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San Diego Sarah has posted 6,219 annotations/comments since 6 August 2015.

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About Domestic servants

San Diego Sarah  •  Link

Diane Wolfthal's 2022 book, Household Servants and Slaves: A Visual History, 1300–1700, is the first book-length study of both images of ordinary household workers and their material culture, covering 4 centuries and 4 continents.

It is full of paintings of servants and slaves, with information about what is known about the subjects. It's fascinating.

But I'd like to see a book about England with some explanation of how they went down the slipper slope from households full of family retainers to being slave owners of people of other races.

Just reading about Pepys' change in attitude towards his household from the beginning of the Diary to the end is revealing. Money and larger lodgings led to distance and annonimity. But to the end he desires a quiet and harmonious household, so he is still very aware of them personally, even if he's stopped sharing the information. There is even a hint that he may have allowed their Black cook to dance at a party. He pays for the wedding of two of his favorites. He is far from uninvolved.

After the Diary Charles II puts him in the position of buying slaves to row a galley warship. Fortunately the experiment wasn't a success, so Pepys must have escaped that role fairly fast. How did he deal with that? How did anyone deal with it? The Christian/heathen excuse wasn't invented for another couple of decades ... was it sufficient that the slaves were "others"? Or maybe being a slave was seen just as God's will, and that's as far as the thought process went?

https://yalebooksblog.co.uk/2022/05/03/a-visual-h…

About Sunday 27 May 1660

San Diego Sarah  •  Link

The Second Northern War was a complicated conflict, and led to the definition of the modern boundaries of Norway, Sweden, and Denmark.

The war raged from 1655 to 1660, fueled by a belligerent Charles X Gustav of Sweden, who first invaded and occupied western Poland–Lithuania.

In 1658 Charles X Gustav invaded Denmark, daringly crossing the frozen sea to invade Danish territory.

Frederick III, king of Denmark and Norway, immediately sued for peace, losing significant territory to the Swedish in doing so.

Six months later, Charles X Gustav broke all international standards when he invaded Copenhagen.

This time Frederick III did not back down. Instead, he led a heroic defense of the city, rejecting advice to flee with the words, “I will die in my nest, if need be.”

With help from a Dutch fleet, the Denmark–Norway alliance defeated the Swedish forces, and the war was ended by the Treaty of Copenhagen, signed on May 27, 1660. [WAS THIS O.S. OR N.S.? SINCE THE REPORT COMES FROM A BRITISH SITE, I DO NOT KNOW.]

The agreement defined the boundaries between Denmark, Sweden, and Norway, which have remained almost exactly the same to this day. It recovered Fünen and Bornholm for Denmark, and Trøndelag returned to Norway. However, Denmark’s former mainland provinces east of The Sound (Øresund) remained part of Sweden.

The Danish nobility, who had not supported the Danish war effort, became the scapegoats for the country’s losses; and in a coup d’état, Frederick III was named a hereditary and absolute king.

https://www.britannica.com/topic/Treaty-of-Copenh…

About Charles Stuart (II, King)

San Diego Sarah  •  Link

PART 2

The king has another guard, formed of 50 gentlemen, called Pensioners, the greater part persons of birth and quality, who carry a sort of pole-axe, in the form of a halberd, ornamented with gold, and are under the orders of a captain, who is my Lord Belasyse, and a lieutenant, Sir John Bennet.

[I wonder if Sir John Bennet is Lord Arlington's kid brother, who also runs the Post Office for Arlington? If so, he's a busy man.]

They are obliged to attend the person of the king on all solemn occasions, such as receiving ambassadors, and other public ceremonies; to accompany him from the anti-chamber to the chapel, and on his return from the chapel to the anti-chamber: it is also their duty to serve his majesty as a bodyguard whenever he goes out into the city, or into the country; on these occasions, a party of them, well-armed, follows his majesty; and the captain of the bodyguard is obliged by his office to keep close to the king's person, particularly at the moment when the king is mounting.

[John, 1st Baron Belasyse. “In 1666/7 Belasyse was in England; his appointment as Governor of Tangier was withdrawn and he was appointed Captain of the Gentlemen-at-Arms. In 1672 he resigned this appointment as he was unwilling to take the Oath of Conformity introduced under the Test Act.” https://www.pepysdiary.com/encyclopedia/8186/#wik… ]

310

The regiment of infantry nearest the city supplies the guards, who are changed every day, at the palaces of Whitehall and St. James’s, and at the Tower of London.

