Monday 28 August 1665

Up, and being ready I out to Mr. Colvill, the goldsmith’s, having not for some days been in the streets; but now how few people I see, and those looking like people that had taken leave of the world. I there, and made even all accounts in the world between him and I, in a very good condition, and I would have done the like with Sir Robert Viner, but he is out of towne, the sicknesse being every where thereabouts. I to the Exchange, and I think there was not fifty people upon it, and but few more like to be as they told me, Sir G. Smith and others. Thus I think to take adieu to-day of the London streets, unless it be to go again to Viner’s.

Home to dinner, and there W. Hewer brings me 119l. he hath received for my office disbursements, so that I think I have 1800l. and more in the house, and, blessed be God! no money out but what I can very well command and that but very little, which is much the best posture I ever was in in my life, both as to the quantity and the certainty I have of the money I am worth; having most of it in my own hand. But then this is a trouble to me what to do with it, being myself this day going to be wholly at Woolwich; but for the present I am resolved to venture it in an iron chest, at least for a while.

In the afternoon I sent down my boy to Woolwich with some things before me, in order to my lying there for good and all, and so I followed him.

Just now comes newes that the fleete is gone, or going this day, out again, for which God be praised! and my Lord Sandwich hath done himself great right in it, in getting so soon out again. I pray God, he may meet the enemy.

Towards the evening, just as I was fitting myself, comes W. Hewer and shows me a letter which Mercer had wrote to her mother about a great difference between my wife and her yesterday, and that my wife will have her go away presently. This, together with my natural jealousy that some bad thing or other may be in the way, did trouble me exceedingly, so as I was in a doubt whether to go thither or no, but having fitted myself and my things I did go, and by night got thither, where I met my wife walking to the waterside with her paynter, Mr. Browne, and her mayds. There I met Commissioner Pett, and my Lord Brunker, and the lady at his house had been there to-day, to see her. Commissioner Pett staid a very little while, and so I to supper with my wife and Mr. Shelden, and so to bed with great pleasure.


23 Annotations

Terry Foreman  •  Link

"my natural jealousy that some bad thing or other may be in the way"

jealousy = "fear" or "fearfulness" (L&M Select Glossary)

Michael Robinson  •  Link

"so that I think I have 1800l. and more in the house, and, blessed be God! no money out but what I can very well command and that but very little, ... But then this is a trouble to me what to do with it, ..."

That perennial Pepys'anxiety!

Martin  •  Link

"I met my wife walking to the waterside with her paynter, Mr. Browne...and so to bed with great pleasure."

Evidently, Liz's strolling with the her paynting master does not stir in Sam the kind of jealousy occasioned in the past by mere sightings of Pembleton, his wife's dancing master.

CGS  •  Link

"... This, together with my natural jealousy that some bad thing or other may be in the way, did trouble me exceedingly, so as I was in a doubt whether to go thither or no, but having fitted myself and my things I did go, and by night got thither, where I met my wife walking to the waterside with her paynter, Mr. Browne, and her mayds...."
I think it not be 6 but ??
lifted from OED in all its variations.

[a. OF. gelosie, jalousie (= Pr. and It. gelosia), f. gelos JEALOUS: see -Y.]

The quality of being jealous.

1. Zeal or vehemence of feeling against some person or thing; anger, wrath, indignation. Obs.
c14000

2. Zeal or vehemence of feeling in favour of a person or thing; devotion, eagerness, anxiety to serve. Obs.
1436 P

3. Solicitude or anxiety for the preservation or well-being of something; vigilance in guarding a possession from loss or damage. 1378

4. The state of mind arising from the suspicion, apprehension, or knowledge of rivalry:

a. in love, etc.: Fear of being supplanted in the affection, or distrust of the fidelity, of a beloved person, esp. a wife, husband, or lover.
1303
b. in respect of success or advantage: Fear of losing some good through the rivalry of another; resentment or ill-will towards another on account of advantage or superiority, possible or actual, on his part; envy, grudge.
c1425

c. In biblical language, attributed to God: see JEALOUS a. 4c, and quot. 1860 below.
a1225

5. Suspicion; apprehension of evil; mistrust. Now dial. {dag}to have in jealousy: to be suspicious of, suspect, mistrust (obs.).

6. = JALOUSIE.

[F., = jealousy; also as here.]

A blind or shutter made with slats which slope upwards from without, so as to exclude sun and rain, and admit air and some light.

Robert Gertz  •  Link

So the Mercer era, Bess' longest time with a companion to-date, appears to be coming to an end. Sam no doubt has been fairly blind to signs of trouble when he visited. Still, it seems a bit sudden...

"Mrs. Pepys?!! Mr. Browne?!!!"

"You're through!!!"

***

So Pepys has decided to abandon London. Poor city, it will miss him.

Todd Bernhardt  •  Link

"just as I was fitting myself, comes W. Hewer and shows me a letter which Mercer had wrote to her mother..."

