Friday 27 April 1660

This morning Burr was absent again from on board, which I was troubled at, and spoke to Mr. Pierce, Purser, to speak to him of it, and it is my mind.

This morning Pim [the tailor] spent in my cabin, putting a great many ribbons to a suit. After dinner in the afternoon came on board Sir Thomas Hatton and Sir R. Maleverer going for Flushing; but all the world know that they go where the rest of the many gentlemen go that every day flock to the King at Breda.1 They supped here, and my Lord treated them as he do the rest that go thither, with a great deal of civility. While we were at supper a packet came, wherein much news from several friends. The chief is that, that I had from Mr. Moore, viz. that he fears the Cavaliers in the House will be so high, that the others will be forced to leave the House and fall in with General Monk, and so offer things to the King so high on the Presbyterian account that he may refuse, and so they will endeavour some more mischief; but when I told my Lord it, he shook his head and told me, that the Presbyterians are deceived, for the General is certainly for the King’s interest, and so they will not be able to prevail that way with him.

After supper the two knights went on board the Grantham, that is to convey them to Flushing. I am informed that the Exchequer is now so low, that there is not 20l. there, to give the messenger that brought the news of Lambert’s being taken; which story is very strange that he should lose his reputation of being a man of courage now at one blow, for that he was not able to fight one stroke, but desired of Colonel Ingoldsby several times for God’s sake to let him escape.

Late reading my letters, my mind being much troubled to think that, after all our hopes, we should have any cause to fear any more disappointments therein.

To bed. This day I made even with Mr. Creed, by sending him my bill and he me my money by Burr whom I sent for it.

43 Annotations

First Reading

vincent  •  Link

"packet'_"Packet-boat" Usually available daily, except Sunday, Calais (calis,calice) Dover takes a day (7 houres) aprox. depending on winds,tides and Pirates: Evelyn in His Diary tell of wonderful adventures (ref 22nd jun 1650) (& 13 Aug ) this time he was drenched;

vincent  •  Link

"Packet" rereading all the references it does appear to be sealed mail for to and from London not to and from the Continent.

mary  •  Link

'and it is my mind.'

At this point, L&M give 'and tell him my mind', which reads much better.

Swordfish  •  Link

Are the ribbons Pim is putting on Sams suit decoration, or some form of insignia/rank - would anybody know?

Jenny Doughty  •  Link

During the interregnum, under the Puritan influence of Cromwell, dress tended to be very simple and sober. Upon the restoration of Charles II, it suddenly became a great deal more decorative. I fancy Pepys, as always, has his eye on the Zeitgeist. I cannot imagine that, if he had been given a medal of some kind, he would not have confided this to his diary.

Warren Keith Wright  •  Link

"Breeches," says the Companion article on "Dress" (pp. 98-99), "were of different types: the grandest, edged with ribbon, might well measure more than a yard about at each knee". No doubt any piece of apparel could have extra ribbon attached, as edging or as patterned stripes, to create a richer appearance, for men as well as women.
And do not overlook the larks that grooms and brides might have with ribbons on their clothes: see entries and annotations for 24 January and 24 February 1660 concerning Mr. and "Mrs." Lucy.

Susanna  •  Link


Yes, ribbons were one of the main fashion accessories of Pepys' time, as seen in this quote from… :

"Furthermore, the costume was decorated with numerous ribbon bows at doublet, breeches and shoes, namely most prominently at the waistband of the breeches, the shoulders, and the bottom hem of the jacket. In a surviving tailor's list of the 1650s is a note about the amount of ribbon bows which are needed for a fashionable outfit: about 500-600 ribbon bows, which are called galants in French."

Jackie  •  Link

Sam is getting into high fashion isn't he? Buckles for his shoes earlier in the year, yards of ribbons now.

So, when will he start wearing preposterous periwigs?

Warren Keith Wright  •  Link

1663, when the King started wearing them to cover up his greying hair. He and the Duke of York set the fashion at court; and so, in November 1663, Pepys bespoke two wigs and wore them henceforth, as shown in John Hayls's 1666 portrait. Cf. the National Portrait Gallery site and exhibition:…
(link courtesy Frank Penney)

Admittedly, "[w]hile both long hair and wigs could and did become infested with nits, wigs were more easily cleaned."
---Companion, "Dress: Men's Hair," p. 100.

