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About Tuesday 5 March 1666/67

San Diego Sarah  •  Link

Meanwhile, back at Whitehall, Charles II is penning a quick note to his sister, Minette, Duchesse d'Orleans.


It was in these later stages of Chancellor Edward Hyde, Earl of Clarendon’s career that the younger courtiers found it safe to vent their dislike by ridiculing him before Charles II, as when Killegrew or George Villiers, 2nd Duke of Buckingham strutted up and down bearing the shovel and bellows for mace and great seal!

Charles II shows his feelings in the matter plainly, in a letter to Madame, 5 March, 1668

"I will not deny that naturally I am more lazy then I ought to be, but you are very ill-informed if you do not know that my Tresury and indeede all my other affairs, are in as good a methode as our understandings can put them into.

“And I think the peace I have made between Spain and Portugal and the defensive league I have made with Holland should give some testimony to the world that we think of our interest here. I do assure you that I neglect nothing for want of pains. If we fail for want of understanding, there is no help for it. ...

“I assure you that my Lord of Buckingham does not govern affairs here. I do not doubt but my Lord Clarendon, and some of his friends here, will discreditt me and my affaires as much as they can, but I shall say no more upon that subject, for, if you knew how ill a servant he has been to me, you would not doubt but he would be glad things should not go on smoothly, now he is out of affairs, and most of the vexation and trouble I have at present in my affairs I owe to him."
I wonder if Charles believed all this, or was he putting a good spin on things for French consumption?

And why didn't old, ill, tired Clarendon take the hints and retire gracefully?
My guess is that he was wise enough to guess at the chaos that would follow, led by the likes of Buckingham and Ashley-Cooper. I wonder what his solution would have been to his successor.

About Wednesday 28 October 1668

San Diego Sarah  •  Link

Oct. ? 1668
Sir Allan Apsley to Williamson.

I request the return of a warrant, that I may send it back to Lady Castlemaine,
according to her command when she gave it me;
she never named a clamorous gentleman who now complains that the business is put into your hands.
[S.P. Dom., Car. II. 248, No. 100.]
Here's another story we don't know.

Oct. 28 1668.
Warrant to Sir Gilbert Talbot, Master of the Jewel House,

to deliver to Barbara, Countess of Castlemaine, 3,000 ounces of plate,
of such fashion as she shall desire, to be for her own use,
she having given in her indentures for redelivery of the same.
[S.P. Dom., Car. II. 248, No. 101.]
And exactly how did Lady Castlemaine qualify for this gift?
And what does "she having given in her indentures for redelivery of the same" mean if it's of her design and for her use?

Oct. 28 1668
for Josceline, Earl of Northumberland, to be Lord Lieutenant of Sussex.
Minute. [S.P. Dom., Entry Book 30, f. 86.]

Oct. 28. 1668
for the said Earl to be Lord Lieutenant of Northumberland and town of Newcastle.
Minute. [S.P. Dom., Entry Book 30, f. 86.]
Joceline Percy, 11th Earl of Northumberland

About Wednesday 28 October 1668

San Diego Sarah  •  Link

The volume of Domestic State Papers covering correspondence from Oct. 1668 - Dec. 1669 is at…

Oct. 28 1668.
Victualing Office
Sir Denis Gauden to the Navy Commissioners.

In answer to yours of the 24th, there is nothing that I have more endeavoured
than the bringing in of all my demands, and the having all my accounts settled, which is necessary in respect of the service, and of my own security, as fast as papers come to hand I shall despatch them, that I may be able to make my final demand.

The delay of the pursers in sending in their accounts may be imputed to me, but I hope your Honours will consider what I suffer for want of them, being unable to know what casks, bags, and iron hoops have been delivered to, or returned from each ship.
[S.P. Dom., Car. II. 248, No. 94.]

Oct. 28 1668.
John Maurice to Williamson.

The Fortune from Barbados brought a packet directed to Sir Wm. Morice,
which I sent to Sir John Trevor, supposing it to be in his province.

The vessel had a quick passage, having completed it in five weeks and a few days.
The Sarah of Weymouth came out with her, but was left at sea.
[S.P. Dom., Car. II. 248, No. 95.]