@@@

As before, I apologize if my guesses are incorrect, and the references remain the same.

About Charles Stuart (II, King)

San Diego Sarah  •  Link

At another point in Cosmo's journal, he talks about Charles II's guards and security:

The king of England, besides those called his bodyguards, has many guards in the palace, for the security of his person, both foot and horse, who receive greater or smaller pay in proportion to their duty. They are employed to mount guard at the gates of the palace, both on the side of St. James's Park and that of Whitehall Place, and to escort his majesty whenever he goes out on horseback or in his carriage through the city.

308

In the hall called the Guard Room, is the guard of the Manica or sleeve (yeomen of the guard) consisting of 250 handsome men, the tallest and strongest that can be found in England; they are called, in jest, Beef-eaters, that is, eaters of beef, of which a considerable portion is allowed them by the court every day.

These carry an halberd when they are in London, and in the country a half-pike, with a broad sword by their sides; and, before the king had his body guard, they escorted bis carriage.

They are dressed in a livery of red cloth, made according to the ancient fashion, and faced with black velvet; they wear on their back the king's cipher in embroidery, that is, Charles Rex, and on their breast the white and red rose, the emblem of the royal family ever since the union of the two Houses of York and Lancaster, which followed on the marriage of Henry VII with Elizabeth, only daughter of Edward IV, first king of the white rose.

309

By means of this marriage, an end was put to the ancient feuds between those two families, which, by their quarrels, had long kept England divided against itself. Under the title of the White Rose, was designated the House of York, and under that of the Red Rose, the House of Lancaster.

The duty of these guards is, amongst other things, when the king eats in public (which he does 3 times a-week, viz. Sunday, Wednesday, and Friday) to fetch the meat from the kitchen, and carry it to the table, where it is taken from them, and placed before his majesty by the gentlemen in attendance.

The captain of this guard is my Lord Grandison, and the lieutenant, Thomas Howard, o^^i . . . .

[George Villiers, 4th Viscount Grandison (1618-1699) https://www.pepysdiary.com/encyclopedia/11589/#c5… ]

[L&M suggests Thomas Howard was this gentleman: https://www.pepysdiary.com/encyclopedia/5236/#c34… }

About Tuesday 25 May 1669

San Diego Sarah  •  Link

Since he didn't leave a Diary, no one can truly answer your question about his "behavior", Gerald. I'm guessing you mean sexual, and not his work or theater-going habits. As you know, he went on to a stellar career plus the job of being an M.P.

I suspect Elizabeth's death came as a huge shock to Pepys. My honey had Parkinson's for 26 years, and I had the dubious honor of telling the doctors to pull the plug. I can't say I wasn't informed, but found I was nevertheless completely unprepared. Losing your mate is the most devastating experience. The cortisol it releases is a killer, which is why many die within a year of their spouces.

But ... weird and embarrasing as it is to admit ... being around death makes you accutely aware of how precious life is, and while you unconsolably mourn the loss of your best friend and soul companion, many also yearn for human touch and companionship to ease the pain.
The human psyche has a way of compartmentalizing feelings. And, inconvenient as it is, human beings are animals and quite capable of loving more than one at the same time.
Fidelity is an imposed behavior, which is probably why religions harp on about it so much.

So I suspect Pepys continued on with Betty Lane and her sister, and Mrs. Bagwell when he was on the other side of the Thames. He had geniune relationships with them already which were always independent of Elizabeth. In this I consider him lucky. Hopefully they were compassionate and available enough to keep him away from the maids and teenager girls.

Jeanine's article about What Came Next shares the long-term relationship Pepys had later in life with his housekeeper, Mary Skinner. That we do know about.
https://www.pepysdiary.com/indepth/2012/05/31/the…

But who knows. I just can't imagine a celebate life for him for long.

About Sunday 9 May 1669

San Diego Sarah  •  Link

PART 2

there came to dine with him, besides the gentlemen of his own suite, my Lord St.John, my Lord Paulet, my Lord Philip Howard, and Henry Neville.

[A very Catholic lunch. Charles Paulet, son of the 5th Marquis of Winchester, was called Lord St.John. See https://www.pepysdiary.com/encyclopedia/13610/#di…
[John Paulet, 5th Marquis of Winchester was the owner of Basing House near Winchester. http://englishhistoryauthors.blogspot.com/2015/10…
[Lord Philip Howard https://www.pepysdiary.com/encyclopedia/10771/#c5… ]

The latter, after dinner, caused to be brought to his highness a telescope, of a size never before seen, whose field takes in almost all the horizon. With this, his highness amused himself for some time,

and, when it began to grow late, went out, to renew his visits to the ladies who had made acquaintance with him at the Mall in Hyde Park,

and in the evening, adjourned to the palace, to continue his respectful attentions towards their majesties

@@@

The afternoon visits were often to the wives of noblemen and ambassadors who had already met Cosmo socially. They seem to have kept open houses regularly for this purpose.

