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San Diego Sarah has posted 3,306 annotations/comments since 6 August 2015.

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About Tuesday 10 July 1666

San Diego Sarah  •  Link

Kevin Dixon‎, a local historian who contributes to Torbay Undiscovered, Lost, Forgotten, Unloved! blog, reports finding evidence that:

"Between July 10 - 14, 1666, and again on October 20, 1666 a fleet of 'Guinea Ships' assembled in Torbay. This gathering was to celebrate the foundation of the West Africa Company.

"Those ships were on route to West Africa. The owners were an English mercantile, or trading, company set up by the Stuart family and City of London merchants.

"Originally known as The Company of Royal Adventurers Trading to Africa, its charter was issued in 1660 and gave it a monopoly over English trade along the West coast of Africa. With the help of the army and navy, it established forts on the African coast.

"While its original objective was the search for gold, in 1663 a new charter was issued - this included the trade in slaves.

"... the company fell into debt in 1667 and its activities were much reduced, ..." and he found no more local content until after the end of the Diary.

About Monday 15 October 1660

San Diego Sarah  •  Link

Charing Cross was a place frequently chosen for public punishments, probably because it was such a busy location.

The most common form of punishment was the Pillory. An offender thus exposed to public view was thereafter considered infamous. Some offences irritated the feelings of the lower classes more than others, in which case a punishment by Pillory could quickly become dangerous. John Evelyn saw someone pilloried there on 21 December, 1667.

An 18th century print can be seen here:
https://spitalfieldslife.com/2020/07/09/the-micro…
And Evelyn is here:
http://brittlebooks.library.illinois.edu/brittleb…

About Antigua, West Indies

San Diego Sarah  •  Link

This article doesn't agree with Wikipedia on the Carib's "excellent defences". Antigua was on Columbus' 2nd voyage. On his 1st he conquered the Arawaks:

On Oct. 12, 1492, Columbus landed on San Salvador [Bahamas]. He met Arawaks, and wrote, “They were well-built, with good bodies and handsome features ...They do not bear arms, and do not know them, for I showed them a sword, they took it by the edge and cut themselves ... They have no iron. Their spears are made of cane ... They would make fine servants ... With 50 men, we could subjugate them and make them do whatever we want.”

Columbus later said, “As soon as I arrived in the Indies, on the first Island which I found, I took some of the natives by force in order that they might learn and might give me information of whatever there is in these parts.”

Columbus promised Ferdinand and Isabella, “as much gold as they want ... spices and cotton, as much as their Highnesses shall command ... and slaves, as many as they shall order, who will be idolators.”

On his 2nd voyage, Columbus established La Isabella on an island he called Hispaniola [Haiti]. He enslaved thousands of Arawaks, working many to death trying to extract gold from ground that contained little.

Columbus sent 500 slaves back to Spain; 200 died on the voyage. Undeterred, he wrote, “Let us in the name of the Holy Trinity go on sending all the slaves that can be sold.”

Gruesome account of the Caribbean horrors Columbus and his followers practiced came from Fr. Bartolome de las Casas who documented his life in his *History of the Indies.* “Endless testimonies ... prove the mild and pacific temperament of the natives ... But our work was to exasperate, ravage, kill, mangle and destroy; small wonder, then, if they tried to kill one of us now and then ... The admiral (Columbus), it is true, was blind ... and he was so anxious to please the King that he committed irreparable crimes against the Indians ...”

On the Arawaks enslaved in mines, “husbands and wives were together only once every 8 or 9 months and when they meet they are so exhausted and depressed on both sides ... they cease to procreate. As for the newly born, they died early because their mothers ... had no milk to nurse them ... while I was in Cuba, 7,000 children died in 3 months.

“Some mothers even drowned their babies from sheer desperation ... this land which was so great, so powerful and fertile, was depopulated.”

Columbus did not start slavery, but practiced it violently. The enslavement of peoples by Christians -- Moslems, African Blacks, native Americans -- was explicitly approved in edicts from popes from Nicholas V in 1455 to Alexander VI in 1493.

The violence and the European diseases of influenza, smallpox, and measles annihilated the Caribbean people within 100 years.

https://www.chieftain.com/opinion/20200707/was-co…

About Wednesday 10 July 1667

San Diego Sarah  •  Link

It occurs to me that sister-in-law Esther is living at Leigh-on-Sea, which is at the mouth of the Thames, and 58 miles from Harwick (via Chelmsford and Colchester). She's got a grandstand seat for this part of the action.

About Tuesday 9 July 1667

San Diego Sarah  •  Link

I wonder if Pepys and Anglesey remembered Llewellyn.

