Saturday 24 May 1662

To the Wardrobe, and there again spoke with my Lord, and saw W. Howe, who is grown a very pretty and is a sober fellow. Thence abroad with Mr. Creed, of whom I informed myself of all I had a mind to know. Among other things, the great difficulty my Lord hath been in all this summer for lack of good and full orders from the King; and I doubt our Lords of the Councell do not mind things as the late powers did, but their pleasures or profit more. That the Juego de Toros is a simple sport, yet the greatest in Spain. That the Queen hath given no rewards to any of the captains or officers, but only to my Lord Sandwich; and that was a bag of gold, which was no honourable present, of about 1400l. sterling. How recluse the Queen hath ever been, and all the voyage never come upon the deck, nor put her head out of her cabin; but did love my Lord’s musique, and would send for it down to the state-room, and she sit in her cabin within hearing of it. That my Lord was forced to have some clashing with the Council of Portugall about payment of the portion, before he could get it; which was, besides Tangier and a free trade in the Indys, two millions of crowns, half now, and the other half in twelve months. But they have brought but little money; but the rest in sugars and other commoditys, and bills of exchange. That the King of Portugall is a very fool almost, and his mother do all, and he is a very poor Prince.

After a morning draft at the Star in Cheapside, I took him to the Exchange, thence home, but my wife having dined, I took him to Fish Street, and there we had a couple of lobsters, and dined upon them, and much discourse. And so I to the office, and that being done, Sir W. Pen and I to Deptford by water to Captain Rooth’s to see him, he being very sick, and by land home, calling at Halfway house, where we eat and drank. So home and to bed.

42 Annotations

First Reading

Pedro  •  Link

How recluse the Queen hath ever been, and all the voyage never come upon the deck, nor put her head out of her cabin;

Of course Sam would have great sympathy for Catherine, as we have seen by his experieces at sea..

"where I did promise to give her all that I have in the world but my books, in case I should die at sea."…

This day, in the presence of Mr. Moore (who made it) and Mr. Hawly, I did before I went out with my wife, seal my will to her, whereby I did give her all that I have in the world, but my books…

I began to be dizzy and squeamish...and all the afternoon I walked upon the deck to keep myself from being sick…

We continued sailing when I went to bed, being somewhat ill again,…

A. De Araujo  •  Link

" a bag of gold.......................
......the rest in sugars and other commoditys"
All from Brazil,the work of african slaves!

Australian Susan  •  Link

Queen keeping to cabin
As well as the seasickness aspect, there is also the matters mentioned yesterday - that Catherine was a shy young woman, young for her years and had been reclusive. She may have been keepingto her cabin out of shyness or just not quite knowing how to behave or what was expected ofher. I wonder how many Portuguese ladies in waiting she had with her to talk in her language and provide a bit of home connection. (cf Mary of Scotland coming 'home' to the Scotland she left as a tiny child from France and taking comfort in her female companions).

Glyn  •  Link

This entry is very confusing to me because he seems to be writing things in the wrong order, with his morning draft in Cheapside only written about at the end of the entry.

As I understand it, he leaves home and goes to the Wardrobe for business with Montagu. He then accompanies Mr Creed first to the Star in Cheapside and then to the Royal Exchange. They then go back to Pepys' home for the mid-day meal but are too late, so retrace their steps to Fish Street (near where the Monument now is) not for some fish but for some lobster (in another tavern?) and Pepys goes to the Office in the afternoon. Paperwork is finished but not his working day because in the evening he and Penn then catch a boat down to Wapping to visit a sick captain (who presumably is either on board ship or more likely is living in lodgings by the docks). Duty done they then sail to the Halfway House for their meal and afterwards sail home. Is that the sequence of today's events?

Alan Bedford  •  Link

"This entry is very confusing..."

Everything between leaving the Wardrobe and the mention of the morning draft is a summary of what Sam learned from Creed about what he had observed during Montagu's voyage.