Warren Keith Wright  •  Link

To highlight Pepys's passing the buck to the Purser, this is re-posted from John Burr's page:

Burr is absent in the morning, but seems to have returned before close of day in order to conduct business with Creed, round trip. The chain of command is interesting: though hired by Pepys, does Burr fall under the Purser’s jurisdiction once aboard ship, rather than Pepys dealing with Burr directly about his absences? While Pepys does not shy from confrontations, he seems as lief to avoid them.

(And what, one wonders, was the contemporary idiom for "passing the buck"?)

Zack  •  Link

Where exactly is Pepys now? It seemed he was to take ship for the Continent, and he certainly seems to be living aboard ship, but as far as I can tell it hasn't gone anywhere.

Richard Lathom  •  Link

Burr was absent ... Purser, to speak to him ...
I get from this that the Purser was charged with keeping track of who came aboard, thus Pepys asked him to convey his displeasure to Burr when he came back and let him know the message was from Pepys.

oliver  •  Link

",,,500-600 ribbon bows, which are called galants in French.  •  Link

No, a ten-gallon hat is just a hat that might could hold ten gallons. It'd look pretty funny with a bunch of galants tied to it, though.

melinda trapelo  •  Link

A "Ten Gallon Hat" does NOT hold ten gallons (think how large that would be). It's derived from the Spanish "galoon." So yes, it DOES refer to ornaments.  •  Link

Melinda is right.
Well, that'll teach me to stick to my rule of always looking things up before shooting off my mouth. You're quite right, it is from Spanish, as noted in the infallible Straight Dope:…

I should add that I wasn't under the impression that the hat actually *could* hold ten gallons, but I assumed that was a Texan exaggeration meaning it was a big hat (hence my Southernism "might could"). I'm glad to know the true derivation!

Mary Merivel  •  Link

"Lambert’s being taken; which story is very strange that he should lose his reputation of being a man of courage now at one blow, for that he was not able to fight one stroke, but desired of Colonel Ingoldsby several times for God’s sake to let him escape".

The story sounds really strange for everyone who knows Lambert; I wonder where did this tale came from. Does anyone knows any other confirmations?

Second Reading

Terry Foreman  •  Link

"This morning Pim [the tailor] spent in my cabin, putting a great many ribbons to a suit."

From Nicole Kipar's late 17th century Clothing History site Susanna links to:
"Charles II in Coronation Robes, 1661. J.M. Wright. Note the off-white red heeled shoes with the jewelled rosette, the silver tissue fabric of the hose and ribbons and the rich lace collar (Venetian Gros Point). English"…

Bill  •  Link

RIBBAND, or Ribbon, a narrow sort of silk, chiefly used for head ornaments, badges of chivalry, &c.
---The Complete Dictionary of Arts and Sciences, 1766

Bill  •  Link

The Emperor shared in the general satisfaction; and presented the impostors with the riband of an order of knighthood, to be worn in their button-holes, and the title of "Gentlemen Weavers". (from the Fairy Tales of Hans Christian Anderson)

Terry Foreman  •  Link

"I am informed that the Exchequer is now so low, that there is not 20l. there, to give the messenger that brought the news of Lambert’s being taken;"

L&M: A council warrant was issued on 23 April for the payment of £20 to Thomas Wright for this service: CSPD 1659-60, p. 598.

Terry Foreman  •  Link

"the news of Lambert’s being taken; which story is very strange that he should lose his reputation of being a man of courage now at one blow, for that he was not able to fight one stroke, but desired of Colonel Ingoldsby several times for God’s sake to let him escape."

L&M: Lambert was said to have prevented his officers from leading a charge: Whitelocke, Memorials, iv. 408.

Third Reading

San Diego Sarah  •  Link

I reconcile the apparently contradictory stories about Lambert's capture like this:
They were on their way to Edgehill to meet with the other anti-Monarchists.
Ingoldsby caught up with Lambert's contingent near Daventry, so the battle field was not pre-selected.
Lambert's men turned and prepared to fight.
Lambert's horse became ensnared in mud, and he realized there was no way his men could win this skirmish in these conditions, so he called off the charge and told them to flee. Which they did.
He was caught, and hoped his former colleague would take pity on him and let him escape.
But noooo, Ingoldsby wanted a future life under Charles II, so Lambert's goose was cooked. Back to the Tower.…

MartinVT  •  Link

"I am informed that the Exchequer is now so low, that there is not 20l. there, to give the messenger that brought the news of Lambert’s being taken..."

