Annotations and comments

Terry Foreman has posted 16,375 annotations/comments since 28 June 2005.

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Third Reading

About Thursday 2 February 1659/60

Terry Foreman  •  Link

Updated links to several sites posted today:

Thames watermen and ferries…

Company of Watermen and Lightermen
The Company of Watermen and Lightermen (CWL) is a historic City guild in the City of London. However, unlike the city's other 109 livery companies, CWL does not have a grant of livery. Its meeting rooms are at Waterman's Hall on St Mary at Hill, London.., CWL was established in the medieval period to support and maintain rights of the river workers. The two main occupations were that of watermen and lightermen.[1] The watermen transferred passengers across and along city centre rivers and estuaries. Most notable are those on the Thames and Medway. Other rivers such as the Tyne and Dee in Wales had watermen who formed guilds in medieval times.[2] Lightermen transfer goods between ships and quays (including wharves, jetties and piers) – they specifically loaded (originally 'laded') and unloaded ('alighted') the ships. Laded survives in the phrases bill of lading and fully laden) In the Port of London they overwhelmingly used flat-bottomed barges, called lighters.[2]....…

About Sunday 5 February 1659/60

Terry Foreman  •  Link

"This afternoon at church I saw Dick Cumberland newly come out of the country from his living...", i.e. the rectory of Brampton Ash in Northamptonshire. https://

“his living”

A benefice (/ˈbɛnɪfɪs/) or living is a reward received in exchange for services rendered and as a retainer for future services. The Roman Empire used the Latin term beneficium as a benefit to an individual from the Empire for services rendered. Its use was adopted by the Western Church in the Carolingian Era as a benefit bestowed by the crown or church officials.…

About Thursday 2 February 1659/60

Terry Foreman  •  Link

The Bale of Hay

There are a number of stories that surround the London cab and its cabmen and some of them are nothing but bunkum. For instance, it has never been law for a motor cabman to carry a bale of hay in his cab. In fact, it was never law for a horse cabman to carry one, although he was required to carry sufficient hard food (e. g. oats) for his horse’s midday feed.

About Sunday 29 January 1659/60

Terry Foreman  •  Link

"David Quidnunc posted
Notice that Evelyn has the verses noted in his diary. How would he have written them down during the sermon (or did he impress them on his memory so he would have that information when he wrote in his diary later?) Perhaps he brought his Bible, or a New Testament or prayer book to the service and underlined the spot (did they have pencils or bits of lead to write with back then?). Pepys only has the chapter, so it seems to me more likely that he just remembered it."

We will see that Pepys, a clerk, knows shorthand -- he's writing the diary with it --and could have made a small note on a chit of paper Evelyn is not a clerk. We find out in the Diary that some wealthy men like him do know iand use shorthand, but /i recall no evidence he used it. On Shorthand: ... See

About Saturday 28 January 1659/60

Terry Foreman  •  Link

"Duncan on 29 Jan 2003 • Link • Flag
"He gave me half a piece.../
What does "piece" mean in this context?

Might it mean a crown?

During the English Interregnum of 1649–1660, a republican half crown was issued, bearing the arms of the Commonwealth of England, despite monarchist associations of the coin's name. When Oliver Cromwell was made Lord Protector of England, half crowns were issued bearing his portrait depicting him wearing a laurel wreath in the manner of a Roman Emperor.…

About Sunday 1 January 1659/60

Terry Foreman  •  Link

"The new Common Council of the City do speak very high; and had sent to Monk their sword-bearer, ..."

City of London swords
At ceremonial events it is carried by the Sword Bearer, while the mace is carried by the Serjeant-at-Arms. The City of London has had a Sword of State since before 1373 and the first known sword-bearer of the City was John Blytone, who resigned in 1395.[21]…

About Thursday 19 January 1659/60

Terry Foreman  •  Link

"Does "at his bed side" literally mean that Pepys sat or stood by the bed while Mr Downing was still lying in it? ..."

Probably, yes, or at its foot, and soon -- with Charles II's custom, in the French manner, kneeling in petition on a rail at its foot. We are used to sleeping privately, in early modern France and England, the rising of those who lived in great house, was moe public. See David Quidnunc:

About Monday 16 January 1659/60

Terry Foreman  •  Link

"In the morning I went up to Mr. Crew’s, and at his bedside he gave me direction...."

At this time the mornin rising was used by royals, nobles and other persons of quality, who lived in grand houses to receive visitors (usually by appointment). Persons of eminence conted audience from a bed. Lord Crew's morning audience would have been modest, by comparison with that of Charles II in a few months:…

About Friday 13 January 1659/60

Terry Foreman  •  Link

City of London swordbearer...