Jeannine  •  Link

Background on the Queen's marriage, etc.
Usually before a royal bride steps foot on a ship she is married by proxy to be sure that the young lady is not a virgin setting forth in the world in an unproper manner.In the case of Catherine, Donna Luiza (her mother) made a "generous" offer to send Catherine unmarried. As Davidson says, "The fact was that the usual proxy marriage would be impossible in Portugal under the circumstances. Portugal had never been able to induce the Pope to acknowledge her as an independent kingdom, for the Papal See had the fear of Spain before its eyes, and refused to admit the titles of either Joao IV ot Alphonzo to be King. This placed Portugal in a delicate situation. In order to legalize by the sanction of the church the marriage of Catherine with a heretic prince it would have been necessary to get a dispensation from the then Pope, Alexander, and any such dispensation would only have called Catherine the daughter of the Duke of Braganca, not a royal princess of Portugal.This would have been impossible to consent to, and the diplomatic Queen-Regent at once saw that to make a virtue of a necessity, and get the credit of generosity with Charles, was the only way out of the unpleasant difficulty. If Catherine went unmarried to England, she could there be married by the style and titles that belonged to her. .....In point of fact, it was the greatest compliment ever paid a reigning monarch."
Catherine was most likely told how to behave by her mother and since she was ill and her nature was shy, she stayed in her quarters surrounded by her ladies. She would not have ventured out to mingle with the men on the ship-- she was a virgin and it was of great importance that her proper status and purity remain unquestioned. She also totally lacked exerience in socializing with men and had little guidance or preparation from her mother in these areas. Also, she did not speak English but was able to speak Portuguese (her native language) and Spanish. When she got to England she had to communicate with Charles in Spanish ~~ both of them struggling with different dialects, etc. so they had difficulites expressing themselves to each other from the start.
This marriage was incredibly critical to the nation of Portugal. They could not have survived as an independent nation without a strong alliance with a country that had a strong navy. They lived in fear of Spain and needed to establish an alliance with another "power" country.
Catherine may have been shy and very innocent but she had two very strong areas of commitment and devotion which influenced her entire life and supported her in the years she spent in England. She purely and whole-heartedly was devoted to her religion and to her homeland -- and never swayed in that devotion. She was not politically aware, had been kept innocent of politics all of her life and had not been prepared for the role of a queen. Donna Luisa did what she had to do for Portugal's independence, but she failed her daughter by not preparing her for her role as queen. Even though she was 24 (which was old for the time) Catherine came to England as a "young" and inexperienced girl, who literally went off in a child like excitement to marry her "Prince Charming". She went expecting to marry the legend and unfortunately for her ended up married to the man.

Jeannine  •  Link

"The Queen hath given no rewards"
This mariage was critical to the independence of Portugal so as Donna Luisa negotiated this deal she promised Charles a large sum of money. When Sandwich arrived to collect the sums Donna Luisa admitted to him that most of the money was gone. Although she had the money to begin with, she had spent most of it when the Spanish army began invading Portugal. She was only able to pay half of the sum. At this time she was taking a huge chance that Sandwich would accept the offer (and Sandwich was taking a huge career chance by accepting the offer), but accept he did, and Portugal owed him immensely for this decision. When Catherine entered the ship Donna Luisa filled it with teas, spices, her jewelery, or anything she could find to fill the void of the money owed. She was desperate to have this marriage consummated. The small sum of gold that Catherine had for Sandwich was all that she had to give. Also, this can't be a reflection against her, as she didn't know any better.
It's pretty clear that Catherine was totally unaware of the "business" and politics behind her marriage, or the financial situation. At one point when the ship had almost landed she asked Sandwich for her jewels (which she thought he was safeguarding for her) and he had to explain to her that the jewels were no longer hers, but part of the payment.
It also appears that the only inkling of advice that her mother did give her was to instruct her never to let Lady Castlemaine in her presence. She did let her know that Charles had previously had a mistress, but in her innocence Catherine assumed that marriage would end this (it would be unthinkable for Catherine to even conceive that anyone could "sin" in that manner when they are married). Catherine entered England with little funds, wide eyes and high hopes--if she offended anyone along the way, it was more a reflection of her upbringing, cultural differences, lack of finances and lack of experience than any wilful intentions to be stingy or to slight anyone.