According to Cosmo's travelogue, Happy Hour seems to have been a regular Court event at Whitehall and St. James’s for the nobility in 1669 (Pepys was never invited that I have seen).

From:
TRAVELS OF COSMO THE THIRD, GRAND DUKE OF TUSCANY,
THROUGH ENGLAND,
DURING THE REIGN OF KING CHARLES THE SECOND (1669)
TRANSLATED FROM THE ITALIAN MANUSCRIPT
https://archive.org/stream/travelsofcosmoth00maga…

His highness, Cosmo, must be considered only as a traveler. Under his direction, the narrator of the records was Count Lorenzo Magalotti, afterwards Secretary to the Academy del Cimento, and one of the most learned and eminent characters of the court of Ferdinand II.

About Sunday 9 May 1669

San Diego Sarah  •  Link

Today entry in Cosmo, the future Grand Duke of Turin's journal about his visit to London in the Spring of 1669.

I've standardized the spelling of names I know, corrected scanning errors I could guess, and increased the number of paragraphs. I apologize if they are wrong:

On the morning of 9/19 May, 1669 when his highness had finished his devotions and heard mass, he received my Lord Oliver St.John, Earl of Bolingbroke, Sir William Morton, and my Lord John Paulet, Baron Paulet, who had come on a complimentary visit; and after spending some time in conversation with them,
[Oliver St.John, 2nd Earl of Bolingbroke (c. 1634 – 1688), https://www.pepysdiary.com/encyclopedia/757/?c=55… ]
[My guess: Lord John Poulett, 2nd Baron Poulett MP (1641-1679}
https://www.historyofparliamentonline.org/volume/… ]
[Possibly Sir William Morton, a Fire Court Judge https://www.pepysdiary.com/encyclopedia/13424/#c5… ]

set off in his carriage along with Colonel Gascoyne and Sir Castiglioni, on a tour through the city, and went to see the New Exchange, which is not far from the place of the Common Garden (Covent Garden) in the great street called the Strand.

FOR THE NEW EXCHANGE INFORMATION, SEE https://www.pepysdiary.com/encyclopedia/1085/?c=5…
NEXT COSMO WENT TO SOMERSET HOUSE, SEE https://www.pepysdiary.com/encyclopedia/243/?c=55…

and thence returning home,

About Somerset House

San Diego Sarah  •  Link

PART 3

300

It was only by the address of Lord Jermyn, in representing to the queen the king's satisfaction at the marriage, the reciprocal affection which subsisted between her sons, the union of the royal family, and the great services the lord chancellor had rendered to the crown, that she was persuaded to be reconciled to it, and to suppress her displeasure.

In the absence of the Earl of St. Albans, M. Vautelet supplies his place, with the title of vice-steward of the household;
the office of master of the horse is in the hands of my Lord Henry Arundel, Baron Arundel of Wardour, Count of the Empire, which title was obtained by this family (which is the true house of Arundel, the others being called Arundel of the family of Howard) from the Emperor Rodolph, for the valor shewn against the Turks by John Arundel in the battle of Huegonia.

[Lord Henry Arundell, 8th Baron Arundell of Wardour https://en-academic.com/dic.nsf/enwiki/352075 ]

Of the other offices, the highest are entrusted to persons of distinguished rank, and the inferior ones to those of less consideration.

The old Duchess of Richmond, sister of my Lord Villiers, Duke of Buckingham, who is remarried into the family of my Lord Ward, is employed in the service of her majesty's bedchamber, as first lady of honor, and the Countess of Newport, in the situation of keeper of the jewels; and both these ladies have others under them, to whom different charges are assigned.

