowd" are using it. Since it's used in the plural, I'm guessing they have not linked the ministers' names to the concept yet. (In particular I think the Secretary of Scotland, John Maitland, Earl of Lauderdale would be a late addition as he wasn't a "wit" or popular man. Charles II valued him, but I doubt Buckingham and Ashley had much time for him.)

About Monday 24 March 1661/62

San Diego Sarah  •  Link

peruques - more commonly spelled perukes.

A story about James Butler, when Marquis of Ormonde, and his use of a peruke as a disguise when he spying as part of the loyal opposition displaced on the Continent:

THE TRAVELS OF THE KING Charles II in Germany and Flanders 1654-1660
Edinburgh: T. and A. CONSTABLE, Printers to His Majesty…

James Butler, Marquis of Ormonde ... on January 23, 1658 he set out for Antwerp with Col. Daniel O’Neil and his servant Maurice, intimating that he was about to attend the Imperial Diet at Frankfort on behalf of the Kings of England and Spain. 1
1 Clarendon MSS., Ivii. fol. 43, January 21, 1658.

This statement gained general credence, and the three companions were enabled to embark unobserved for England, where they landed, on January 30, at West March, near Colchester.

Finding no bed fit to sleep in, Ormonde, O’Neil and Maurice sat up all that night at an inn, playing at shuffleboard, and drinking with four Suffolk brewers, and proceeded on the next day to Chelmsford, where, for prudence' sake, they parted company. 2
2 lbid. t Ivii. fol. 48; Carte's Ormonde, iii. p. 665.

With his portmanteau strapped behind him, 'a green case over his hat, and a night-cap on his head,' James Butler, Marquis of Ormonde, rode on to London, and established himself in Drury Lane, at the house of a Roman Catholic surgeon, to whom he was introduced by Sir Philip Honywood. It was arranged that Ormonde should pass for a cashiered officer, under the name of [Edward] Pickering, and for purposes of disguise he was provided with a 'peruke,’ but this 'troubled' him so much that Colonel 'Will' Legge supplied him with a hair dye, which, unfortunately, turned his hair 'a variety of colors.'

Wish I'd seen that. I wonder if Philip Honywood was a relative of Pepys' friends.

About Wigg

San Diego Sarah  •  Link

Bill and Anki --- click on periwigg in the est, and it'll take you to the right part of the Encyclopedia. This is the link for the cakes.

About Monday 1 April 1667

San Diego Sarah  •  Link

From Claire Tomalin's "Samuel Pepys: The Unequalled Self" pp 49-50 "Sir George Carteret, … had official lodgings at Whitehall, a house in Pall Mall, another at Deptford and a country mansion near Windsor, and he was the highest paid, with L2,000 a year and the right to three pence in every pound he handled -- this was a remnant of the old way of doing things."

And today we see:
"... the Treasurer’s Office in Broad-streete, ..." and later "... and by coach back to Broad-streete to Sir G. Carteret’s, ..."
Was this another residence as well as an office? They served lunch, but no mention of Lady Carteret.

That three pence in every pound he handled was, of course, why he was so against the new way of collecting the money. "... he [Carteret] and my Lord Chancellor do at this very day labour all they can to villify this new way of raising money, and making it payable, as it now is, into the Exchequer".

He's going to have to shed a few houses.

About Monday 1 April 1667

San Diego Sarah  •  Link

"... and discovers himself jealous that Sir G. Carteret do not look after, or concern himself for getting, money as he used to do, ..."

Definition of jealous in Merriam Webster:

1: hostile toward a rival or one believed to enjoy an advantage : ENVIOUS
His success made his old friends jealous.
They were jealous of his success.
2a: intolerant of rivalry or unfaithfulness
jealous of the slightest interference in household management — Havelock Ellis
b: disposed to suspect rivalry or unfaithfulness
a jealous husband
3: vigilant in guarding a possession
new colonies were jealous of their new independence — Scott Buchanan