Surely the messenger is not owed 20 pounds for delivering the news?

San Diego Sarah  •  Link

It does seem excessive, MartinVT. Professors L&M had access to many historical documents during the decades they took compiling their information, so I tend to believe them.
Maybe the Exchequer was settling the messenger's account for multiple deliveries, or this was a quarterly payment? Did it include paying for hiring approx. 8 post horses (guessing one per hour)? Whatever the case, he made the run apparently without being paid.

LKvM  •  Link

For a glimpse into what it all was really like for these jacks and other staunch men and passengers, Byron's poem (noted above) 150 years later:
But, since life at most a jest is,
As philosophers allow,
Still to laugh by far the best is,
Then laugh on—as I do now.
Laugh at all things,
Great and small things,
Sick or well, at sea or shore;
While we’re quaffing,
Let’s have laughing—
Who the devil cares for more?

Terry Foreman  •  Link

San Diego Sarah posted on John Burr's page:

I suspect Pepys' chat with the Purser was about stopping seamen from rowing Burr ashore whenever Burr requests it. The Naseby is anchored at sea, not moored in a harbor, so Burr needed enablers.…

San Diego Sarah  •  Link

Good catch, Terry! I still have trouble remembering where I am in the Diary! Double-checking the headline above the preview usually saves me.

Stephane Chenard  •  Link

We're not completely surprised that the second- or third-hand newes which reach Sam, of Col. Lambert's capture, picture him as having "los[t] his reputation of being a man of courage", being "not able to fight one stroke", and imploring Ingoldsby to let him go, bursting in tears, etc. Now that he's retaken, nobody wants him to be Che Guevara so a bit of character assassination would be in order.

We like the bit about the colonel's Arabian charger getting mired. It hasn't reached the gazettes that are still the only current reports at our disposall, but what has, is a bit more complex than the version Sam's got anyway. First of all, this wasn't a high-noon encounter between the two colonels, on the empty main street of Dodge City: there were a lot of guns and horses. A long account in the French Gazette - the situation in England now clearly being of keen interest to many in Paris - in an "Extraordinaire" (a supplement) to appear on May 14 (new style,… pages 421-432), has it that Ingoldsby was accompanied, first of all, by his regiment and no less than four companies of horse; we're not sure of the size of a company, but 'tseems that could come to over 400 horses in total. The Merucurius Politicus, as summarized by Mr. Rugg, describes a force of two regiments (Ingoldsby and, apparently, a Col. Sam Well) and some local militia.

Also: Lambert was betrayed. "Then came newes that [Lambert] has an intent to rendevouse att Edge Hill", the Mercurius recounts. Fair enough. But the Gazette adds that, when he's found out with four horse companies of his own, one of his commanders - Arthur Haselrig, a prominent former MP whom Wikipedia now describes as anti-Lambert and whom Charles II will later pardon (…) - defected to Ingoldsby upon being captured, and his company "came unhesitatingly to join the Troops of the said Colonal Ingoldsby, who placed it in his right flank".

The Gazette says Lambert then tried to parlay, but this went nowhere and "the Conference only came to the resolution of voiding the dispute by the arms" [vüider le différant par les armes", hard to translate but you see what I mean]. This led two more of Lambert's companions to change sides: Cols. Barther and another Rump celeb, Alured. The Mercurius lists neither of them among "those taken with Colonel Lambertt"; well, they weren't "taken".

Then Lambert gave up. In the meantime some blood had been shed: The Mercurius says, "at the takinge of him [Lambert] one killed and six wounded". Whew, that's a relief - honor is saved; unless this was guys falling off their horses of fighting over girls or dice, as could happen in a party so large.

Stephane Chenard  •  Link

OK, end of the Lambert episode. £20 for the messenger who took the newes to London seems generous, but those are big newes, of a sort which 'tis customary indeed to reward extravagantly. Also this wasn't just some postman but one of Ingoldsby's men (likely an officer), and the Mercurius, quoting a letter from "Abell Roper", says "the messenger (...) came in such hast that they could writ noe letter, but brought a gold scale of armes of a Northamptonshire gentilman for testemony of the truth of what hee brought" - not sure what this means, but it sounds showy, and at least it's not Lambert's head in a bag. So here's £20, the last in the till.