[Mary “Mall” Villiers Herbert Stuart, Duchess of Richmond. Around 1664 she married Col. Thomas Howard (d. 1678), AKA “Northern Tom”, a lieutenant of the yeomen of the guard and younger brother of Charles Howard, 1st Earl of Carlisle. I think "Lord Ward" is an error. http://www.oxforddnb.com/view/printable/56054 -- you need a subscription]

[My guess: this was Anne Boteler Blount, widow of Mountjoy Blount, Earl of Newport, who died in 1665/6. She remarried in 1667 to Thomas Weston, 4th Earl of Portland. Old names die hard with friends, so they probably continued to call her Newport. https://www.nationaltrustcollections.org.uk/objec… ]

301

His highness next viewed the palace of Somerset, which had been intended by the king for his residence during his stay in London; but the incog., which he had observed in all other courts prevented him from accepting this public testimony of respect shewn to him by his majesty.

He saw likewise the church, the convent, and the garden contained within its precincts ...

@@@

In Cosmo's travelogue, “incognito” is generally shortened to "incog." and I think the meaning was "unofficial, informal", as opposed to "having one's true identity concealed" which is today's definition

From:
TRAVELS OF COSMO THE THIRD, GRAND DUKE OF TUSCANY,
THROUGH ENGLAND,
DURING THE REIGN OF KING CHARLES THE SECOND (1669)
TRANSLATED FROM THE ITALIAN MANUSCRIPT
https://archive.org/stream/travelsofcosmoth00maga…

About Somerset House

San Diego Sarah  •  Link

PART 2

299

The queen, besides her dower, has an annual pension, which the king pays her, so that her whole income is about 8,000/.s sterling, which she employs in keeping up a becoming appearance, and maintaining a court, which is well regulated, and composed of members distinguished for their birth and merit.

The situation of steward of her household, together with that of captain of the guard, is held by my Lord Henry Jermyn, Earl of St. Albans, who, above all other individuals, has been loaded with benefits by her majesty; and on his pleasure the whole government of the royal house is said to depend.

On this account, she does not possess the affection of the English, who are not pleased that such considerable sums of money should be drawn out of the kingdom of England to be spent in that of France, in consequence of the queen's permanent residence there, and a great part of which will only benefit the Earl of St. Albans.

This nobleman is in favor with the king, for having assisted in tranquillizing the mind of the queen mother, who was much disgusted at the marriage of the Duke of York with the eldest daughter of the Earl of Clarendon, against whom she had conceived an almost irreconcilable hatred.

About Somerset House

San Diego Sarah  •  Link

Cosmo, the future Grand Duke of Turin, left us a contemporary description of Somerset House and Queen Mother Henrietta Maria's situation in May 1669.

I've standardized the spelling of names I know, corrected scanning errors I could guess, and increased the number of paragraphs. I apologize if they are wrong:

297

From the Exchange his highness went in his carriage to the palace of Somerset, called Somerset House, situated in the square of the same name, where is to be seen a pole crowned with a royal diadem, erected there in the year 1660, when Charles II was restored to the kingdom. [THE MAYPOLE???]

This palace is situated on the banks of the Thames; its front looks towards the Strand, that is, the street of the New Exchange; and behind is a garden, which terminates at the river in a grove of elms, divided in the usual manner into walks, for the convenience of promenading, and for affording a grateful shade to those who amuse themselves with looking at the boats which are continually passing and repassing on the water.

298

The apartments are well arranged, so as to constitute a noble habitation, besides the offices necessary for inferior purposes. In it the queen mother established her court on her return from France to England, after the king her son was restored to the throne, and remained there till the year 1665, when she returned to France.

Near the palace is the royal chapel, to which a convent of French Capuchins is attached; in which there reside a warden, 7 religious, who are priests, and 2 lay-brothers who are obliged to officiate daily in the chapel, and to preach every Sunday and holiday, at the expense of her majesty who allows for their maintenance an annual revenue of 500/.s sterling.

These fathers strictly observe the discipline of their order, wearing within the convent the usual religious habit, which they lay aside whenever, either from necessity or on the service of the Catholics, they are obliged to go out into the city, on which occasions they put on a modest secular habit.

The Abbe Montagu, her majesty's grand almoner, brother of the Earl of Manchester, has the superintendance of the royal chapel; and subordinate to him are Father Lambert, a Frenchman, the queen's confessor, Father Gough, an Englishman, chaplain of the private chapel, and the aforementioned Capuchins.

[ABBE WALTER MONTAGU, see https://www.pepysdiary.com/diary/1666/07/03/#c548… ]

About New Exchange

San Diego Sarah  •  Link

PART 2

297

From the Exchange his highness went in his carriage to the palace of Somerset, ...