An L&M footnote of 9/2/1663 tells us that by 1663 Pepys' friend, Peter Llewellyn, was in the service of Arthur Annesley, 1st Earl of Anglesey, Vice-Treasurer of Ireland, so Pepys must know a little about his reputation.

About Tuesday 14 April 1663

San Diego Sarah  •  Link

Slide rules of the logarithm variety were available in Pepys' time. These first primitive computing devices led directly to the earliest concepts for programmable computers emerging in the mid-19th Century.

In 1614, John Napier proposed a new mathematical method, called the logarithm, which provided for an enhanced analytical scope.

(Mathematicians and computer programmers use logarithmic exponents to simplify complex mathematical calculations and to create specific software program outcomes, such as the creation of graphs that compare statistical data.)

John Napier's work on the logarithm first appeared in Mirifici Logarithmorum Canonis Descriptio, which became an influential text in the fields of mathematics and engineering, as well as physics and navigation.

Based on Napier's studies, the slide rule was first developed by Edmund Gunther. Gunther's Rule could be thought of as an early analog computer that used the principles of logarithms to multiply and divide.

Reverend William Oughtred further expanded on Gunther's design, combining two of Gunther's Rules to create what is now commonly regarded as the first recognizable Slide Rule.

Oughtred's slide rule designs were published by his student, William Forster, in 1632. From there, many other mathematicians and engineers developed and expanded upon Oughtred's designs, creating slide rules capable of calculating trigonometry, roots, and exponents. The slide rule made efforts at computation much faster.

For more about the history of the development of the computer:
https://interestingengineering.com/a-brief-histor…

About Chocolate

San Diego Sarah  •  Link

The bitter undertones of 17th century cacao alluded to equally unsettling histories. By the time of the young privateer William Hughes’ 1630's Caribbean voyage, the great pre-Columbian empires had all but fallen. Hundreds of thousands of Native Americans had been killed by Spanish and Portuguese guns, forced labor, and disease. Thousands of enslaved Africans were being taken to American plantations to replace them.

As a result of this violent, vibrant exchange, a new Mestizo culture was born, indigenous, African, and European peoples all at once.

These people in Empire’s margins — enslaved Africans coaxing sugarcane from island soil, and the Mestiza ladies who mixed indigenous knowledge into chocolate for their Spanish employers or husbands, all were the true authors of Hughes’ 1672 book, The American Physitian.

As with many natural historians of his time, William Hughes’ work was an act of information possession. His botanical buccaneering was a stand-in for the colonial project as a whole. Like all Europeans in the New World, he extracted resources and knowledge from lands and people that were not his to take.

And this is the great irony of Europeans’ enduring obsession with cocoa:
William Hughes tried to benefit from his possession of New World knowledge, but that chocolate, and the indigenous traditions that created it, have possessed Europe ever since.

For more, see
https://www.atlasobscura.com/articles/who-invente…

About Elizabeth Pepys (wife, b. St Michel)

San Diego Sarah  •  Link

It may be helpful to remember the Bible's teaching on the position of women, which was observed at the time. Of course, losing so many men in the recent wars meant that there were many widows providing for children. And there were many women who had experienced more freedom and responsibility because their men were away for a decade or more. I think we can assume there was significant societal push-back to the following "values".

A woman should “be busy at home … and … be subject to their husband, so that no one will malign the word of God” (Titus 2:4-5).
This makes sense, because “the husband is the head of the wife” (Ephesians 5:23).
While the woman “rises while it is yet night, and provides food for her household … her husband is known in the gates, when he sits among the elders of the land.” (Proverbs 31:15-23).

Uh-Huh. I saw my mother's reaction to the last time these "values" ruled in the 1950's. She was always resentful that her contribution to WWII was under-valued when the men came home and effectively took back all the jobs and education benefits.

About Saturday 6 July 1667

San Diego Sarah  •  Link

Now I remember: Lord Annesly [Anglesey] became the Treasurer of the Navy yesterday, and the new guy's name was [Sir] T. Harvy. I rest my case. No way Pepys could responsibly go to Epsom in what were still chaotic times.

About Saturday 6 July 1667

San Diego Sarah  •  Link

Pepys can't take Elizabeth to Epsom: He IS the Navy right now.

The Duke of York and Coventry are out of town (plus Coventry isn't involved in the Navy any more). Brouncker is in Rochester, driving around in a coach. Mennes is ill, and Batten and Penn have been sick recently and appear not to have been in the office today. Pett is in the Tower. Who else was there? Oh, the new guy who's name I can't remember -- he's not ready for prime time alone.

About Saturday 6 July 1667

San Diego Sarah  •  Link

"At least, for my own particular, we shall continue well till I can get my money into my hands, and then I will shift for myself."

This appears to be a plan Pepys has for his future.

