Sunday 29 June 1662

(Lord’s day). Up by four o’clock, and to the settling of my own accounts, and I do find upon my monthly ballance, which I have undertaken to keep from month to month, that I am worth 650l., the greatest sum that ever I was yet master of. I pray God give me a thankfull, spirit, and care to improve and encrease it.

To church with my wife, who this day put on her green petticoat of flowred satin, with fine white and gimp lace of her own putting on, which is very pretty. Home with Sir W. Pen to dinner by appointment, and to church again in the afternoon, and then home, Mr. Shepley coming to me about my Lord’s accounts, and in the evening parted, and we to supper again to Sir W. Pen. Whatever the matter is, he do much fawn upon me, and I perceive would not fall out with me, and his daughter mighty officious to my wife, but I shall never be deceived again by him, but do hate him and his traitorous tricks with all my heart. It was an invitation in order to his taking leave of us to-day, he being to go for Ireland in a few days.

So home and prayers, and to bed.

29 Jun 2005, 11:17 p.m. - Todd Bernhardt

Dining with your enemies. Twice in one day. Welcome to the world of politics, Samuel.

29 Jun 2005, 11:28 p.m. - A. De Araujo

"gimp" "a narrow flat braid or rounded cord of fabric used for trimming" cf

29 Jun 2005, 11:29 p.m. - Bradford

What did heavy eaters take for indigestion then? "Get place and wealth, if possible with grace; If not, by any means get wealth and place." ---Pope

30 Jun 2005, 12:29 a.m. - dirk

What did heavy eaters take for indigestion then? From: "The Gentlewoman's Companion: or, A Guide to the Female Sex", 1675. "An excellent Conforter of the Stomach, and helper of Digestion: Take two ounces of good old Conserve of Redroses, of chosen Mithridate two drams, mingle them together, and when you are going to bed eat thereof the quantity of an Haselnut. This will expel all flatulency or windiness off the Stomach, drives away raw humours, and venemous vapours, helpeth Digestion, drieth the Rheum, and strengthneth the Sight and Memory."

30 Jun 2005, 12:40 a.m. - dirk

In case you were wondering what Mithridate might be... Mithridate Mustard -Synonym: Pennycress. -Part Used: Seeds. "Mithridate Mustard, Thlaspi arvense, grows higher than Treacle Mustard; the leaves are small and narrower, smooth, toothed, arrow-shaped at the base. The flowers are small and white, growing on long branches, the seed-vessels form a round pouch, flat, with very broad wings, earning for the plant its other name of Pennycress. It was formerly an ingredient in the Mithridate confection, an elaborate preparation used as an antidote to poison, but no longer used in medicine." From:

30 Jun 2005, 12:57 a.m. - Robert Gertz

Must've been quite a dinner/supper party...Sam eyeing Penn narrowly through each course, Penn trying to regain his standing as jolly ole Sir Will with a few mildly bawdy tales.

30 Jun 2005, 2:06 a.m. - JWB

"I pray God give me a thankfull, spirit, ... do hate him and his traitorous tricks with all my heart. " Twice to church this Sunday and still ignorant of his religion's basic tenet.

30 Jun 2005, 2:35 a.m. - Stolzi

"which is very pretty" I do love Pepys' childlike pleasure in finery, whether his own or his Mrs.'

30 Jun 2005, 2:41 a.m. - Pauline

"...I shall never be deceived again by him, but do hate him and his traitorous tricks with all my heart..." We've been right here with Sam on a daily basis since he first began to work with Sir Penn. Anyone have a quick grip on what the deception(s) was/were? Deteriorating respect, yes; but what exactly?

30 Jun 2005, 3:21 a.m. - Cumgranissalis

My guess would be the way Sir Wm. has handled the purchases and the deals made, as noted, the Till be empty and the Fleet needs re-furbishing, needs vituals, bodies to man the sails and Qualified Kapitans and Lewys to fill the decks, to deal with on going crisis of Dutch that be angry, keep the old Med open for the Levant Trade, guard ships to keep the Baltic open to bring in Ermine for the Royals, Ships to stop smugglers bringing illegall cattle from Eire, to provide ships to keep Jamaica running and looking after the colonies from Cape Cod to Virginie. Then there be need for ships to protect the Indie run and now to protect the Luistanians from their enemies as the marriage treaty dothe request. Sam rarely gives all gory details that take place but the Navy Ledgers be a great read, following the money trail.

