Tuesday 5 June 1660

A-bed late. In the morning my Lord went on shore with the Vice-Admiral a-fishing, and at dinner returned.

In the afternoon I played at ninepins with my Lord, and when he went in again I got him to sign my accounts for 115l., and so upon my private balance I find myself confirmed in my estimation that I am worth 100l..

In the evening in my cabin a great while getting the song without book, “Help, help Divinity, &c.”

After supper my Lord called for the lieutenant’s cittern, and with two candlesticks with money in them for symballs, we made barber’s music,1 with which my Lord was well pleased.

So to bed.

24 Annotations

First Reading

Michael L  •  Link

Sam sure is tickled at his personal worth being L100 -- this is at least the third time he's mentioned it this week.

Alan Bedford  •  Link

The cittern is similar to a bouzoukee (a Greek stringed instrument, similar to a mandolin but longer, and with a round rather than a teardrop shape.) Typically, the cittern had ten strings, of which five could be plucked and the other five vibrated sympathetically. Tuning was typically DGDAE (wth the second D just above middle C.)

They migrated to Britain from southern Europe. In Italy, they were called cythara. Citterns are still manufactured, in limited quantities, usually for traditional-style folk musicians.

Mary  •  Link

Sam's delight.

Of course he's thrilled with his new wealth. When he went on board the ship at the end of March he was worth about £20. Now, two months later, he is worth five times that amount. I’d be pretty delighted in similar circumstances.

andy thomas  •  Link

Sam now has another interest - money - to add to his other 3: women, drink and gambling...

Sam P  •  Link

or rather to add to his other 4 : drink , gambling, women & music!

Arbor  •  Link

So is anyone going to tell us what "Help, help Divinity, &c" refers to... what book? Some insight to Pepys and Theology perhaps? Or am is missing something being a new (and confirmed) reader?

Christo  •  Link

'Help, help Divinity,' is the name of a song; 'without book' means 'by heart'.

Paul Brewster  •  Link

"Help, help, O help, Divinity of Love"
by Henry Lawes, printed in “The Second Book of Ayres and Dialogues.” London (Playford), 1655. It is entitled “A Storme.” per Wheatley

L&M add the following details: “setting of Henry Hughes’s poem (referring to Henrietta-Maria’s landing in a storm at Bridlington, 1643)

Colin Gravois  •  Link

Sam and his money is a story in itself (his financial situation seems to be an ever recurring concern to him). If his net worth increased three-fold during his two months at sea, it means the total amount of wealth he accumulated during his first 27 years was a paltry £25. Now a few days ago (30 May) he was worth £80, and in less than one week (3 June) it increased 25%, and he didn't record receiving any money, and noted only one session of ninepins, during the intervening days. That's some vigorish! One is curious to find out where the money comes from (or makes one want for an extended naval cruise -- Nixon is said to have paid for Duke Law School with his poker winnings while in the Pacific in WWII!). And then yesterday Montagu signed over to him £115, which is what prompted his second confirmation of his net worth. This is a bit confusing. Can some financial wizard out there parse that out for us.

M.Stolzenbach  •  Link

'This is no doubt "the barber's music" with which Lord Sandwich entertained himself’

What? it wasn’t a barbershop quartet? :)


I wonder how =those= got started. Could there be a continuous tradition of making music while awaiting a shave or a haircut?

Dai B  •  Link

The startling tradition whereby those waiting for the barber's attention played the cittern sounds somewhat double-edged...presumably the better the player, the longer they would have to wait for their trim. Could you get in the chair early by mangling a piece?

vincent  •  Link

Barbers quartet 'tis leech time not trim time,not the sideburns that need trimming but the blush of their cheeks:The better they play, better the blood pressure will be:

Laura K  •  Link

sam's various enjoyments

I find it amusing that many people seem to ascribe a leering quality to Sam's pasttimes - wink, wink, he liked gambling and women - as if we've been reading an account of drunken debauchery and whoring.

Sam clearly enjoys playing games and gambling, making and listening to music, and he isn't blind to women. I find it endearing, but I don't read it as the majority of his diary.

He seems such an intelligent, trustworthy, and in many ways serious, person, concerned with his position in the world, his wife, his employer's esteem of him, and not least of course the complicated political scene around him.