Stephane Chenard  •  Link

We're also interested in the L&M footnote that "many considerations obliged [Charles II] to depart the territories under the obedience of the King of Spain", i.e. Brussels, for Breda, "in this conjuncture of affairs". Spain has just made peace with France, and "their Catholic majesties" of Spain now have much less need of crazy little England.

In fact on May 7 (new style), our friend Venetian ambassador Giavarina reports, in his usual crystal-clear manner (at…; we love this guy) that Charles "is at present at Breda in Holland with his sister, the princess of Orange, and feels confident of being summoned to England before he returns to Brussels his old residence, under the protection of the Spaniards. He does not seem to have much reason to sing their praises, as after leading him to expect 100,000 crowns for so many months, they leave him in difficulty and want." Money money money, is what makes the kings go 'round.

On 15 April the French Gazette, reporting on affairs in Dunkerque since Spain has given it (back) to England in 1659, had also noted that "since the evacuation of Furnes & Bergues [places near Dunkirk], in compliance with the Treaty of the two Crowns [Spain's peace with France], they [Spain] refuse passage to the Boats carrying our [England's] supplies" [this at…].

Since we have the Gazette open on our shiny oak table, we can't resist sharing this tidbit in its further report of 30 April from Breda, as bizarre a canard as it now seems: "the Duke of York has left for Spain to be an Admiral" ["le Duc d'York est parti pour aller en Espagne, exercer la Charge d'Amiral"]. 'Scuse me? The DoY - future James II - has been made an admiral in Spain? And he's chosen this time to try the uniform?

Actually, almost. Wikipedia, quoting biographer James Miller: "James [of York], doubtful of his brother's chances of regaining the throne, considered taking a Spanish offer to be an admiral in their navy. Ultimately, he declined the position". But that was in 1659, and he never got on the boat. Somehow someone in Breda thinks or wants us to think that James-in-Spain is still in play.

San Diego Sarah  •  Link

James-in-Spain might have been a rumor regenerated by Charles II and/or his advisors as an added "incentive", so to speak, to assist Monck and Parliament to make up their minds?

It certainly is a bizarre rumor -- it's hard to compare the French Gazette to the late News of the World, but we're way beyond April Fools Day, so that's the best I can do.

Stephane Chenard  •  Link

Fresh intel on York's movements: This dispatch of 6 May (new style) from The Hague, in the French Gazette: He has "gone to Brussels to confer with the Marquess of Caracena [Spain's governor in the Netherlands] on some important matters, for which the latter had already sent the Count of Grammont [probably Philibert, a semi-disgraced French courtier who will shortly exile himself to London] to His Britannic Majesty" […, page 524]. We suspect the "important matters" had something to do with moolah.

So yes, James is in Spain, technically; just not in Madrid or Cadiz. He could, just conceivably, have been presented as a parting gift with a honorary admiral's commission by the gobernador - not so far-fetched perhaps, as York did fight alongside Spanish troops as recently as 1658, and Charles being returned to England by a Spanish fleet was not ruled out until a few months ago. Yes, Charles could use James-in-Spain as a gentle threat to London, but right now this would surely be highly counter-productive. More likely the Gazette's informant just got things mixed up.

Let's add in defense of the Gazette that its editor, Renaudot, has no way to check reports and just passes them on raw. In the tradition of Italian avvisi and other newsletters-for-the-priviledged, it's probably what its generally savvy readership wants. As a result it's usually a dreadfully serious and boring collection of facts such as "on the 8th current, the Duke of Newbourg returned to Düsseldorf". Not a scandal sheet at all. We wish we had access to a 1660 scandal sheet, though.

San Diego Sarah  •  Link

I am so grateful to you, Stephane, for adding the French point-of-view to our discussions. I'm looking forward to reading your take on the next few years.
A consistent supply of scandal sheets would be wonderful. Pepys Diary is the best we get -- and he's pretty good.

Stephane Chenard  •  Link

We are the lady's humble servant. We're also now made aware, from some of the last letters which Cromwell's old spymaster John Thurloe received from his spies, that York left on May 3 at 8 pm for Brussels, "whence by all appearances he will return shortly", and that somehow he arrived in Brussels and "spoke to Caracena" indeed, in the morning of May 2, having thus travelled back in time (unless one of those spies fail'd to check his calendar). We find this nearly as remarkable, as that the duke's travels are splashed out in the Gazette within 3 days.