30 Jun 2005, 3:26 a.m. - Working Stiff

Question: What "code" did Pepys write his diary in? Wasn't he running a risk by putting these thoughts on paper?

30 Jun 2005, 4:31 a.m. - Cumgranissalis

Working Stiff code: a] enter in the search box above and you will get many answers. scattered through out the annos. but from Sam Pepys, Claire Tomlin's book page 252 "Then Unequal Self" , the book can be found on most of the Borders or Barnds & Noble book shelves for a sneak read.

30 Jun 2005, 5:22 a.m. - Clement

Penn Following CGS' comment, Penn seems to be running the Navy office business in the old manner, where his history of service creates a sense of entitlement to the personal enrichment available from conducting Navy business--apparently to the detriment of HM Navy in Pepys' opinion. His indignation, and assessent of Penn's behaviour as "traitorous" provided the fire to fuel the many reforms he is credited with. This in spite of his own increasing wealth through business. Pepys apparently perceives a narrow line that Penn has crossed, but that he, himself has not. Code (shorthand): The Background Info link at the top of all pages can transport you to a wealth of information and experience in 17th centry life, and far beyond, as well as provide a tremendous frame of reference, through which to view the story unfolding here. But I see now that CSG beat me on the draw answering this one.

30 Jun 2005, 6:24 a.m. - A. Hamilton

do hate him and his traitorous tricks I trace this back to the entry below, and to Penn's testing of Pepys following his dalliance at Portsmouth. Whether intended or not, the old admiral has called forth the man in Sam, evidenced by his application to business since the June 3 challenge, and his determination to make the King's shilling go farther in the purchase of Navy stores (including Norwegian wood). Tuesday June 3: Upon our making a contract, I went, as I use to do, to draw the heads thereof, but Sir W. Pen most basely told me that the Comptroller is to do it, and so begun to employ Mr. Turner about it, at which I was much vexed, and begun to dispute; and what with the letter of the Duke's orders, and Mr. Barlow's letter, and the practice of our predecessors, which Sir G. Carteret knew best when he was Comptroller, it was ruled for me. What Sir J. Minnes will do when he comes I know not, but Sir W. Pen did it like a base raskall, and so I shall remember him while I live.

30 Jun 2005, 10:19 a.m. - pjk

traitorous tricks Do we take it then that Penn tried to lever Sam out of a piece of business that would have benefited Turner (and probably Penn) to the detriment of Sam? This Sam resisted succesfully and Penn's subsequent 'fawning' over Sam looks like a cheat and a manipulator squirming under the spotlight of being caught out. Also Sam evidently argued his case strongly and rigourously and Penn may see in him an individul who in future he had better keep the right side of. Sam has confronted a weasilly bully who now tries to ingratiate himself. Is this too hard on Penn?

30 Jun 2005, 11:23 a.m. - Pedro

"traitorous tricks" I don't think we will ever find out the details, but here are some lines from Tomalin's book concerning the office relationships: "His growing feeling that it was his Navy, and that he knew best how things should be done made him impatient with his colleagues, proprietorial and jealous-and his many quarrels with them, drove him to malice, sharpened his determination to prove his own superiority and to be in control of what happened at the office and in the yards. You ask yourself are these not the very groups of men with whom Pepys himself is engaged in profitable negotiations? Hard as it is to be categoric about the financial deals of the contracts made by either Batten or Pepys, it seems likely that they were both offered sweeteners that were standard for the time. If Batten was a rogue, then so was Pepys.

30 Jun 2005, 11:36 a.m. - A. De Araujo

"Is this too hard on Penn?" that Sir W. Penn is a bully I have no doubt;remember the episode of "road rage" in the past when he dismounted a rider;but SP ain't a goody two shoes either.

30 Jun 2005, 1:04 p.m. - Robert Gertz

I still think Penn meant to confirm positions in the office the first day Coventry (the Duke's fair-haired boy) took his commission up. Whether he sincerely meant to slap Sam down and force him into a subordinate position (a mere chief clerk rather than a policy-making Naval Official)in the new scheme of things or just wanted to impress Coventry with his tight hold over things is a bit unclear, but it was definitely an attempt to separate the titled boys (Penn, Mennes, Batten) from the little upstart nobody cousin of Sandwich. Unfortunately for Sir Will, Coventry and therefore the Duke, are looking for a few good, relatively unattached new men to support their party in the government and are beginning to see in diligent Pepys an ideal candidate despite his attachment to Sandwich. In addition I get the impression that Penn is a bit weary and makes these efforts spasmodically as he sees Pepys gaining more and more credit while he and Batten begin to fade. It must irritate the old sea dog to see this kid parading his growing knowledge of the Navy, taking on more and more of the office duties, even beginning to critize the titled old Navy boys for their inattention and their cozy dealings with vendors, etc, while he begins to cut them (Batten and Penn) out of those lucrative contract negotiations. I'm sure he thought Pepys would be a nice, tame pet of Sandwich's who would do what he was told and handle all the pesky clerical business while the Sirs Will would handle all real dealings with the suppliers.

