Saturday 23 April 1664

(Coronation day). Up, and after doing something at my office, and, it being a holiday, no sitting likely to be, I down by water to Sir W. Warren’s, who hath been ill, and there talked long with him good discourse, especially about Sir W. Batten’s knavery and his son Castle’s ill language of me behind my back, saying that I favour my fellow traytours, but I shall be even with him. So home and to the ’Change, where I met with Mr. Coventry, who himself is now full of talke of a Dutch warr; for it seems the Lords have concurred in the Commons’ vote about it; and so the next week it will be presented to the King, insomuch that he do desire we would look about to see what stores we lack, and buy what we can. Home to dinner, where I and my wife much troubled about my money that is in my Lord Sandwich’s hand, for fear of his going to sea and be killed; but I will get what of it out I can.

All the afternoon, not being well, at my office, and there doing much business, my thoughts still running upon a warr and my money.

At night home to supper and to bed.

28 Annotations

First Reading

Terry F  •  Link

"the Lords have concurred in the Commons' vote about [a Dutch war]" yesterday:

Vote to desire the King will take some Measures to protect Foreign Trade from the Depredations of the Dutch.

"Resolved, by the and Commons assembled in Parliament,
"That the Wrongs, Dishonours, and Indignities, done to His Majesty by the Subjects of The United Provinces, by invading of His Rights, in India, Affrica, and elsewhere, and the Damages, Affronts, and Injuries, done by them to our Merchants, are the greatest Obstruction of our Foreign Trade; and that the same be humbly and speedily presented to His Majesty; and that He be most humbly moved, to take some speedy and effectual Course for the Redress thereof, and all other of the like Nature, and for the Prevention of the like in future; and, in Prosecution thereof, they will with their Lives and Fortunes assist His Majesty, against all Oppositions whatsoever."

ORDERED, That this House agrees with the House of Commons in this Vote.
Message to H. C. for both Houses to attend the King with it.
A Message was sent to the House of Commons, by Baron Atkins and Justice Tyrrell:
To let them know, that the Lords have agreed with them [etc.]....

From: 'House of Lords Journal Volume 11: 22 April 1664', Journal of the House of Lords: volume 11: 1660-1666, pp. 598-600. URL:… Date accessed: 24 April 2007.

cape henry  •  Link

Two very sharp concerns arise in this entry. On the professional side, winds of war bring a new urgency to planning and provisioning. I believe this is the first tangible mention in the diary touching on "what stores we lack [etc]..." with regard to the Dutch situation. He then reveals perhaps his chief reason for fearing the Dutch "warr:" Sandwich holds the bulk of his fortune. Both he and Elizabeth worry that Sandwich's death in battle would entomb their money in the lord's estate. This is surely the kind of thing that can focus one's mind intently. Given the offish and on-ish coolness of the Sandwich relationship recently, it will be interesting to see how Pepys pursues this dilemma.

Australian Susan  •  Link

Sam has problems in the 1660's with gossipy whispoerings about him posibly being too much in with remnants of the previous non-Conformist regime and then much later (long post Diary) he has the same whispering campaign for completely the other way: that he is a Catholic. Makes you realise how much can be wound up and spun out of very little tittle-tattle!

Mary  •  Link

All the afternoon, not being well, at my office....

Does this strike anyone else as an odd conjunction of ideas?

Perhaps we are to understand that, despite the day's being an official holiday marking the anniversary of the coronation, Pepys is not feeling well enough to go out and about again in the afternoon, though he can raise the energy to spend several uninterrupted hours in the office. Poor Elizabeth; no outings to the Halfway House, Lincoln's Inn Fields or Hyde Park today.

I suppose that 'not being well' could just possibly refer to the weather being unsuitable for an outing, but this seems an unlikely way of expressing the fact. One would expect to read 'fine' or 'fair' rather than 'well' in that case.

Robert Gertz  •  Link

"...his son Castle's ill language of me behind my back, saying that I favour my fellow traytours."

? Is Sam being accused of favoring Cromwellians and being a closet one himself? Or is it just a poor rendering of "traders"? I'd think he'd be somewhat more upset if the former.

? Castle?...Was Sir Will kidding and the baptizing priest a bumbling idiot who didn't get the joke?