The secret archive of poor John Thurloe, still addressed by various grandees as Monseigneur, &c. but whose destruction is imminent, is at… in this case. It's brimming over with scandal.

The second letter, dated May 9, adds that "the king of Spain sent a good 600,000 florins for remittance to the king of England, whenever he wishes them credited" ["Le sieur roy d'Espagne a envoié bien six cent mil florins pour conter à roy d'Angleterre, quand il les desire avoir à son profit"]. That'd be a sum; if we believe…, it's enough to buy the nice house which Rembrandt keeps in central Amsterdam about 46 times over. Spain's pipeline to the silver mines of Potosí isn't quite what it used to be, but it's still a country it pays to be nice to.

San Diego Sarah  •  Link

James, Duke of York knew Caracena. They fought together for many months in 1656 at the Battle of the Dunes and Dunkirk against Cromwell.

I'm deciphering James II's autobiographies where he has several paragraphs about this visit to Brussels, and plan to post one of my digests of it shortly.


And you're right about the South American silver running out. Too much in riches created a Spanish economy based on nothing sustainable, and so they just started spending money and importing.

One paper I read estimated that in 4 generations, the equivilant of South America's riches had transferred to China, which produced goods for export which Europeans wanted. It took the Opium Wars to stop China's entrepreneurial efforts -- and we have apparently thought it a worthy experiment to do again.

On the other hand, "Britain arguably, gained just about the right amount of gold. National hero Sir Francis Drake was really just a pirate. He attacked Spanish ships and took their gold. (It is estimated about 10% of Spanish gold was lost to piracy.) Drake gave a good portion of his stolen gold to Queen Elizabeth, who used this windfall to pay off the national debt. (Is piracy a good way to deal with the national debt?)

"However, Britain never gained enough of the Latin American gold to become just a nation of consumers. The prospect of gold motivated a rapid expansion in naval technology. It was around this time, that Britain’s navy and shipbuilding capacity increased rapidly. This sowed the seeds of Britain’s future Empire. But, it was an Empire which was at least partly based on industry and production."…

San Diego Sarah  •  Link

James II is the only King of England I know of who wrote his autobiography -- several times, partly in French; his spelling was awful; he dictated them to someone in the third person; he edited them all confusingly; and left the lot in some boxes when he fled in 1688

The 'translator', A. Lytton Sells, Professor of French and Italian at Indiana University, added a detailed commentary, and reconciled the best of each manuscript into a book, which was printed, and downloaded, so it also contains scanning errors

I've clean it up so you can read a version of the last few months of James' life in exile as context to the Stuart Brothers' problems. My apologies for any wrong guesses

His Majesty is Charles II.
R.H. is His Royal Highness James, Duke of York:

His Campaigns as Duke of York: 1652-1660…


The next morning his R. H. in pursuance of what he had resolved, went for Boulogne, and returned no more to Calais during all the time of his residence in those parts

Sometime after Capt. Thomas Cook came thither from Paris, with letters to the Duke from the Queen Mother, and commands to find his Majesty

These letters likewise informed him, that Monsr. de Turenne who was then about Amiens desired to speak with the King in reference to his affairs in England.
Upon which the Duke went immediately to Abbeville, hoping there to have found the King; But his Majesty had departed, and all his R. H. could hear of him was that he was gone towards Dieppe, and thither he sent Capt. Cook after him; who missing of him there also, went in quest of him as far as Rouen, but his Majesty was gone from thence also on his way to St. Malo:
Whereupon Cook returned to the Duke, and gave him an account of his fruitless diligence

The business was of too great importance to be neglected, and therefore his R. H. resolved on going privately to Monsr. de Turenne:
when he was come to him at Amiens, Monsr. de Turenne told him, He had desired to speak to the King his Brother, but since his Majesty was not to be found, he would do him the same service in the Duke's person:
Thereupon he offered him his own Regiment of foot, which he would make up 1,200 men, and the Scots-Gendarmes, to carry over into England with him;
That besides this, he would furnish him with 3,000 or 4,000 spare arms, 6 field pieces with ammunition proportionable, and tools, and as much meal as would serve for the Sustenance of 5,000 men for the space of 6 weeks, or 2 months;
and farther, would furnish him with Vessels for the conveyance of all this into England, and permit the Troops that his Majesty had in Flanders to march to Boulogne and there embark, with orders to follow the Duke as fast as Vessels could be provided for them; advising his R. H. to send directions to them, that they should march immediately to St. Omers where a pass should meet them

San Diego Sarah  •  Link



And that all these preparations might be compassed with more ease and certainty, he offered the Duke to pawn his plate and make use besides of all his interest and credit, to make up such a sum of money as should be thought necessary for the carrying on of the business: Concluding all with this expression, R. H. might easily believe he had no orders from the Cardinal, who was then at the Conference, to perform all this; but what he did was freely of himself, out of no other motive then kindness to the Duke, and to his family.