30 Jun 2005, 1:41 p.m. - Martin

Fashion notes of the last two months: May 18: She [Elizabeth] was in her new suit of black sarcenet and yellow petticoat very pretty." May 19: "[I] put on my riding cloth suit, and a camelott coat new, which pleases me well enough." May 21: "And in the Privy-garden saw the finest smocks and linnen petticoats of my Lady Castlemaine"s, laced with rich lace at the bottom, that ever I saw; and did me good to look upon them." June 2: "This day my wife put on her slasht wastecoate, which is very pretty." June 22: "This day I first put on my slasht doublet, which I like very well." June 29: "my wife, who this day put on her green petticoat of flowred satin, with fine white and gimp lace of her own putting on, which is very pretty."

30 Jun 2005, 2:02 p.m. - john

How would one have arranged to rise at such an early hour then or did he awake and it happened to be 4:00?

30 Jun 2005, 2:08 p.m. - A. Hamilton

traitorous tricks I think R. Gertz has got the principal relationships right. To this I would add that Penn had been a senior sea commander (one of only three sea generals surviving from the Commonwealth days, the others being Monk and Sandwich, if I recall rightly), with a necessary nose for weakness in men and an appreciation of fighting spirit. He may have decided to test Pepys's mettle, found it not wanting, and is merely seeking a truce ("no hard feelings"). He indeed has a bad temper, but I'm not sure his behavior toward Pepys falls under the normal heading of "bullying."

30 Jun 2005, 3:21 p.m. - Stolzi

"rise at an early hour" Well, these are the longest days of the year; England is far to the north; he may have been awakened simply by the light, as I often am these mornings, far south of London and sometime between 5 and 6 Central Daylight Saving Time.

30 Jun 2005, 5:53 p.m. - Cumgranissalis

Waking up time : one just does it when needed. It be habit and the ability to tell ones grey matter the facts of life. Strange when I was a made to be a bell ringer and with the task of getting the other little blighters up,[no alarm clock, no monies] it was easy to get up [Motive, revenge ??], when I be the other little blighter it were difficult to get off the palliass. Still now wake up before alarm clock [insurance only] goes off.

30 Jun 2005, 7:23 p.m. - Glyn

650 pounds ?! This time last year (24 May 1661) he was worth 500 pounds. Exactly a month ago (30 May 1662): "This morning I made up my accounts, and find myself worth about 530 pounds" So it had taken him a year to increase his wealth by only 30 pounds, but suddenly he is now worth 650 pounds. Have any money-making opportunities happened in the last month that he has taken advantage of without telling us?

30 Jun 2005, 7:26 p.m. - Glyn

And has he acquired his new-found wealth in any way at the expense of Penn?

30 Jun 2005, 7:29 p.m. - Glyn

And has he acquired his new-found wealth in any way at the expense of Penn? Perhaps when they all made an official visit to Portsmouth, Pepys discovered that Penn was using "his traiterous tricks" to get kickbacks for himself without Pepys knowing about it. Now that Pepys is drawing up the Contracts, he is getting more gratuities for himself - just a guess with absolutely no evidence.

30 Jun 2005, 8:41 p.m. - Rex Gordon

... traiterous tricks ... Perhaps Penn saw an opportunity to pay Sam back for last year's (?) elaborate practical joke involving the bogus theft and ransoming of Penn's goblet (?), in which Sam played a principal part. There was much laughter at Penn's expense at the end of the long-drawn-out joke, and to be the butt of a joke that all his colleagues were in on surely ticked Penn off. (Indeed, Sam said he didn't take it well, and Penn was probably trying to hide as much of his anger as he could.) Bureaucrats of the 17th century no doubt already knew how to bide their time and get even. If this was Penn's motivation, his dinner with Sam last night was an acknowledgment of failure.