Is Will intercepting Mercer's mail as an agent of Elizabeth and Sam? Or did he do it on his own initiative? Did Mercer ask him (and trust him) to mail it, and he got out the 17th century equivalent of ye olde steame kettle to open it and read it without her permission or knowledge? Interesting social dynamic here...

Michael Robinson  •  Link

Is Will intercepting Mercer’s mail as an agent of Elizabeth and Sam?

Who knows, but this perhaps explains why Hewer is involved:-
"Her [Mercer's] mother (probably a widow by 1664) lived on the n. side of Crutched Friars (? in French Ordinary Court), where Will Hewer lodged with her."
http://www.pepysdiary.com/encyclopedia/7761/

Mary  •  Link

In that case (thanks for the reminder, MR) it's possible that Mrs. Mercer showed her daughter's letter to Will in a state of some distress/anger/ indignation, hoping that he would alert Sam to the dispute and so effect either a reconciliation or at least a rational conclusion.

Wim van der Meij  •  Link

Here an article on Alexander Browne with a description of the making of mezzotints. Scroll through that for a text on 'Samual Pepys and Alexander Browne': http://www.npg.org.uk/live/mellon.asp#anchor97257
A bit of a spoiler: on September 30 Sam's jealousy is going to be raised because of Elizabeth's dealings with Browne.

Jesse  •  Link

"natural jealousy that some bad thing or other may be in the way"

My guess is that Pepys may be concerned about what situations a Mercerless Elizabeth out at Woolwich may get into. What w/Mr. Browne (as noted above) and most likely others about.

Terry Foreman  •  Link

John Evelyn's Diary (in lieu of Dirk)

28 The Contagion growing now all about us, I went my Wife & whole family (two or three of my necessary Servants excepted) to Wotton to my Brothers, being resolved to stay at my house my selfe, & to looke after my Charge, trusting in the providence & goodnesse of God.
***

Carl in Boston  •  Link

Half tone print making from mezzo tints
This is a fascinating process. Thank you Wim and CGS for the links.

dirk  •  Link

From the Carte Papers, Bodleian Library
http://www.bodley.ox.ac.uk/dept/scwmss/projects...

Clarendon to Sandwich

Written from: Salisbury
Date: 28 August 1665

Thanks the Earl for a letter of August 13. Believes that Sir Thomas Clifford will bring the pending matter therein mentioned to a good issue. Congratulates the Earl upon his new son [Philip Carteret], who must bring great comfort - if he prove worthy of his own parentage - to his new family. Ralph Montagu will probably succeed his deceased brother Edward, in the latter's place, but the writer advises him to be wholly governed by his father; "and to be sure not to lose Boughton, for an office in Court"...

-----

Arlington to Sandwich

Written from: Sarum
Date: 28 August 1665

The Earl's letter, brought by Sir Thomas Clifford, increases the writer's satisfaction at the happy circumstance of his having been the means of making the Earl and Sir Thomas acquainted with each other. Clifford will need a good nimble frigate to carry him on the mission [to Copenhagen and to Stockholm], which he has received from the King; and may be safely trusted in all that he may tell; but in nothing more than in any assurances he may make of the writer's faithful service to his Lordship. ...

-----

Manchester to Sandwich

Written from: Salisbury
Date: 28 August 1665

Assures the Earl that the sooner he can put to sea, the more it will be to his advantage. If the Dutch get back to their own harbours, without some blows, there are, the writer finds, some [at Court] "that will make discourses." ...

Pedro  •  Link

On this day…

Sandwich calls a Council of the Flags and having taken into the Fleet about 15 days of beer and beverage (Dry provisions having sufficient until November), finding more supplies would not come as fast as expected, and principally considering the opportunity to meet the Dutch on their return from Norway, he weighed anchor.

Terry Foreman  •  Link

"my Lord Sandwich hath done himself great right in it, in getting so soon out again."

L&M: The Fleet weighed anchor from Sole Bay on the 28th. Both the King and Duke of York had been anxious for Sandwich to sail. But he failed in his attempt to intercept the Dutch fleet sailing home from Bergen.

San Diego Sarah  •  Link

August 18/28 is the 500th anniversary of the official start of the transatlantic slave trade. Charles I of Spain/Holy Roman Emperor Charles V [same person] signed a Charter in favor of some of his pals to ship direct from Africa to Puerto Rico ... up until then Africans had been brought to Portugal and Spain, and trans-shipped.

The result of direct shipment was a gross increase in the number of people sent, which destabilized the African continent and led to many wars, and has left a terrible legacy of misery and inequity on four continents today.

This article points out that there are only two or three institutions investigating the roots of the trade, so most people are unaware of this anniversary.

I wonder why Pepys is so silent on the subject.

For more information about recent documentation and revelations, see https://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/americ...

Terry Foreman  •  Link

"I wonder why Pepys is so silent on the subject [the slave trade]."

Slaving was first associated more with the Spanish. In the 1760's, the Dutch and English went to war over the assets of Guinea, incl. black slaves.