‘Tis not hard to imagine, that his R. H. accepted of this noble Offer with great joy, and that he lost no time in designing where to land with these forces.

The place resolved on was Rye, and that in case the Country should come in to him, he should march on to Maidstone and Rochester; if not, then to fortify that Town, which by reason of its situation might be made so strong within few days, that Lambert should not easily have forced him out of it; and he would have found him work enough in that Siege, to have divided the forces of the Rebels, and disordered all their methods.

These things being thus resolved, and ordered, the affair was put into a forwardness; and Monsr. de Turenne gave the Duke a letter to (the) Lieut. Governor of Boulogne, wherein he was commanded to furnish his R. H. with all the Vessels, and Fisher-boats which he could get together in all his Government of the Boulonois.

The Duke gave this letter himself to the Lieutenant du Roy, with another from Antoine, Marshal d’Aumont his Governor which the Queen has procured and sent to the Duke from Paris, by which the Lieut. was likewise ordered to assist his R. H. with Vessels, and all things he could desire.

The business was now so far advanced, and in such a readiness, that the Duke of Bouillon, and others of M. de Turenne's nephews, were to have gone as volunteers with the Duke;
and the next day was appointed for his R. H. and his Soldiers to embark at Estape, to which place the Troops were already upon their march, when letters from England brought the unwelcome news of Sir George Booth's defeat by Lambert.

Upon which the Duke, being then at Boulogne, went to Mr. de Turenne who was at Montreuil to inform him of it; who in that juncture thought it not advisable for his R. H. to adventure into England, but counselled him to have patience and expect a better opportunity, which could not be long wanting to him, by reason of the disorders and distractions which must of necessity happen amongst them in England:

San Diego Sarah  •  Link



Notwithstanding which reasons, the Duke pressed him to consent that he might go, telling him that he believed Charles II might be landed in the West, or somewhere in Wales, and be there engaged in difficulties and dangers; and that if his conjecture should prove true, there was no other way of saving his Majesty and gaining time for him to attempt anything considerable, but the Duke's going over, and making a diversion:

But these arguments could not prevail on Monsr. de Turenne to give his R. H. the leave which he so earnestly desired; for he replied that he was confident his Majesty was not gone for England, and that if he were, it was not reasonable for the Duke to hazard himself, when there was no probability of Success:

He therefore counselled his R. H. to return to Flanders, and there to expect some news from the King his Brother, and fresh intelligence from England. And when he had concluded with this advice, knowing the Duke wanted money, he lent him 300 pistoles, and gave him a Pass.

And thus an end was put to this design; and the Duke returned to Brussels.


IN this way he passed through Peronne; where he privately visited the Governor of that place, the Marquis d'Hocquincourt, an old acquaintance of his, whom he had known in the French Army, who used him with all imaginable civility and kindness.

San Diego Sarah  •  Link


The 11 September [1659] he [the Duke] reached Cambray, and from thence went straight to Bruxelles: where he found, that notwithstanding the Duke of Gloucester had delivered to the Marquis de Caracena the letters which his R. H. had written from Boulogne for the marching of his Troops. to St. Omer, yet the Marquis would not permit them to stir out of their quarters; tho he was sufficiently pressed to it by the Duke of Gloucester: But he still answered, he did not believe Mr. de Turenne durst let them pass through any part of his King's Dominions, without order, which he knew he could not have. Nor would he suffer them to draw down to the Seaside, to which he was also urged by the Duke of Gloucester, when he found he could not obtain his first point.

What his reasons were for refusing these two requests, the Duke could not learn; but as it happened, the denial proved to be of no prejudice to his Majesty's affaires; Only it gave opportunity to see what was to be expected from the Marquis, if things were left to his man's agreement.