30 Jun 2005, 10:21 p.m. - JonTom Kittredge

One Hundred Twenty Pounds A likely reason for the sudden jump in his net worth a month is due to a change in his accounting. When he went over his accounts again this month, he likely found himself finding overlooked assets, marking down liabilities, marking up the value of accounts payable, etc. I bet a lot of this was subjective; guessing how much personal property could fetch and how likely certain money lent is to be repaid.

30 Jun 2005, 11 p.m. - Australian Susan

Although Sam may have been getting commissions for the contracts he negotiated (let's not call them bribes), I think he genuinely had the best interetsof the Navy at heart: Sam is a ferociously hard worker when he sets his mind to it. He has been given a job and is determined to do the best and do the best for the Navy. Unfortunately his reformer's zeal means that he is too ready to expose the poor performance of Batten, Penn and Pett and doesn't seem to mind who knows of their shortcomings or who he makes an enemy of. He must have been very sure of the the support of Sandwich, Coventry and Carteret.

1 Jul 2005, 3:20 a.m. - Cumgranissalis

Worth: It be very fundamental Cash,coin of the realm, not the melted down stuff or estimating goods bought for what they may be or not be worth. Equity yuck? borrowing against wot it might be . Then, they did not count their chickens till there be chickens, not some maybe lying in some lime encased shell, although in a few years they would do just that, [buy for wot somme gazzoopter, would bid up] it be called the turkish delight or dutch tulip bulbs eruption.

1 Jul 2005, 8:50 a.m. - GrahamT

Re: waking up at 4 O'Clock I live near London. Recently I have been waking up regularly at 5:00 BST or 4:00 GMT like Sam. It is a combination of the sunrise and the dawn chorus. There were probably even more birds singing in Pepys day than now. It is staying asleep through the light and noise, not waking, that is difficult at this time of year.

1 Jul 2005, 10:50 a.m. - Robert Gertz

I think also that finding out Coventry, if truly his friend, was not about to take a side against eager young Mr. Pepys, may have played a role in Penn's sudden desire to make nice-nice. Seeing Pepys' work in the office...His clerks lively, facts and figures in his books at his fingertips, his careful following of all business in the office probably made an excellent impression and a contrast to Penn's and Batten's way. Coventry may admire Penn's fighting capabilities but he knows a good office administrator when he sees it. I would bet Penn had been sure Coventry would back him because of Sandwich's link to Pepys and was startled to find him not at all interested in quenching Pepys' enthusiasm. And Coventry can be taken as York's eyes and ears...No wonder Penn would seek to patch things up before going off to Ireland. Not to mention with the roof raising going at Pepys' and Batten's it wouldn't be hard for Sam to accidently on purpose arrange for Penn's house to experience a few 'accidents'...

1 Jul 2005, 3:22 p.m. - A. Hamilton

it wouldn't be hard for Sam Robert Gertz, you have a shrewd eye for office politics.

1 Jul 2005, 10:51 p.m. - dirk

waking up at 4 O'Clock re - GrahamT “There were probably even more birds singing in Pepys day than now.” And don’t forget the roosters! Many people (privately and the taverns) were keeping chicken inside London. There would scarcely have been a street or alley without at least a couple of roosters, ready to announce the first sunlight in unison…

1 Jul 2005, 10:58 p.m. - Misemici

I think Robert is right on the money--Penn has figured out that Sam's not about to be outfoxed by him, and he's discovered it might serve him better to be his friend rather than his enemy. Or at least to be seen to get along.

6 Jul 2005, 11:39 a.m. - Nostrildamus

waking up at 4 O'Clock: The town crier with his bell, one would imagine. Pepys would probably have grown accustomed to the ‘background noise’ of birds, cockerels, etc. Church bells and town criers under the window probably not.

6 Jul 2005, 4:52 p.m. - Mary

Town crier? More likely, the Watch. Town criers were accustomed to making announcements of news, visitations, regulations, general notices etc. rather than calling the hours of the night.

23 Oct 2014, 11:50 p.m. - bw

"waking up" Following Vincent (the old salt)'s comment: if I decide tonight I need to wake at x o'clock tomorrow, I will wake up and look at the clock at some time within 5 minutes of that time. I'm retired: I haven't set an alarm for years.

29 Jun 2015, 10:20 a.m. - Sasha Clarkson

A. Hamilton (above) has it. On 3rd June Penn tried to pull rank on Pepys, speciously to redefine office roles and was overruled, presumably by Coventry and/or Carteret. It was a cunning ploy: Penn claimed that drawing up the the heads of a contract was the comptroller's prerogative. However, the comptroller (Minnes) was not there, so Penn assumed the right to instruct Minnes' personal clerk Turner, who was a sort of rival to Pepys, having sought to buy his position from him. Although Penn undoubtedly had seniority, this little contretemps, a failed coup really, firmly established that he was merely a colleague, and not Pepys' boss!