Oct. 28 1668.
Rich. Bower to Williamson.

Several vessels have sailed for the Straits with red herrings,
and others will soon be ready.

Mr. Crow, of Yarmouth, formerly an upholsterer of London, died here on Saturday last: had he lived, he would have been called to an account about the former King's hangings, as the bailiffs had received something in order thereto.

He died worth 40,000/., most of which he has left to Thos. Bransby of Yarmouth and Rob. Bransby in St. Bartholomew's Close, London, his brothers by the mother's side, having left neither wife nor child.

I hope Capt. Clifton has been with you;
I doubt not but you will answer my desires by moving Lord Arlington therein.
[S.P. Dom., Car. II. 248, No. 96.]
"Hangings" must mean tapestries, not executions.

1668. Oct. 28.
James Baskerville to Williamson.

The winds keep in the fleet outward bound.
We have sickly times, and bad, wet weather.
[S.P. Dom., Car. II. 248, No. 97.]

Oct. 28, 1660
Petition of John Napier, rector of St. Peter's, Berkhamstead, Herts., and of 8 other inhabitants, to the King,

for leave to recommend Edmund Nuboult, M.A., late student of Trinity College, Cambridge,
as master of the Free School in the town, vacant through the resignation of the late incumbent;
have suffered long for want of one.

With reference thereon to the Bishop of Hereford, and his report that the petitioner having shown him ample certificates attesting his sobriety and industry, and finding him to be of parts sufficient for so mean a school,
he conceives him a fit person for his Majesty's favour.
[S.P. Dom., Car. II. 248, Nos. 98, 99.]

About Wednesday 28 October 1668

San Diego Sarah  •  Link

"But I did get, to my great content, my account allowed of fees, with great applause by my Lord Ashly and Sir W. Pen."

Be careful, Pepys ... any time those two approved of anything of mine, I'd be worried.

About Tuesday 27 October 1668

San Diego Sarah  •  Link

Oct. 27 1668.
Capt. Ant. Deane to the Navy Commissioners.

The timber will not go down until the spring [tide], unless the King will pay for the bark,
so that it is time enough to take care for the payment, if they resolve to have it on the terms proposed;
whatever shifts are made for money, those bargains must not be let go, or they will be still more tied to Mr. Cole.

Prays that the supply demanded may be sent, and also some deals, or the works of the new ship must stand still;

has had to cut spruce deals, when the service required despatch.
[S.P. Dom., Car. II. 248, No. 92.]

About Tuesday 27 October 1668

San Diego Sarah  •  Link

Oct. ? 1668
Petition of John Wickham, messenger of the chamber in ordinary,
to Lord Arlington.

I seized, along with Mr. Mearne and others of the Stationers' Company, a private printing press in Southwark, belonging to Mrs. Calvert, and several reams of an unlicensed book which were brought to the messengers' chamber in Whitehall.

I refused Mearne's request to return them to Mrs. Calvert,
but at length I allowed Mr. Royston, warden of the company, who had Sec. Morice's warrant for seizing all unlicensed books, to carry them to their hall, and received 50/. from him, as I thought for my trouble.

I am sorry for my offence in delivering up the said papers, but did not sell them, as was asserted.
[S.P. Dom., Car. II, 248, No 88.]

Oct. 27 1668.
Wm. Browne, Mayor, and the 12 aldermen of Newark, to Lord Arlington.

The town has been destitute of a vicar since Whitsun tide, and many
indigent persons have been put to very great exigences to procure parsons to baptize their children, and bury their dead.

We have tired our neighbours, and soon may not be able to get it done at all.

We beg that we may not long rest under this great want,
and that if no one be presented,
you will assist us in offering one [Mr. Smith] to his Majesty, whose fidelity to his prince, charity to his neighbour, and zeal for religion, make him preferable to others.
[12 signatures. S.P. Dom., Car. II. 248, No. 87.]
Reasons by Herbert, Bishop of Hereford, why Mr. Smith should not be suddenly presented to Newark:
1. I am informed that, though the Mayor and some others desire him, the greater part of the town desire Mr. Babbington.
2. Mr. Smith has another living, and I am not sure whether he intends to leave it and reside in Newark, which will be requisite in so populous a town.
3. I have received no testimonials of his sobriety, industry, right principles in religion, and loyalty.
4. I know nothing of his abilities in learning, and though he may preach plausibly to a popular auditory, yet it is requisite in such a town, that he be of learning sufficient to confute the sectaries there, and not by ignorance expose the Church to contempt.