Jeannine  •  Link

"That the King of Portugall is a very fool almost, and his mother do all, and he is a very poor prince" --This is probably the kindest thing that anyone has ever said about Alfonso. He had a debilitating illness as a child and was left with a withered body, a totally defective mind and a tendency towards violence. Carte, in his "History of the Revolution of Portugal" describes him in the lowest terms and basically says that if a man was brought before the court on charges of murder or rape then Alfonso would welcome him to be one of his guards. In the initial years of his reign, he surrounded himself with a group where murder,rape, etc. were normal activity. He had little wit from an intelligence standpoint, and in today's terms would have been declared insane, but the line of succession doesn't look at quality of the line, just the birth order (ie. most sadly, the same holds true today,).....
Quick history -In the course of Alfonso's reign, he was incompetent so his mother was regent, he then "overthrew" her and the Count Castelmelhor took over the running of the government (he was a GOOD man). Alfonso married, his wife declared him impotent and left for a convent and requested an annulment. Alfonso's younger brother Pedro and Alfonso's ex, plotted against the Count, got him exiled (this is why he came to live as an exile in Somerset House where Catherine resided in 1667), overthrew Alfonso and then got married to each other and ruled.
In favor of Catherine with the mix that was her family, it's amazing that she turned out to be such a person of character and quality.

dirk  •  Link

"I doubt our Lords of the Councell do not mind things..."

Maybe somewhat confusing to new readers: the verb "to doubt" here has a meaning different from modern English usage, and should be translated as "to fear".

daniel  •  Link

Thank you, Jeannine.

how very enlightening.

Pauline  •  Link

"Thank you, Jeannine."

Yes, most excellent.
This should be put in Background.
Thank you.

Robert Gertz  •  Link

"...but my wife having dined..."

What, no grousing? We are an enlightened husband today, Mr. Pepys.

Pauline  •  Link

"grown a very pretty"
W. Howe has grown a very pretty what? Beard? Mustache? elm tree?

dirk  •  Link

"a bag of gold, which was no honourable present, of about 1400£ sterling”

Although everybody likes money, it’s not “honourable” to give it as a present. Was still the case in my youth - the trick then was to give a wallet or a purse as a present (which would then inconspicuously contain the precious gift).

As a matter of fact it was also supposed to be “bad luck” to present someone with a wallet or purse with nothing in it (a single coin would do).

Mary  •  Link

W. Howe.

"is grown a very pretty" and "is a sober" are both phrases applicable to "fellow". Ellipsis.

Australian Susan  •  Link

Coins & bags
I also remember that dirk, from my childhood - being given a sixpence by my father to put into a new handbag which had been bought for my grandmother.

Peter  •  Link

Jeannine, what fascinating background. Thank you. Donna Luisa was on one hand clearly a formidable operator, fighting fires and managing to negotiate pragmatic solutions where necessary... but on the other leaving Catherine desperately unprepared.

Pedro  •  Link

"That the Queen hath given no rewards to any of the captains or officers"

Drawing her source from "Historia Casa Real Portuguesa" Strickland says..

"On that day" pursues our Portuguese authority, "the Queen spoke to all the officers of the ship, and permitted them to kiss her hand; she presented a collar of gold to the captain, and gave money to the pilot and master, both for themselves , and to be distributed to the crew."

Pedro  •  Link

"a bag of gold, which was no honourable present, of about 1400£ sterling"

This is about twice as much as Sam is worth at the moment, I bet if she offered it so Sam, she would have to count her fingers afterwards.

Pedro  •  Link

"which was no honourable present, of about 1400l."

Ollard in his biography of Sandwich says...
"The Portuguese authorities made him a handsome present of gold cruzados."

Pedro  •  Link

"but the rest in sugars and other commoditys, and bills of exchange."