"...see what stores we lack, and buy what we can."

Love that strategic, logistical planning.

Oh, to be a merchant in the naval game today, eh?

"Ah, Mr. Pepys. Welcome. Doing that last-minute pre-war shopping, are we? I am sorry to say that owing to the Dutch buying up so much, we are forced to triple our prices this week."

Andrew Hamilton  •  Link

"not being thoughts still running upon a warr and my money"

Perhaps Sam's having a visceral reaction to Coventry's news is the cause of his "not being well," and so avoiding a holiday outing. He's also been told he is suspected of being a "traytour." He certainly seemed brisk enough in the morning.

"ill language of me behind my back, saying that I favour my fellow traytours," -- I favor the reading by Australian Susan, rather than "traders." Remember Sam's intervention for Will. A disturbing foretaste of malice to come.

R G: Are you suggesting Castle=Rook implying Crook? I don't think Sir Wm. Batten had the naming of Wm. Castle, his son-in-law, not offspring.

"buy what we can" The merchants who demanded this war are about to profit

djc  •  Link

All the afternoon, not being well, at my office....

But we are dealing with a workaholic here. Besides our current notions of work - something set aside from other parts of life - hardly apply, today, holiday = no work, sickie = no work, then holding an office, like having a farm, if you don't tend the crop you are likely to starve.

Bradford  •  Link

Who among us hasn't had to hold the course even while feeling wretched, as long as you weren't----well, never mind; but it's as immemorial as "my thoughts still running upon a warr and my money." (What'll it do to interest rates?)

John M  •  Link

"where I and my wife much troubled about my money"

This entry must be almost unique; a confirmation that Sam sometimes shares his worries with Elisabeth.

Pedro  •  Link

"a Dutch warr; for it seems the Lords have concurred in the Commons' vote about it"

The Portuguese historian Casimiro says in his biography of Catherine...

(Charles)... remembered the humiliations that the Dutch had made him suffer in exile. In April the Parliamentary Commission of Commerce had recognized unanimously, that the prejudices suffered by the merchants at the hands of the Dutch were becoming the ruin of English commerce.

All the English desired the fight. The war could unite the nation that the religious intolerance was dividing and weakening. ..

Charles, however, could not take the initiative to attack the Dutch who were allied to France. His mother and his sister were the best political agents close to Louis XIV.

(So what were the humiliations suffered at the hands of the Dutch during his exile?)

Terry F  •  Link

Pedro: Is Casimiro's account accurate?

Other narratives have it that the Second Dutch War started for mercantile reasons. Typical is:…

[A religious subtext has the combined Catholics, Lord Arlington (Henry Bennet) and the Duke of York, instigating war against the very Protestant United Provinces.]

cumsalisgrano  •  Link

"Is Casimiro's account accurate? " Has giant ring of truth, but not demonstrable, or in evidence.
The British version would of course have sound legal logic, never to show the emotionable version, that could lead to an imperfect reason to get even, must always have good solid facts to have a pre-emptive strike with the backing of thy money men.
I am of the opinion that Charles suffered many sleights on his educational tour of the continent relying on hand outs. When one does not have political clout {Juice] it puts backbone into thy thinking.

Robert Gertz  •  Link

Slights, eh?


"So let us get this straight, your...ummn...(heh, heh..Oh, ja) Majesty. We've allowed you a safe haven here and refused to hand you over to Cromwell's government when it would have been to our benefit. And now you want us to loan you more money to pay for your mistresses and finance your would-be extravagant royal lifestyle...And maybe, if you recover your throne you'll pay us back?"

"Hmmn-hmm...And we should do this because you're a king? Even though our Republic opposes monarchy."

"Exactly..." charming smile. Hopeful look. I mean, how could anyone refuse me?

Solemn nods round room from faces attempting somber looks but unable to hold poise for long...General burst of laughter...

Damned stingy, slighting Dutch...I'll be even with them one day.