Though his Majesty be pleased for the town to recommend a person for the cure, yet to admit any person into a corporate town, without an inspection into these things, may be a precedent of dangerous consequence.
Endorsed with a note that the bishop, being satisfied by a letter from the Mayor and aldermen, gave leave for Mr. Smith's presentation to pass.
[S.P. Dom., Cur. II. 248, No. 871.]

About Tuesday 27 October 1668

San Diego Sarah  •  Link

The volume of Domestic State Papers covering correspondence from Oct. 1668 to Dec. 1669 is at…

October 27, 1668
Dr. Thos. Willis to Williamson.

John Greenriff of Wales was high sheriff for Glamorganshire 4 years ago,
and is threatened to be returned sheriff of Monmouthshire,
although he has not 100/. a year in this county, and not above 400/. in the other.

If he is returned, get him off, if it be in your power; he will not be unthankful.
[S.P. Dom., Car. II 248, No. 83.]

Oct. 27 1668.
Dr. [Leoline] Jenkins to Williamson.

I send my opinion on the question as to how far treaties between princes should lose their force, where succeeding ones do not ratify them.
1. In private contracts, the last is always the binding one.
2. They are to be interpreted according to the strictness of the letter, to avoid cavils, and then those have only themselves to blame, who have omitted provisions to their own advantage.
3. They do not ratify former treaties by implication, only by express declaration, because they are to be looked upon as the prince's second thoughts; and the subject, to whom they are law, should not be under the uncertainty of two laws about the same thing.
[S.P. Dom., Car. II. 248, No. 84.]

Oct. 27 1668.
Petition of Peter Ricaut to the King,
for a grant by privy seal of such moneys as remain due to his Majesty
upon the account of Sir Simon Every and Sir John Curson, Receivers-General of the Duchy of Lancaster,
being received in the time of the late wars, and not paid to any of the usurped powers.

His Majesty declared, on a former petition,
that he would grant such sums as should remain due to him upon Sir Simon Every's account,
but the petitioner finds that Sir John Curson was joined in the grant with Sir Simon, and executed the office of Receiver-General during the wars, after Sir Simon's death.

With reference thereon to Sir Thos. Ingram, Chancellor of the Duchy.
[S.P. Dom., Car. II. 248, No. 86.]

Oct. 27 1668.
Warrant to John Wilson
to seize Rich. Royston, bookseller, and bring him before Lord Arlington.
Minute. [S.P. Dom., Entry Book 30, f. 68.]

Oct. 27 1668.
Warrant to John Wilson, messenger,
to apprehend John Wright, bookseller.
[S.P. Dom., Entry Book 30, f. 68.]

Oct. 27 1668.
Warrant to John Wilson to apprehend [John] Wickham, messenger.
[S.P. Dom., Entry Book 30, f. 68.]

About Wednesday 21 October 1668

San Diego Sarah  •  Link

"No-one could make an appointment?"

We've seen lots of appointments being made, Nicholas.
But then there's the "I'm in the neighborhood and I've got half an hour to spare, and I need to know X from Y, so I'll pop in and maybe I'll be lucky" meetings.
And don't forget the "I hope I'm in time for lunch" spontaneous pop ins.

About Candlemas Day

San Diego Sarah  •  Link


The night watchman’s cry as he walked around his parish was: 'Lanthorne and a whole candell light, hange out your lights heare!'
This was in accordance with the local rule of London, as established by the mayor in 1416, that all householders of the better class, rated above a low rate in the books of their respective parishes, should hang a lantern, lighted with a fresh and whole candle, nightly outside their houses for the accommodation of foot passengers, from Allhallows evening to Candlemas day. [OCTOBER 31 – FEBRUARY 2]

There is a picture of a Jacobean bellman in the collection of prints in the British Museum, giving a more poetic form to the cry:
"A light here, maids, haue out your light,
And see your horns be clear and bright,
That so your candle clear may shine,
Continuing from six till nine;
That honest men that walk along
May see to pass safe without wrong."