This design being thus blasted, and no hopes left of attempting anything in England at that time, the Duke passed the remaining part of this year at Bruxelles, expecting the King his Brother, who arrived thither from the Conference at Fontarabie a little before Christmas.

And to show here, what little expectation even the most intelligent Strangers had at that time, of those Changes which happened so soon afterwards in England; his Majesty, as he came back from Fontarabie through France, pressed the Cardinal very earnestly for leave to Stay, tho never so privately, with the Queen his Mother, which small favor he was not able to obtain;

and thereupon was forced to return to Bruxelles much against his inclination, having only stayed some few days with the Queen Mother at Colombe (which he took in his way) a civility which could not well be refused him.


The hopes concerning England being now reduced to the lowest ebb, in the beginning of the year, 1660, an offer was made to the Duke, of commanding in Spain against Portugal, and also to be their High Admiral with the Title of Principe de la Mare; which office, the Duke has been told, was never given to any but the King's Sons or near Relations, and whoever enjoys it commands the Galleys as well as Ships, and wherever he lands he commands as Vice Roy of the Country whilst he stays in it; he has also the fifths of all Prizes, and a great Salary, besides other considerable perquisites: So that this was not only a very honorable post, but also a very advantageous one even as to profit, which was what the Duke then wanted. He therefore readily consented to the offer which was made to him, the King his Brother ratifying it with his free permission.

San Diego Sarah  •  Link


And now his R. H. was preparing to go for Spain in the ensuing spring, when that Voyage was happily prevented by the wonderful Changes, which were almost daily produced in England: And when the motion was once begun, it went on so fast, that his Majesty was almost in his own Country, before those abroad, especially the Spaniards, would believe there was any Revolution towards it; for even after Sir John Greenfield was come over to Charles II from Gen. Monck, they yet believed him as far as ever from his Restoration, and were so possessed of that opinion, that they let him go into Holland.

And at last when his Majesty was at Breda not many days before he embarked for England, the Marquis de Caracena endeavored to persuade him to return to Flanders. He pretended he had business of importance to acquaint his Majesty with from England, some persons being come over from thence to Bruxelles, who had great offers to make to him:


And he sent the Count de Grammont with letters to him on that occasion, desiring his Majesty would be pleased to give himself the trouble of coming but as far as Antwerp, or at least to West-Wesel, he not being able to wait on him (as he knew he ought) anywhere out of his Master's Dominions.

But his Majesty had no inclinations to venture his person in the hands of the Spaniards, not knowing what the consequences might be; And besides he could easily judge, that it must either be a pretense to draw him thither, or indeed a thing not worth his journey, his return to England being then ascertained.

But because his Majesty would give the Marquis of Caracena no reason of complaint, he sent the Duke to Bruxelles, and desired the Marquis to impart the business to him;

When his R. H. came thither, he found it was only Col. Joseph Bampfylde who was come over with some airy proposition from Scott, and some of that Party: From whence the Duke concluded, that his Majesty had done wisely not to stir from Breda,

When his R. H. stayed a day or two with the Marquis of Caracena, he returned to the King his Brother, who some few days after went to The Hague, where he was very well received;

and embarking himself at Schevelin about the latter end of May (23rd) on board the English Navy, commanded then by General Montagu, he landed with his two Brothers, The Duke of York and the Duke of Gloucester, at Dover, the * * * 4 (25th) of the same month,

San Diego Sarah  •  Link

"The Gazette says Lambert then tried to parlay, but this went nowhere and "the Conference only came to the resolution of voiding the dispute by the arms" [vüider le différant par les armes", hard to translate but you see what I mean]. This led two more of Lambert's companions to change sides: Cols. Barther and another Rump celeb, Alured. The Mercurius lists neither of them among "those taken with Colonel Lambertt"; well, they weren't "taken"."

"... on the 4th of January 1660, L&M noted a reference to "my Lord's troop" with the following "Appointed to the command of a regiment of horse in September 1659, Montagu had been dismissed on the fall of Richard Cromwell in the following spring [so Montagu could go to the Baltic - SDS]. His men were now commanded by Col. Matthew Alured MP, but Pepys (who was taken on as colonel's secretary without performing any function - a fairly common practice) ... still referred to the regiment as 'my Lord's'."

Col. Matthew Alured MP doesn't have a Pepys Encyclopedia page, so I put in a couple of posts about his 1659/60 activities at…

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