I thought he was possibly the only person in London who had consolidated his investments before the start of this year's hostilities (and before he sent some of it to Brampton). This sounds like there is more out there to be harvested. The "and then I will shift for myself" sounds like he wants to quit as CoA.

About Saturday 6 July 1667

San Diego Sarah  •  Link

"This afternoon I met with Mr. Rolt, who tells me that he is going Cornett under Collonel Ingoldsby, being his old acquaintance, and Ingoldsby hath a troop now from under the King, and I think it is a handsome way for him ..."

I recall all those warrants sent out by Charles the day the Dutch began the attack on the Medway. Obviously I was optimistic about how long it would take new colonels to respond with troops. How fortunate they were that the Dutch (and French) did not bring an army ... they would have been half way to York by now.

"and that there are regiments ordered to be got together, whereof to be commanders my Lord Fairfax, Ingoldsby, Bethell, Norton, and Birch, and other Presbyterians"

L&M: On 13 June, 1667 some colonelcies were granted to 'Presbyterians' and ex-parliamentarians such as Fairfax, Manchester and Norton. CSPD 1667, pp. 179, 181, 182, 199. For other forms of the rumor, see newsletter (15 June): ib., p. 189.
https://www.pepysdiary.com/diary/1667/06/13/?c=54…
June 13 to July 6, and the troops are not underway yet.

About Thursday 4 July 1667

San Diego Sarah  •  Link

Nicolas, if you read the annotations on 9 May 1667 you will find this:

✹ Terry Foreman on 4 Jul 2010 • Link • Flag
Basil Fielding

Was in fact stabbed to death by his drunken brother Christopher. (L&M note)
https://www.pepysdiary.com/diary/1667/05/09/#c302…

Basil's encyclopedia annotation correctly says he was stabbed by his brother
https://www.pepysdiary.com/encyclopedia/11095/

I have add a clarification annotation to Christopher's encyclopedia entry. This is OUR blog, so feel free to make corrections yourself when you spot something.

Our hero behind the scenes making all this work -- free of charge! -- is Phil Gyford. It's worth reading https://www.pepysdiary.com/about/ etc.

About Christopher Fielding

San Diego Sarah  •  Link

Terry's annotation refers to Pepys' understanding of the affair on May 9, 1667.

Pepys discovers his error on 4 July, 1667. Christopher was actually the killer.

About Gillingham, Kent

San Diego Sarah  •  Link

Before and after the Norman Conquest, Gillingham was a possession of the Archbishop of Canterbury. During the 12th Century, the Archbishop built a Palace, with the precinct covering around 20 acres. St. Mary's church - situated in the precinct – acted as the Palace's chapel.

Henry VIII suppressed the Palace in the 16th century.

St. Mary Magdalene's Parish Church was connected with the Navy through the centuries, and for many years the tower acted as a navigational aid for ships sailing the Medway estuary by flying a White Ensign by day and shone a light on the tower by night. In WWII navigational aids improved, so the church ceased the practice.

St. Mary Magdalene is a Norman church built in the 13th century, with the addition of the tower in the 15th century. Further additions and extensions occurred during the 14th century. In 1700, Philip Wightman cast and hung a ring of five bells, ...

By the 14th Century, Gillingham received permission to hold an annual fair and weekly market.

Highlights of the Kent Time Line:
602 Canterbury Cathedral founded
604 Diocese of Rochester created
1066 William defeats Harold at Hastings
1066 Dover castle built
1087 Timber walls at Rochester Castle replaced by stone
1127 Rochester Castle keep built
1155 – 6 Two charters giving rights to the Cinque Ports
1170 Archbishop Thomas Becket murdered at Canterbury
1180 Keep and curtain walls built at Dover Castle
1348 – 9 Black Death, possibly half the population of Kent dies
1392 The first stone bridge at Rochester
1539 – 44 Construction of Henry VIII castles (Chatham)
1549 Mast Pond Gillingham
1550 All ships laid up at Gillingham
1559 Upnor castle built
1567 Anchorage renamed Chatham
1570 Chatham Dockyard at Sunne Hard
1635 First demand for the ‘Ship Money’
1642 Start of the First Civil War
1643 Royalist Rising in West Kent.
1644 County Committee based at Aylesford
1646 County Committee based at Maidstone
1647 Christmas cancelled. Riots in Canterbury
1648 Royalist Rising in Kent. Battle of Maidstone
1649 Execution of Charles I
1660 The Restoration Charles II lands at Dover
1665 Navy dockyard laid out at Sheerness
1667 Dutch fleet in the Medway and Thames
1698 Shepherd Neame Brewery opened

For more, including lots of articles, see
http://www.kentpast.co.uk/timeline.html#1600