Total darkness fell early on the streets when the rush-candle burned in its socket; and was dispelled only by the occasional appearance of the watchman with his horn lantern; or that more important and noisier official, the bellman.

Each ward appointed a bellman who acted as an inspector of the watchmen, going around, says Stow, 'all night with a bell, and at every lane's end, and at the ward's end, gave warning of fire and candle, and to help the poor, and pray for the dead.'

Extracted from…
He has pictures of the nightwatchmen.

About Candlemas Day

San Diego Sarah  •  Link

February 2nd seems early to end the compulsory lighting of the streets:

After Allhallows Day, “all householders of the better class” were required to hang a lamp outside their doors by London statute. As night descended, the lamp-lighter or watchman for their neighborhood came by to light them and kept them lighted all night.

The following is taken from Robert Chamber’s history of the custom in his Popular Antiquities:

Civilization, in its slowest progress, may be illustrated by a glance at the past modes of guarding and lighting the tortuous and dangerous streets of old cities.

From 1253, when Henry III established night-watchmen, until 1830, when Sir Robert Peel's police act established a new kind of guardian, the watchman was little better than a person who "Disturbed your rest to tell you what's o'clock."

The night watchman gradually became less useful from the days of Queen Elizabeth; the troop were as much relished for their satirical truth in the reign of Queen Anne as in that of her virgin predecessor.

The Westminster Act was passed in 1762, was forced on the legislature by the impunity with which robberies and murder were committed after dark. Before that, a few oil lamps served to make darkness visible in the streets, and confuse the wayfarer by partial glimmerings across his ill-paved path.

Before the civil wars of the 1640’s, the streets were only lit by the lights from windows, from lanterns grudgingly hung out by householders, or by the watchmen during their rounds.

The watchman carried a fire-pot, called a cresset, on the top of a long pole, and as he marched on, giving light as he bawled the hour, and at the same time, notifying his approach to all thieves, who now had warning to escape.

A cresset is preserved in the Tower of London armory. It is an open-barred pot, hanging by swivels fastened to the forked staff; in the center of the pot is a spike, around which was coiled a rope soaked in pitch and rosin, which sputtered and burned with a lurid light and stinking smoke, as the watchman went his rounds.

The London watchman in the time of King James differed little from that of Queen Elizabeth. He carried a halbert and a horn-lantern, was well secured in a frieze gabardine, leathern-girdled; and wore a serviceable hat to guard against weather.

Existing pictures of watchmen show venerable faces and beards, indicating how old was the habit of parish officers to select the poor and feeble for the office of watchman in order to keep them out of the poorhouse. Such 'ancient and most quiet watchmen' naturally preferred being out of harm's way, and warned thieves to depart in peace by ringing the bell, 'then presently call the rest of the watch together, and thank God you are rid of a knave.'

About Tuesday 14 January 1667/68

San Diego Sarah  •  Link


In 1668 Monmouth visited the French Court, taking the following letter from Charles II to Madame:

"Whithall, 14 Jan., 1668,

I beleeve you may easily guesse that I am something concerned for this bearer, [James Duke of Monmouth added in red ink and a different hand], and therefore I put him into your handes to be directed by you in all thinges, and pray use that authority over him as you ought to do in kindness to me which is all I shall say to you at this time, for I thinke he will not be so soone at Paris as the poste, and I have no more to trouble you with now, only to assure you that I am intierly yours, C. R." . . .
"A thousand thankes for the care you take before-hand of James, ... I do confesse I love him very well." ...
"I cannot thanke you eno' for your goodness and kindnesse to James." ...
"if he does faile in writting, I feare he takes a little after his father." ...
"He intends to put on a perriwig againe, when he comes to Paris, but I beleeve you will thinke him better farr, as I do, with his short haire. ..."

About Thursday 22 October 1668

San Diego Sarah  •  Link

Agreed, John ... but I have read similar vindictive threats by Pepys in the past, and do not remember him actually doing anything in revenge. We shall see ...