It seems to me that some readers exaggerate the gambling and drinking and occasional woman-watching. He's not a Puritan, but he's hardly a wild man.

vincent  •  Link

Sam is truly a Koni-Nor Diamond: so many facets; each one angle a jewel by it self: is a news maker and brilliant exceeds most us single minded beblinkered mob: He is source of information ,insperation, enjoyment of wishful thinking. In one line can elicit and inform each one of us to suit every flavo(u)r that we so desire.

Emilio  •  Link

Sam's accounts

I've been merrily catching up the last few days, and I have a different but related question to ask.

My understanding of his accounting for the last few days has been this: He first decided to look over his accounts a week ago Wed and found he was worth 80l, only double the 40l he had estimated in Jan, but still very good for less than 6 mos. work. Last Sun., after a more detailed study, he found that the number was actually 100l. (And what a strangely appealing image that is, Sam innocently counting his money while everyone else is off listening to a sermon!)

My questions is, why does Sam get Montagu to sign off on his own, personal wealth (and does today's figure of 115l mean that he's gained even more in the last couple days)? Likewise, Montagu is obviously giving some kind of official recognition of Sam's new, wealthier status, but this also seems a bit strange as most of the new money has come from 'gifts' and other such under-the-table sources. Can anyone else clear up the social implications of what's going on?

Todd Bernhardt  •  Link

re: £115 vs. £100

Emilio, I think the two amounts are from different sources. If I’m reading the entry correctly, the £115 are possibly state funds that Sam is responsible for (with Montagu’s oversight, hence the sign-off), while the £100 is Sam’s personal wealth.

Like everyone else, I’m charmed that Sam is so proud of crossing the £100 mark -- surely it must have been some benchmark of personal wealth in those times for him to mention it three days in a row.

Second Reading

Bill  •  Link

"we made barber’s music"

If you will now see the pleasantest sight you have seen yet, walk but up these two steps, and you shall see a Jury (or Conspiracy,) of Barber-Surgeons, sitting upon Life and Death. You must think that any Divertisement there was welcome, so that I went up, and found it in Truth a very pleasant Spectacle. These Barbers were most of them Chain'd by the middle; their Hands at Liberty; and every one of them, a Cittern about his Neck; and upon his Knees a Chessboard and still as he reacht to have a Touch at the Cittern, the Instrument Vanisht; and so did the Chess board, when he thought to have a Game at Draughts; which is directly Tantalizing the poor Rogues, for a Cittern is as natural to a Barber, as Milk to a Calf.
---The Visions of Dom Francisco de Quevedo Villegas. 1696.

Buz. My education has been like a gentleman.
Gen. Have you any skill in song or instrument?
Buz. As a gentleman should have; I know all, but play on none: I am no barber.
---Old Fortunatus. Thomas Dekker, about 1590.

Bill  •  Link

The song mentioned by Pepys is entitled 'A Storme' and bears the character of a monologue. Chloris at sea, near the land, is surprised by a storm. Amintor on the shore, expecting her arrival, thus complains:

'Help, help, O help, Divinity of Love,
Or Neptune will commit a rape upon my Cloris,
She's on his bosom,' etc.

The music is of a declamatory character and depicts the situation of the unfortunate Amintor with considerable force.
---Italian and other studies. F. Hueffner, 1883

Dick Wilson  •  Link

So, are we to presume that the fishing was better ashore, than at sea?

Nate Lockwood  •  Link

"So, are we to presume that the fishing was better ashore, than at sea?"

For trout, yes! For fly-fishing, of course, if that was practiced in those days. Of course it could have been an excuse to go ashore for some other reason as there is no mention of bringing fish back to the ship.

Third Reading

San Diego Sarah  •  Link

I agree -- not all this money belonged to Pepys personally. As Creed isn't sailing on the Naseby, I'm guessing Sam has to handle the fleet's daily petty cash for things like horse warrants. For safety the big bucks are hidden in Montagu's cabin. That's why Pepys had to show Montagu the paperwork, and he signed off on it.

Each Captain also has petty cash for his ship.

The petty cash is used for emergencies: a sick seaman who has to be put ashore and someone hired to tend to him; unanticipated needed supplies; the occasional new mast when the fleet is in the Med. etc.

At the end of the voyage the Captains and Admiral will have to account for it to the Navy Board -- SPOILER that's something Creed has a lot of trouble doing. Maybe that's understandable when you have to make up a King's shortfall.

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