Clement  •  Link

Investment with Sandwich

Since he has a signed note for his money with Sandwich I assume the risk on Sandwich's death is that other creditors will have preference over his Pepys at settlement, and Sam believes his debts to exceed the value of his holdings. Or perhaps as Cape Henry may intend, the risk is the time required to settle the estate.

cumsalisgrano  •  Link

For "me Lauds" to pay off debts after passing on, be a big problem, the selling of Real/imagined Estates requires approval of their worships, territorial and spiritual to approve. See the Houses of Politicos, for the many references of settling of debts by sale of property. For instance, Slingsby be a good start.
Some be good at money management, others be spendthriffs, a good read be Bess of Harwick, and her clan of Devonshires, along with Hobbes guidelines.

Pedro  •  Link

The King in Holland.

Charles (in exile) first went to Holland on the news of a revolt of Royalist Navy ships. They sailed for Yarmouth, but on news of the Scottish defeat at Preston, the instinct of the Prince of Wales was to sail back to Holland.

In fact two of the largest vessels ignored orders and sailed to the Parliamentary Navy...The Royal ship was compelled to chase the deviants...Before the battle was joined the rival commanders, Batten and Prince Rupert, were already yapping at each other like jealous dogs. When Batten wiped the sweat from the back of his neck with a napkin Rupert took it as a signal to the enemy and threatened to shoot Batten for treachery if they were defeated.

(Summary from Charles II by Antonia Fraser)

Pedro  •  Link

The King in Exile.

Continuing in the above book by Antonia Fraser I was surprised to learn just how little time Charles actually spent in the "Dutch" United Provinces during his exile.

The first time was as above, when the Royalist Navy ships revolted, and he met with James for the first time in three years. On the return of the fleet he stayed for the next six months dependant on the personal charity of the Prince of Orange, the Dutch States-General declining to provide further financial assistance for the crippled English Royalist course. During this time he was laid low with smallpox. He then went to Breda, as the situation in Holland grew increasingly impossible and the Dutch were embarrassed and slightly hostile. Breda being part of the Princes of Orange's personal patrimony and in addition they tended to be Catholics.

After the Battle of Worcester he went to France, and at the First Dutch War of I652 offered what meagre support he had to the Dutch but they declined. Stories of an approach to the Pope for money did him no favours with the Dutch.

One of the conclusions of the First Dutch War was the seclusion of the House of Orange from the government. For France to ally with the Commonwealth Charles had to leave France and went first to Spa, and then Aachen, as Holland would not have him, and then on to Cologne.

The second time he entered the United Provinces was to Middleburg in Zeeland, hoping to be summoned to England after rumours of Royalist risings, but only stayed around a month. He then returned to Cologne.

In I656 he went to the Spanish Netherlands to try to secure an alliance with Don Juan. He stayed at Brussels and Bruge and stayed there for the large part of the remainder of his exile. In 1662 he said that "the Flemings were the most honest and true-hearted race of people that he had met with".

On the news of Cromwell's death he went to Antwerp, and on receiving Monk's letter went to Breda and onto the Hague to depart for England.

Michael Robinson  •  Link

causes of the Second Anglo Dutch War

"[With the marriage of Catherine,] Portugal secured an English alliance. This naturally made Spain an enemy and inclined France to be a friend -- an inclination cemented by Charles selling France Dunkirk.[1662] The Dutch feared the French and her evident ambition on the Spanish Netherlands, they were allied with Spain and at war with Portugal over the possession of Brazil. They therefore found themselves on the other side of this new alliance system, in spite of the rather lavish gifts which they had, rather naively, hoped to buy Charles friendship and the repeal of the Navigation Acts. ..."

"In English domestic politics, Charles's first chief minister, the pacific Earl of Clarendon, progressively lost ground to court rivals gathered around the King's brother, James Duke of York, Lord Admiral of England. This group, many of whom had been ruined in the King's service in the 1650's , were the chief investors inthe new Royal African Company ...."

"Charles court in general neither liked nor respected the Dutch. They were notoriously republicans, who had made peace with Cromwell on terms designed to exclude from power both the related houses of Orange and Stuart, who had given refuge to English republicans after the Restoration, and were suspected of backing their plots. Moreover the English Navy had soundly defeated them , and many of the officers around the Duke of York looked forward to making their reputations and fortunes by doing so again. So did he. ..."

Rodger, Command of the Ocean, pp. 65,66.

Might not the Dutch attempt in the Act of Seclusion, the secret annex to the Treaty of Westminster with the Commonwealth, to exclude Charles relatives from the throne be the "humiliation in exile" Pedro alludes to?