For the next installment, see SOMERSET HOUSE

From:
TRAVELS OF COSMO THE THIRD, GRAND DUKE OF TUSCANY,
THROUGH ENGLAND,
DURING THE REIGN OF KING CHARLES THE SECOND (1669)
TRANSLATED FROM THE ITALIAN MANUSCRIPT
https://archive.org/stream/travelsofcosmoth00maga…

His highness, Cosmo, must be considered only as a traveler. Under his direction, the narrator of the records was Count Lorenzo Magalotti, afterwards Secretary to the Academy del Cimento, and one of the most learned and eminent characters of the court of Ferdinand II.

About New Exchange

San Diego Sarah  •  Link

Cosmo, the future Grand Duke of Turin, left us a contemporary description of the New Exchange during his visit in May, 1669.

I've standardized the spelling of names I know, corrected scanning errors I could guess, and increased the number of paragraphs. I apologize if I guessed incorrectly:

... and went to see the New Exchange, which is not far from the place of the Common Garden (Covent Garden) in the great street called the Strand.

296

The building has a facade of statues, built after the Gothic style, which has lost its color from age, and is become blackish.

It contains two long and double galleries, one above the other, in which are distributed, in several rows, great numbers of very rich shops of drapers and mercers, filled with goods of every kind, and with manufactures of the most beautiful description.

These are, for the most part, under the care of well-dressed women, who are busily employed in work; although many are served by young men, called apprentices, who, in order to qualify themselves for this craft or business, are obliged to serve their master for a certain time, not only in the shop, but in the house and out of doors, at his discretion; nor can they claim any exemption, except on certain specified days in the year, on which, being freed from all subjection towards their masters, they do whatever they choose; and so great is their number, that, in order to prevent the inconveniences which might arise, the government of the city finds it necessary, by a particular provision, to oblige the heads of the houses in every street to keep on foot a certain number of men, armed with spears, at the head of the street, by way of preventing the insolence of the apprentices on the days in which this freedom is allowed them, which are at the Easter and Whitsuntide holidays, and some others, according to the custom of the city, for uniting together to the number of 10,000 (and they are supposed to amount to that number or more) they divide themselves into separate parties, and spread over the different quarters of the city, meditating and frequently accomplishing the annoyance of the public, as it may suit their fancy, taking confidence from their numbers, and from the cudgels which they hold in their hands (the carrying any other sort of weapon being prohibited) and this they push to such an extent, that it frequently happens, that the authority of my Lord Mayor has not been able to restrain their headstrong rashness; and even towards this magistrate they have not unfrequently failed in proper respect, and have treated him with contempt and derision.

About Oliver St John

San Diego Sarah  •  Link

Oooops ... I overstated things.
Justice Oliver "Dark Lantern" St.John, was a politician, and did not fight at Edgehill. Obviously the bloodletting amongst the cousins didn't involve ALL of them ... just a lot of them.

About Oliver St John

San Diego Sarah  •  Link

To clarify things, Justice Oliver "Dark Lantern" St.John, was related by marriage to Cromwell, and became one of his chief advisors. He just managed to keep his head at the Restoration.

Vincent above refers to Oliver St.John, 2nd Earl of Bolingbroke (c. 1634 – 1688), the eldest son of Sir Paulet St.John (d. 1638) and his wife Elizabeth Vaughan, who became heir apparent to his grandfather, Oliver St.John, 1st Earl of Bolingbroke, after the death of his uncle Oliver St.John, 5th Baron St.John of Bletso at the Battle of Edgehill in 1642. Yes, it was a big family. This Oliver is from the senior branch ... the junior branch of the St.Johns of Lydiard (which included the Villiers mob by marriage) were Royalists. They all are thought to have fought at Edgehill, on opposite sides.

On 24 November 1654, the 2nd Earl married Lady Frances Cavendish (d. 15 August 1678), the daughter of William Cavendish, 1st Duke of Newcastle-upon-Tyne, by whom he had no children.

For more, see
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Oliver_St_John,_2nd…

About Monday 10 May 1669

San Diego Sarah  •  Link

PART 2

304

No memorial of them now remains, except some arms of the Order engraved on stone, and left, in their original situations, on the wall of a tower adjoining the house of the priory.

After this excursion through the city, his highness went to the comedy at the Duke's theatre,

and in the evening to Whitehall, to continue his attentions to their majesties and royal highnesses; and he was here informed of the entertainment which the king had prepared for him on the following day in Hyde Park, by commanding a review of his guard, both foot and horse.

Returning home in good time, he retired to supper.

@@@

According to Cosmo's travelogue, Happy Hour seems to have been a regular Court event at Whitehall and St. James’s for the nobility in 1669 (Pepys was never invited that I have seen).