Continuing Sandwich's letter to Clarendon sent after the day of the first meeting-

"After my last letter was sent, I recieived a paper from the Queen that I deliver the jewels brought over into the hands of Douart de Silva (the reason private was that she might have use of them to wear). Upon the sudden, the best refuge I had was to ask the direction of His Royal Highness (Duke of York) and those of the council here in town, and unto them I opened the state of the portion, and it was concluded that (because the Treaty requires the delivery of them in the river Thames) the Ambassador should in writing signify to me the desire of His Majesty to have them delivered there."

(Douart de Silva appears to be a Portuguese Jew who was sent over by Catherine's mother to oversee the selling of the "commoditys " to produce value)

Mary  •  Link

"but the rest in sugars.....etc."

According to an L&M note, Sandwich exceeded his instructions in accepting goods and bills as well as money in payment of the dowry. In the end the full amount of the agreed dowry (2 million crusados) was never paid.

However, the inclusion of Bombay in the settlement was to prove more than useful in time.

A. De Araujo  •  Link

"a portuguese jew"
Pedro,Douart(Duarte or Edward)de Silva would better be characterized as a "converso", "new christian" or "marrano" since there were no jews in Portugal at the time.

Pedro  •  Link

"a portuguese jew"

Yes, I did not check back to Rau! She says that Duarte da Silva was a rich Jewish banker, who was sent with the fleet to arrange the sale of the commodities.

Ruben  •  Link

If Mr. de Silva was a converso, he was not a Jew. As A. De Araujo annotated, he could not be alive as a Jew in that century and in that country.
Instead, may be Mr. de Silva was descendent of a Portuguese Jewish family that found refugue in England. We already delt, 2 years ago, with a Portuguese Jew that lived in London and died from the same operation that saved Pepys. From:
Jewish Historical Society of England Miscellanies Pt. II., (1935) Carvajal & Pepys - Wilfred S. Samuel
Dec 3, 1659
"Being this morning (for observacion sake) at the Jewish Synagogue in London I heared many lamentacions made by Portugall Jewes for ye death of Ferdinando ye Merchant, who was lately cutt (by the same hand wth my selfe) of ye Stone. (see:… )
Jews expelled from Spain and Portugal continued to speak their language and also to be in contact with friends (as agents for comercial purposes) in their ancestral homes. By the way, their descendents speak old Spanish till this day.
Maybe Mr. de Silva was from one of those families, living in London, speaking English in the street and Portuguese at home.
Knowing the English market, his services could have helped sell at a good price the goods (tea, spices) that the mother of the Portuguese Princess' sent with the bride. The Portuguese were in this respect known to be much more tolerant than the Spanish, who would never have done an official transaction with a Jew.

Ruben  •  Link

"I recieived a paper from the Queen that I deliver the jewels brought over into the hands of Douart de Silva "
I think that Sandwich had the jewels and when he disembarked he trusted them into the hands of someone waiting on the coast: Mr. de Silva.

Pauline  •  Link

"...(the reason private was that she might have use of them to wear). "
Meaning to wear some of the jewels when she meets the King? Or possibly the hope that the King would decide to keep the jewels instead of selling them--so Catherine would have use them to wear?

Peter  •  Link

Have the words: "Don Pacifico"; "Malta"; "Palmerston" and "Civis Romanus sum" leapt into anyone else's mind?

BradW  •  Link

that she might have use of them to wear

It's kind of poignant that the Portugese royal family was in such straits that they had to beg leave from the bridegroom to borrow back the family's heirloom jewelry from the dowry so that the bride might have them to wear at her wedding. No doubt there were a few raised eyebrows among the king's court about that, if it got out. Can't you just hear Lady Castlemane: "At least she took care of 'something borrowed.'"

I have to admit I'm really coming over to poor Catherine's side, I can just imagine the peril she is walking into with eyes all but shut. I hope she doesn't get eaten alive by her adopted country.

Cumgranissalis  •  Link

There is the Official Word for this event for publick [common] consumption, then there be the actual facts that be said in the private Hallways of the officaldom. [there by the need of a pinch of salt]. { I always love the smile and handshake by those that despise each other, all for the common good}

Pedro  •  Link

"I wonder how many Portuguese ladies in waiting she had with her to talk in her language and provide a bit of home connection."