City of London swords
The City of London swords are five two-handed ceremonial swords owned by the City of London, namely the Mourning (or Black) Sword, the Pearl Sword, the State (or Sunday) Sword, the Old Bailey Sword and the Mansion House Justice Room Sword. A sixth sword, the Travelling Sword of State, replaces the Sword of State for visits outside the City. They are part of the plate collection of Mansion House, the official residence of the Lord Mayor of London.…

About Thursday 12 January 1659/60

Terry Foreman  •  Link

"Thence home, and finding my letters this day not gone by the carrier...

It isn't clear how letters from Pepys's home in Ax Yard went to the carrier; he tells of sending and receiving mail at Will's, and Harper's -- where he also ate and drank.. There were surely other places in Westminster to post mail -- e.g. the nearby Palace of Westminster, the Palace of whitehall and the Exchequer.

A post office would come after the Restoration of King Charles II:
Charles II, 1660: An Act for Erecting and Establishing a Post Office.…

Second Reading

About Monday 9 January 1659/60

Terry Foreman  •  Link

In the reconstituted Rump Parliament, Vane was appointed to the new council of state. He also served as commissioner for the appointment of army officers, managed foreign affairs, and examined the state of the government's finances, which were found to be in dismal condition.[172] Through his work General John Lambert was sent to quell Booth's Rebellion, a royalist uprising in August 1659.[173] Lambert's support of non-mainstream religious views like Quakerism, however, ensured his political downfall.[174] After he and other officers were stripped of their command by Parliament in October, they rallied their troops and marched on Parliament, forcibly dissolving it.[175] A committee of safety was formed, composed of the army grandees, and including Vane and Sir Bulstrode Whitelocke. He agreed to serve in part because he feared the republican cause was destined to fail without army support.[176] This committee served only until December, but Vane played a vital role in trying to stop Vice Admiral Lawson from blockading London with some twenty-two ships. He negotiated with Lawson and when he couldn't stop the planned blockade, he informed the Committee of Safety.[177] When the advance of General George Monck's army from Scotland led to the melting away of Lambert's military support, General Charles Fleetwood was forced to turn over the keys to Parliament House to the Speaker which led to the restoration of the full Long Parliament. For taking part in the committee of safety, Vane was expelled (over vocal objections from allies like Heselrige) from the Commons, and ordered into house arrest at Raby Castle.[178][179] He went to Raby in February 1660, but stayed there only briefly and eventually returned to his house at Hampstead.[180]…

About Saturday 7 January 1659/60

Terry Foreman  •  Link

"I went along with them to Dr. Whores (sending my wife to Mrs. Jem’s to a sack-posset), where I heard some symphony...." --

The word symphony is derived from the Greek word συμφωνία (symphonia), meaning "agreement or concord of sound", "concert of vocal or instrumental music", from σύμφωνος (symphōnos), "harmonious".[1] The word referred to a variety of different concepts before ultimately settling on its current meaning designating a musical form.

In late Greek and medieval theory, the word was used for consonance, as opposed to διαφωνία (diaphōnia), which was the word for "dissonance".[2] In the Middle Ages and later, the Latin form symphonia was used to describe various instruments, especially those capable of producing more than one sound simultaneously.[2] Isidore of Seville was the first to use the word symphonia as the name of a two-headed drum[citation needed], and from c. 1155 to 1377 the French form symphonie was the name of the organistrum or hurdy-gurdy. In late medieval England, symphony was used in both of these senses, whereas by the 16th century it was equated with the dulcimer. In German, Symphonie was a generic term for spinets and virginals from the late 16th century to the 18th century.[3]

About Friday 1 June 1660

Terry Foreman  •  Link

Notable criminal prosecutions

One of the first to be executed in the colony was Dorothy Talbye, who was apparently delusional. She was hanged in 1638 for murdering her daughter, as the common law of Massachusetts made no distinction at the time between insanity (or mental illness) and criminal behavior.[75] Midwife Margaret Jones was convicted of being a witch and hanged in 1648 after the condition of patients allegedly worsened in her care.[76]

The colonial leadership was the most active in New England in the persecution of Quakers. In 1660, English Quaker Mary Dyer was hanged in Boston for repeatedly defying a law banning Quakers from the colony.[77] Dyer was one of the four executed Quakers known as the Boston martyrs. Executions ceased in 1661 when King Charles II explicitly forbade Massachusetts from executing anyone for professing Quakerism.[78].
1 June -- Quaker Mary Dyer was hanged on Boston Common in 1660…