Pedro  •  Link

"the Act of Seclusion"

Micheal it could very well be right, this from the Encyclopædia Britannica.

Witt, Johan de

He found in 1653 his country brought to the brink of ruin through the war with England, and he resolved to bring about peace. He rejected Cromwell's suggestion of the union of England and Holland, but in 1654 the Treaty of Westminster was concluded, by which the Dutch made large concessions and agreed to the striking of the flag to English ships in the narrow seas. The treaty included a secret article, which the States General refused to entertain, but which de Witt induced the States of Holland to accept, by which the provinces of Holland pledged themselves not to elect a stadholder or a captain general. This Act of Seclusion was aimed at the young Prince of Orange, whose close relationship to the Stuarts made him an object of suspicion to Cromwell.

The policy of de Witt after the peace of 1654 was eminently successful. He restored the finances of the country and extended its commercial supremacy in the East Indies. In 1658-59 he sustained Denmark against Sweden, and in 1662 concluded an advantageous peace with Portugal. The accession of Charles II to the English throne led to the rescinding of the Act of Seclusion; nevertheless de Witt steadily refused to allow the Prince of Orange to be appointed stadholder or captain general. This led to ill will between the English and Dutch governments, and to a renewal of old grievances about maritime and commercial rights, and war broke out in 1665.

Encyclopædia Britannica

Pedro  •  Link

Treaty of Westminster, 19th April I654 and the Secret Declaration.

Another article of the Treaty that would not have gone down well with Charlie...

"That neither republic shall aid or harbour rebels of the other; and that the subjects of either republic aiding or afitting with arms or stores shall be deemed guilty of high treason against the State wherein they are found guilty."

To see the full treaty go to...…

Pedro  •  Link

"the Lords have concurred in the Commons' vote about [a Dutch war]" yesterday:"

Adding to Tery's first annotation...

"Throughout 1664 the war-feeling in England grew stronger and stronger. In April the Turkey Company and the East India Company presented complaints to Parliament claiming that damages to the amount of «£714,000 had been inflicted upon them by the Dutch, and the two Houses petitioned the King to take effectual measures to obtain redress."

By C. H. FIRTH, M.A., LL.D., F.B.A., Regius Professor of Modern History in the University of Oxford.

Second Reading

San Diego Sarah  •  Link

Monday 14 March 1664 -- "Thence by coach with Sir W. Batten to the city, and his son [-in-law, William] Castle, who talks mighty highly against Captain Tayler, calling him knave, and I find that the old doting father [-in-law] is led and talks just as the son do, or the son as the father would have him."

So young William Castle likes malicious gossip, and sways his father-in-law's opinions? Or does Batten feed Castle ideas, and Castle airs them to the wind?

San Diego Sarah  •  Link

"All the afternoon, not being well, at my office,"

Not only is 23 April the birthday of Charles II, it is also an important feast day in the English calendar:

St. George's Day is celebrated by the several nations, kingdoms, countries, and cities of which St. George is the patron saint.
St. George's Day is also England's National Day.
Most countries that observe St. George's Day celebrate it on 23 April, the traditionally accepted date of St. George's death in 303 AD.

St. George's Day was a major feast and national holiday in England on a par with Christmas from the early 15th century. George did not rise to the position of "patron saint" of England until the 14th century, and he was still obscured by Edward the Confessor, the traditional patron saint of England, until in 1552, during the reign of Edward VI, all Catholic saints' banners other than George's were abolished as part of the English Reformation.…'s_Day

New appointments to the Order of the Garter are always announced on St. George's Day, 23 April, as St. George is the patron saint of England.…

Charles II carefully timed his return to London in 1660, and his coronation in 1661, to be celebrated on his birthday, St. George's Day. It was already a holiday, and no one could ever argue with having a big party.

This year Pepys used work to avoid going out to party with Elizabeth.

San Diego Sarah  •  Link

"Other narratives have it that the Second Dutch War started for mercantile reasons."

A reason never to be underestimated in Europe negotiations is the tricky subject of fishing grounds, and in the 17th century the Dutch did not like paying England a fee to fish of herring of what was arguably their coast:…

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