An interesting question that will arouse plenty of controversey.
From the Portuguese historian, Rau, it appears that she took with her a large household, numbering up to a hundred. During the voyage they were probably of no comfort to her, they were all sick continually, and she had to console them most of the time.
Her Portuguese suite were carefully chosen by her mother including 2 chaperones, who were the ladies of highest rank, Donna Maria de Portugal, sister of the Ambassador, and the Countess of Ponteval. She had 6 noble young ladies as Maids of Honour, 6 chaplains, 4 bakers, a Jew perfumer, a hairdresser, musicians and many relations of the suite.
Her almoners were Richard Russell (who Strickland, in a footnote, says was a spy in the marriage)and the Irish Priest Father Patrick .

Jeannine  •  Link

Sorry Brad....don't want to spill the beans, but let's just say that the treatment given to her for the upcoming 20 plus years she lived in England (mostly by Charles, but also his mistresses, court, Parliment, and the English people) led Agnes Strickland (historian of English Queens)to call her one of the most mistreated Queens in English history. Davidson (historian) says "Catherine lived in her husband's court as Lot lived in Sodom" and that she lived a "blameless life" full of "unneccesary suffering". I'll copy the preface section of Davidson's book about her character into the background link on her.

Glyn  •  Link

Why did Charles and Catherine get married in Portsmouth rather than in Westminster Abbey? Surely the marriage could have waited until she reached London?

Jeannine  •  Link

Glyn, Nothing I've ever read really says why Portsmouth but my guess is that it had to do with the fact that they were both anxious to marry immediately(Charles for the money and Portugal for the protection). Also, they actually got married twice but Pepys wouldn't know this. First, they had a secret Catholic ceremony as Catherine was a strict Catholic. Then they had a small Protestant wedding. The other factor against a big wedding is the differences in their religion and the general hatred and intolerance towards Catholics. Catherine never attended any Protestant church services and part of her wedding contract stipulated that she would be free to practice her religion. She always maintained a private chapel where she prayed and attended Catholic services.

Pedro  •  Link

"Why Portsmouth"

Adding to Jeannine above, perhaps we can draw a parallel with his father?

"Brought up as a Roman Catholic. This made her (Henrietta) an unpopular choice of wife for the English King, whom she married by proxy on May 11, 1625, shortly after his accession to the throne. They were married in person at St Augustine's Church, Canterbury, Kent, on June 13, 1626. However, her religion made it impossible for her to be crowned with her husband in an Anglican service."

Pedro  •  Link

"That the Juego de Toros is a simple sport, yet the greatest in Spain."

I think that in this entry we see Creed's interpretation of events, and not necessarily those of Sandwich. The Queen hath given no rewards, Sandwich has a present that is not honourable and worth about 1400l, and how the Queen has been reclusive. I do not think Sandwich would hold the same views.

I have put a description of the bullfight in the Background, written by Sandwich in his Journal. From this would he have described it as a simple sport?…

Pedro  •  Link

"That the King of Portugall is a very fool almost"

Catherine's brother, Alfonso, was struck by a paraysis between the ages of 3 and 4. For anyone with a medical background, and a wish to put the illness in layman's terms, I have put the description in the background.…

Second Reading

Terry Foreman  •  Link

A proxy wedding or (proxy marriage) is a wedding in which one or both of the individuals being united are not physically present, usually being represented instead by other persons. If both partners are absent a double proxy wedding occurs.

Marriage by proxy is usually resorted to either when a couple wish to marry but one or both partners cannot attend for reasons such as military service, imprisonment, or travel restrictions; or when a couple lives in a jurisdiction in which they cannot legally marry.…

Bill  •  Link

"Thence abroad with Mr. Creed, of whom I informed myself of all I had a mind to know."

I want to thank the annotators from ten years ago for the insight and information they provided. Sam needed this also and he got it from Mr. Creed. Much more than just gossip, this insider knowledge was necessary to him to be able to do his job, for the navy and for Sandwich.

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