I checked every entry on Guinea
The name used in the 17th century for sub-Saharan coastal Africa, frm what is now Senegal to Ivory Coast. Pepys gives accounts of cargos, victualling, and stores for vessels going to and from Guinea. https://www.pepysdiary.com/encyclopedia/6917/

***

There is no reference to slaves in the Diary. The only reference to slaves on this site by Pepys is in a letter posted by jeannine on 22 Dec 1664"

Sam to Lord Sandwich (from “Further Correspondence of Samuel Pepys” edited by Tanner):
…Yesterday came the ill news we have long expected from Guinny of De Ruyter’s retaking all the Dutch had lost, and that in the most advantageous circumstances to themselves they could have wished. First, to the possessing themselves of all our wealth (landed and then upon delivering) there, to the utter ruin of our [Royal Africa] Company's stock of above 100,000£., and leaving them in debt 100,000£. more, and defeating them in their great contract with Spain for blacks. Next, to the foulest reproach of cowardice that hath ever been found due to so many English ships as we had there, under the protection too of two forts, there being not the least show of opposition made by us, but all (and more than was asked) calmly surrendered to them. Lastly, to a too seeming justification of themselves among people willing to find fault with his Majesty's proceedings towards the Dutch, for they have not only forborne any violent act towards his Majesty's officers and effects there, but done the same to every private man for continuing him in quiet possession of whatever he said was his, to the value of 6d. Only where they found the Royal ompany's mark could prove that anything did belong to them, they seized it and hold it, giving our men and ships (all but one that was our Company's) liberty of disposing of themselves [as] they pleased, and our masters' bills of exchange for their freight upon their own West India Company, the ship that brings the news having a bill in that manner for 700£. 'Tis hard to say whether this news be received with more anger or shame, but there is reason enough for both. https://www.pepysdiary.com/diary/1664/12/22/#c1...

Matt Newton  •  Link

Not mentioned in the diary but didn't Viner keep the dead body of a black slave/ servant? Dried out in an oven?

San Diego Sarah  •  Link

Thanks for filling in the slavery blank, Terry. Perhaps the silence is because the Navy was too busy waging war and protecting Tanger to be involved in Caribbean convoy escort services. And maybe England wasn't that deeply involved yet.

Somewhere along the way I did find these statistics:

1654 - English Capt. Thomas Hiway. Middle Passage, 40 enslaved Africans killed; the revolt was unsuccessful. Source: Paige, 106.

1651 -- On the Gambia River a slave revolt took place and all enslaved Africans and crew were killed. This revolt was successful. Recognizing the ship was lost, the English captain committed suicide by blowing up the ship with all aboard. Source: Ligon, 57; Limbaugh and Rediker, 128-29.

1641 -- Attempted slave revolt on board Dutch slave ship. Source: Van den Boogaart and Emmer, 366.

There seem to have been more revolts at home than on the high seas.

Gerald Berg  •  Link

I would think sugar production would be somewhere in this mix. Wikipedia states that Barbados was still mostly white in 1650. Whereas by 1680 a median size sugar plantation had 60 slaves this moves to 250 slaves by the 1832.

Terry Foreman  •  Link

" Perhaps the silence is because the Navy was too busy waging war and protecting Tanger to be involved in Caribbean convoy escort services. And maybe England wasn't that deeply involved yet."

Slavery Timeline 1601-1700
http://www.brycchancarey.com/slavery/chrono4.htm

The Start of English Slave Trade
As early as 1618, King James I had granted a patent to a company that wanted to trade for gold and precious woods in Africa. Other groups also received rights to trade in Africa, but never dealt with slaves in any major way. English involvement in the slave trade would intensify after 1663, when a new patent was issued to the Company of Royal Adventurers. England had realized the money to be made trading slaves to the West Indies and Virginia. By 1668, over a quarter of the new company’s profits was derived from the slave trade.

The Company’s Beginnings
At first, trading directly with other European countries was common in Virginia. But the Navigation Act of 1660 brought such relations to a close. Only English-owned ships could enter colonial ports. The Crown had realized the wealth that could be achieved through trade and wanted that wealth for England. Once the Navigation Act was passed, Virginia planters were forced to rely on the Mother Country to supply them with their labor force. To address this dearth, the Royal African Company [Stuart, Inc., James, Duke of York, CEO] was formed in 1672. https://www.nps.gov/jame/learn/historyculture/t...

Add to the Timeline: The Barbados Slave Code of 1661 was a law passed by the colonial English legislature to provide a legal basis for slavery in the Caribbean island of Barbados. The code's preamble, which stated that the law's purpose was to "protect them [slaves] as we do men's other goods and Chattels", established that black slaves would be treated as chattel property in the island's court. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Barbados_Slave_Co...

Pepys records: "I hear to-day that my boy Waynman [Birch] has behaved himself so with Mr. Davis that they have got him put into a Barbadoes ship to be sent away [as an indentured servant]." https://www.pepysdiary.com/diary/1663/11/14/

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