About Bristol

San Diego Sarah  •  Link

The trade and warfare conducted by the entrepreneurial merchants of Bristol as reported in:

Bristol -- British atlas of historic towns, Nr. 3
Author William Hunt
Publisher Longmans, Green, 1889
Original from Harvard University
Length 230 pages…

Although this is 100 years before Pepys, it does explain the Bristol mindset, and the scope of their imports and exports:

During the reign of Henry VIII, Bristol, in common with London and Southampton, carried on a brisk trade with Sicily, Candia, and the Levant, exporting fine and coarse kersies of various kinds, and receiving silks, rhubarb, sweet wines, sweet oils, Turkey carpets, and spices;
and in this trade its merchants largely employed ships of Ragusa, Venice, Genoa, and other states.

Commerce with the Levant was carried on at the risk of capture by the Turks, and especially by the Algerine pirates.

In 1621 John Rawlins, a Plymouth skipper, who was taken and sold as a slave in Algiers, but found there the 'Exchange' of Bristol which had been surprised by the pirates. He and some other English slaves were put on board her as part of her crew; they rose against the Turks, overcame them after a desperate fight, and brought the ship back to England.

Some years passed before the new trade of Bristol brought her ships into collision with any Christian state, for the Newfoundland discovery lay too far north to rouse Spanish interference, and such trade as there was with the West Indies was carried on in Spanish bottoms and was kept secret.

In 1552, three ships fitted out and freighted at Bristol, sailed from King Road, on the second voyage made from England for purposes of traffic with Morocco, carrying linen and woolen cloth, amber, and jet. The general importance of this voyage lies in the fact that it was an open defiance of the papal decision, as yet the law of Christendom, which reserved Africa for its discoverers, the Portuguese.

The ships returned safely despite the anger of the Portuguese, and of an attack made on them by some Spaniards.

As regards Bristol, this voyage marks the beginning of her African trade. From the Barbary coast her ships slowly worked their way to the Guinea coast, and there, in later times, took in slaves for the Western plantations.

On the accession of Edward VI, Cabot returned to England, and it is said he took up his residence in Bristol. He received a pension, and had the direction of the maritime affairs of the kingdom. In addition, he worked with all his heart on the method of determining longitude and on problems of a like nature, so that he should be remembered as an administrator and a man of science rather than simply as a seaman.

About Dr Jonathan Goddard

San Diego Sarah  •  Link

Charles II was on his deathbed in 1685; the monarch had suffered a stroke. Doctors tried everything to save him, but the king was convinced that one particular remedy would work.

Years before, the new king had paid Oliver Cromwell’s doctor and chemist, Jonathan Goddard, a handsome sum for the secret formula for Goddard’s Drops. The chemist claimed his invention, which later came to be known as King’s Drops, was a kind of miracle cure for all manner of ailments. The recipe for this liquid concoction was complex, involving numerous components and multiple distillations, but its efficacy supposedly hinged on one crucial ingredient: a powder consisting of five pounds of crushed human skulls.

Not just any skulls would do. According to medical wisdom of the time, the bones of an elderly person might contain some of the same illness the King’s Drops were meant to cure. “Ideally, [the skull] would be from someone who died a violent death at a young, healthy age,” says Lydia Kang, co-author of Quackery: A Brief History of the Worst Ways to Cure Everything. “You wanted somebody who died in the prime of their life, so execution and war were ideal ways to get these products.”

By the end of his life, doctors were pouring 40 drops of this gruesome elixir down Charles II’s throat daily. Needless to say, the potion didn’t have its desired effect.

King’s Drops and other bogus medical treatments may have sped up his demise on February 6, 1685. Yet the fact that the drops failed to save Charles didn’t deter many other English people from making and drinking the concoction.

For more on Corpse Medicine, but not Dr. Goddard or Charles II, see:…

About Monday 26 October 1668

San Diego Sarah  •  Link

Oct. 26 1668.
Sir John Mennes and J. Tippetts to the Navy Commissioners.

Desire their advice as to paying the yard, or they will lose time, the ships not being come up yet.

Are busied touching the examination of the business of the master attendants,
and the complaints of the seamen working at the wrecks of the badness of their victuals, particularly the beef, some of which appears to be rotten and decayed.

Have sent several times to the victualler to require its amendment, but in vain.
[S.P. Dom., Car. II. 248, No. 79.]