From:
TRAVELS OF COSMO THE THIRD, GRAND DUKE OF TUSCANY,
THROUGH ENGLAND,
DURING THE REIGN OF KING CHARLES THE SECOND (1669)
TRANSLATED FROM THE ITALIAN MANUSCRIPT
https://archive.org/stream/travelsofcosmoth00maga…

His highness, Cosmo, must be considered only as a traveler. Under his direction, the narrator of the records was Count Lorenzo Magalotti, afterwards Secretary to the Academy del Cimento, and one of the most learned and eminent characters of the court of Ferdinand II.

About Monday 10 May 1669

San Diego Sarah  •  Link

Cosmo, the future Grand Duke of Turin, did some sightseeing in London today.

I've standardized the spelling of names I know, corrected scanning errors I could figure out, and increased the number of paragraphs. Sometimes I got confused making the N.S./O.S. date conversions, so I apologize if they are wrong:

302

On the morning of 10/20 May, 1669 he held mass, as on other days; and in the meantime, there came to pay their respects to his highness, who received them with the greatest kindness and affability, my Lord William Paget, Baron Paget and Beaufort; my Lord Francis Newport, Baron Newport; Sir Savile, brother of my Lord George Savile; Viscount Halifax; Sir Edward Waller; my Lord William Cavendish, Earl of Devonshire; my Lord John Mohun, Baron Mohun and Okehampton; and my Lord James Touchet, Baron Arundel and Highleigh.
With these, his highness spent almost the whole of the morning in conversation, so that there was but a short time left for him to take a tour through the city before dinner;

nevertheless, he went in his carriage to the College of the Temple, that is, of the Knights Templars,
SEE HIS REPORT AT https://www.pepysdiary.com/encyclopedia/1343/?c=5…

303

On his return, he passed by the Place of the Common Garden, which is in a square, or rather higher ground than the New Exchange. [COVENT GARDEN???]

Two sides are occupied by houses, one by the facade of a church, in a good style of architecture, and the other, by the garden of the palace of the Earl of Bedford, the trees of which project over the walls, they not being raised much from the ground; and in the middle of the place or square is erected a pillar, on which are several sundials, which serve for emblems, enlivened by various mottoes, one of which, alluding to the hours, says "Pereunt et imputantur."

His highness then returned home; and there dined with him some of those lords and gentlemen who had been a little before to pay their respects to him, and his own retinue as usual.

After dinner, he again went out in his carriage, extending his drive to the most distant parts of the city, as far as Moorfields, a place composed of two large inclosed squares; this leads to a second, and that again to a third which are surrounded by abundance of mulberry trees, and add much to the agreeableness of the space of ground occupied by this grand place, which is appropriated to the sale of horses.

His highness next went to a place where was the ancient house of the Grand Prior of England of the religion of Malta, suppressed in this kingdom by Henry VIII in the year 1540, the revenues being made over to the royal treasury, of which he deprived William Westa, at that time grand prior, and at the same time all the knights of the Order, who held them in commendam. [ANY IDEAS WHERE THIS WAS?]

About Temple Church

San Diego Sarah  •  Link

A contemporary view of the Temple Church is given by Cosmo, the future Grand Duke of Turin, who visited in May 1669.

I've standardized the spelling of names I know, corrected scanning errors I could figure out, and increased the number of paragraphs. I apologize if I guessed incorrectly:

... he went in his carriage to the College of the Temple, that is, of the Knights Templars, who, before their suppression by Pope Clement V, used to reside there; and on the pavement of the small church belonging to it, there are still to be seen many figures in basso relievo, representing several of these knights in armor, with the badges of their Order, from which the name was taken.

The gate of London, which is contiguous to it, serves at present as a residence for some collegians, who study the ancient Norman language, in which are written the laws of the kingdom relating to the administration of justice; there are many masters appointed to instruct them, and to qualify them for pleaders.

@@@

From:
TRAVELS OF COSMO THE THIRD, GRAND DUKE OF TUSCANY,
THROUGH ENGLAND,
DURING THE REIGN OF KING CHARLES THE SECOND (1669)
TRANSLATED FROM THE ITALIAN MANUSCRIPT
https://archive.org/stream/travelsofcosmoth00maga…

His highness, Cosmo, must be considered only as a traveler. Under his direction, the narrator of the records was Count Lorenzo Magalotti, afterwards Secretary to the Academy del Cimento, and one of the most learned and eminent characters of the court of Ferdinand II.