30 Jun 2015, 12:51 a.m. - Nate Lockwood

Wouldn't Sam have all the shutters closed to avoid the 'bad' night air and possibility of intruders? That would certainly limit the influence of dawn's early light.

30 Jun 2015, 1:44 a.m. - Tim

Speaking as one, Samuel is a rather untypical husband in noticing and complimenting (or criticising) his wife's clothes....

30 Jun 2015, 8:33 a.m. - Sasha Clarkson

"encrease": an interesting obsolete spelling of increase - as opposed to "engorge" which has an archaic spelling of "ingorge" :)

30 Jun 2015, 9:48 a.m. - Tonyel

Another thought on Penn: auditors will tell you, if you think there's someone on the fiddle in your organisation look for the one who never takes a holiday. I can imagine Penn, somewhat awkwardly, over dinner: "Pepys, old boy, Mr Wilkins may call into the office with a small packet - no need to open it, just send it on to me."

30 Jun 2015, 7:16 p.m. - john

Since I asked about arising early ten years ago, I have noticed several people, my wife amongst them, who have well-tuned internal clocks for rising early, especially on days with important appointments. I agree that shutters would be kept closed to keep out night vapours.

11 Jul 2015, 11:56 p.m. - Chris Squire UK

OED has: ‘gimp < Of obscure origin . . 1. Silk, worsted, or cotton twist with a cord or wire running through it . . 1664 J. Wilson Cheats ii. iv. 25, I have three or four as rich Suits, for Flanders Lace, Gimp, and Embroydery, as any in the Town . . . . gimp lace n. 1661 S. Pepys Diary 9 June (1970) II. 117 My wife put on her black silk gown, which is now laced all over with black gimp lace, as the fashion is.’ . . ‘

24 Jun 2020, 12:44 a.m. - San Diego Sarah

"To church with my wife, who this day put on her green petticoat of flowred satin, with fine white and gimp lace of her own putting on, which is very pretty. Home with Sir W. Pen to dinner by appointment, and to church again in the afternoon, and then home, ... and we to supper again to Sir W. Pen. Whatever the matter is, he do much fawn upon me, and I perceive would not fall out with me, and his daughter mighty officious to my wife, but I shall never be deceived again by him, but do hate him and his traitorous tricks with all my heart. It was an invitation in order to his taking leave of us to-day, he being to go for Ireland in a few days." To me, Penn's behavior is hinged on his leaving for Ireland in a few days. In the last 2 years the Pepys have stood in when Penn had to go to Whitehall, and Lady Penn was in Ireland. They have taken the children to the theater, they have had fun dinners and walks. Elizabeth has helped Pegg buy pretty dresses, and visited her at school. They were good neighbors ... and then Sam took liberties with pranks and asserting himself into the business. No doubt the Admiral told Pegg why they were no longer friendly ... hence her being 'mighty officious' to Elizabeth today. But now the Admiral thinks he needs them to look out for Pegg again. Ah, the laws of unintended consequences.

2 May 2021, 8:39 p.m. - Terry Foreman

"Up by four o’clock, and to the settling of my own accounts, and I do find upon my monthly ballance, which I have undertaken to keep from month to month, that I am worth 650l., the greatest sum that ever I was yet master of." L&M: Perhaps Pepys now kept a monthly account because of his recent discovery that he had lately fallen behind in his savings: cf.

3 Jun 2021, 5:18 p.m. - San Diego Sarah

“Oyez! Oyez! Oyez!” The ancient call to attention that starts every cry — derived from the Norman-French word ‘to listen’ — was imported during Norman rule, beginning in the 11th century, although town crying likely has much older roots. HTTPS://WWW.ATLASOBSCURA.COM/ARTICLES/TOWN-CRIER-BRITISH-CHAMPIONSHIP-SILENT?UTM_SOURCE=ATLAS+OBSCURA+DAILY+NEWSLETTER&UTM_CAMPAIGN=4BF3B45B39-EMAIL_CAMPAIGN_2021_06_03&UTM_MEDIUM=EMAIL&UTM_TERM=0_F36DB9C480-4BF3B45B39-63044941&MC_CID=4BF3B45B39&MC_EID=8EEADCAF45