Oct. 16, 1668
John Pollen and Lieut. Peter Edwards to Pepys.

The man that gave intelligence of the [embezzled] masts brought from Deptford has gone to Newcastle;
will inform of his return.

For their own parts, desire no profit nor gain,
but that he will present their 2 small tickets enclosed to the Earl of Anglesey for his signature, for payment of them out of the weekly money,
and shall be willing to serve in anything for the good of his Majesty.

With note that the due reward was promised, if their discovery be made good,
and the tickets returned them to expect payment on them in course.
[S.P. Dom., Car. II. 248, No. 80.]

Oct. 26, 1668
John Russell to the Navy Commissioners.

John Robinson, master of the James hoy, has been laden with plank and timber
lying at Stockwith.

Mr. Shish has complained of the plank sent;
it had lain some time in the wind and sun, and therefore did not look so well as when first cut, but was fitter for service.

Has sent 430 loads into the stores, which has been approved to be good every
1,444 loads have also been taken in, and there remain on the shore 1,059 loads, which lie ready till they send for it.

Has receipts for his expenditure in carriage, loading the hoys, &c.
If the hoys will not come any more this winter, wishes to come up [to pass his

The James was 9 days loading, and cost him 12s. for labourers.
[S.P. Dom., Car. II. 248, No. 81.]

About Monday 26 October 1668

San Diego Sarah  •  Link

The volume of Domestic State Papers covering correspondence from Oct. 1668 to Dec. 1669 is at…

[Oct. 26.] 1668
Petition of Sir Wm. Darcy to the King,

for immediate order for payment of 300/. a year,
on the trust of the late Lord Chancellor,
on pretence thereby to promote his Majesty's advantage in settling the alum farm;
his Majesty has already ordered the Treasury Commissioners to satisfy petitioner, but they delay to do so.
[S.P. Dom., Car. II. 248, No. 76.]

Oct. 26 1668.
Docquet of an indenture
whereby Sir John Wolstenholme and other farmers of customs,
who have a lease of the customs for 4 years from Michaelmas last, on rent of 350,000/. for 3 years,
and 370,000/. for the fourth,
covenant to raise the rent to 400,000/. yearly,
paying 16,666/. 13s. 4d. twice a month,
but deducting 800/. a month, till they be reimbursed their 200,000/. advanced,
with interest and charges.
[S.P. Dom., Entry Book 30, f. 88.]

Oct. 26 1668.
Order in the Committee for Trade and Plantations –
on petition of the Eastland merchants for renewal of the proclamation of 7 March 1630,
for which a warrant was issued, 29 Aug. 1661 - directing the Attorney-General to inquire what have been the impediments to the setting forth of this proclamation,
and to report thereon on Thursday, when the Governors of the Eastland Company are to attend their lordships.
[Draft. S.P. Dom., Car. II. 248, No. 77.]

Oct. 26 1668.
Dan. Furzer to the Navy Commissioners.

Fears the offal timber, &c., at Conpill Yard will not yield 100/.,
as there is not a good plank in the yard, and the landlord will expect his rent and carriage ere the stuff be removed.

An immediate sale would take off the charge of rent, and of 2 men to keep the yard.
Conceives it better to sell the furniture of the smith's shop also.

As to the timber in the forest formerly converted for his Majesty's use,
can give no answer, because it is chiefly of larger size than is used in Bristol;
but if 600 or 700 tons were brought there, believes it could not miss of a good market.
[1] page. S.P. Dom., Car. II. 248, No. 78.]

About Sunday 25 October 1668

San Diego Sarah  •  Link

"... and so to church I, and there find Jack Fenn come, and his wife, a pretty black woman: I never saw her before, nor took notice of her now."

One day soon you may need Jack Fenn, Samuel oh so high and mighty Pepys. There are times I really dislike you. I suppose Mrs. Fenn wasn't as classy as Betty Lane? You had the gall to invite good old Betty Lane to lunch with Elizabeth recently.

I'm glad you got caught. I trust Elizabeth will torture you.

No hint as to what will happen to Deb, who is probably upstairs, sobbing. She will have to go, of course. But Pepys has no thought about her welfare tonight.