Tuesday 22 May 1660

Up very early, and now beginning to be settled in my wits again, I went about setting down my last four days’ observations this morning. After that, was trimmed by a barber that has not trimmed me yet, my Spaniard being on shore.

News brought that the two Dukes are coming on board, which, by and by, they did, in a Dutch boats the Duke of York in yellow trimmings, the Duke of Gloucester in grey and red.

My Lord went in a boat to meet them, the Captain, myself, and others, standing at the entering port.

So soon as they were entered we shot the guns off round the fleet. After that they went to view the ship all over, and were most exceedingly pleased with it.

They seem to be both very fine gentlemen.

After that done, upon the quarter-deck table, under the awning, the Duke of York and my Lord, Mr. Coventry, and I, spent an hour at allotting to every ship their service, in their return to England; which having done, they went to dinner, where the table was very full: the two Dukes at the upper end, my Lord Opdam next on one side, and my Lord on the other.

Two guns given to every man while he was drinking the King’s health, and so likewise to the Duke’s health.

I took down Monsieur d’Esquier to the great cabin below, and dined with him in state alone with only one or two friends of his.

All dinner the harper belonging to Captain Sparling played to the Dukes.

After dinner, the Dukes and my Lord to see the Vice and Rear-Admirals; and I in a boat after them.

After that done, they made to the shore in the Dutch boat that brought them, and I got into the boat with them; but the shore was so full of people to expect their coming, as that it was as black (which otherwise is white sand), as every one could stand by another.

When we came near the shore, my Lord left them and came into his own boat, and General Pen and I with him; my Lord being very well pleased with this day’s work.

By the time we came on board again, news is sent us that the King is on shore; so my Lord fired all his guns round twice, and all the fleet after him, which in the end fell into disorder, which seemed very handsome.

The gun over against my cabin I fired myself to the King, which was the first time that he had been saluted by his own ships since this change; but holding my head too much over the gun, I had almost spoiled my right eye.

Nothing in the world but going of guns almost all this day. In the evening we began to remove cabins; I to the carpenter’s cabin, and Dr. Clerke with me, who came on board this afternoon, having been twice ducked in the sea to-day coming from shore, and Mr. North and John Pickering the like. Many of the King’s servants came on board to-night; and so many Dutch of all sorts came to see the ship till it was quite dark, that we could not pass by one another, which was a great trouble to us all.

This afternoon Mr. Downing (who was knighted yesterday by the King) was here on board, and had a ship for his passage into England, with his lady and servants.1 By the same token he called me to him when I was going to write the order, to tell me that I must write him Sir G. Downing.

My Lord lay in the roundhouse to-night.

This evening I was late writing a French letter myself by my Lord’s order to Monsieur Kragh, Embassador de Denmarke a la Haye, which my Lord signed in bed. After that I to bed, and the Doctor, and sleep well.

25 Annotations

First Reading

language hat  •  Link

"by the same token":
This is the OED's meaning (b):
(= F. - telles enseignes que), ‘the proof of this being that’; introducing a corroborating circumstance, often weakened down to a mere associated fact that helps the memory or is recalled to mind by the main fact (now arch. or dial.).
1607 R. C[AREW] tr. Estienne’s World of Wonders I. xxxviii. 305 At Aix in Germany, they were accustomed to shew his breeches, together with the virgin Maries smocke, by the same token that [orig. - telles enseignes que] the smocke was big enough for a giant. 1659-60 PEPYS Diary 28 Feb., Up in the morning and had some red herrings to our breakfast, while my boot-heel was a-mending, by the same token the boy left the hole as big as it was before. 1662 Ibid. 13 Apr., I went to the Temple Church, and there heard another [sermon]: by the same tokens, a boy, being asleep, fell down a high seat to the ground.

Paul Brewster  •  Link

Monsieur Kragh
per Wheatley: Otte Krag was one of the two extraordinary ambassadors from the King of Denmark to Charles II at the Hague

vincent  •  Link

"....The gun ......but holding my head too much over the gun, I had almost spoiled my right eye...." an eye full eh! not very observant was he?

PHE  •  Link

The buzz
Sam's journalistic skills come into the fore again, setting the scene brilliantly, with the crowds on the beach and the buzz and excitement at the iminent arrival of the King. There is the semi-chaos of guns firing at random, numerous people squeezing on board and people having to swap bedrooms and double up like some kind of big family reunion.

Colin Gravois  •  Link

The toing and froing, day and night, among the ships and to shore and back is amazing (one wonders how many besides the good doctor Clerke fell in the drink, he TWICE today) And then the raising of high hell during an elegant dinner on deck with the Dukes and Lords, while our man Sam repairs to his cabin for a quiet dinner with Monsieur d'Esquier (I wonder if they had the rest of the oysters), with the strains of the harp in the background. He paints such a vivid scene. Amazing.

Mary  •  Link

"my Spaniard being on shore"

According to KVK's annotation to 31st March, England and Spain are still officially at war at this date. Given that we've recently heard rumours of plots against Charles, I'm a little surprised to learn that Sam normally relies on a Spanish barber to trim him on board the Naseby. Would this fellow have been a regular member of the ship's complement, or a temporary hand employed on an ad hoc basis whilst the ship is essentially in port?

Given that the Dukes of York and Gloucester were expected on board today, perhaps it was thought better that this enemy alien should absent himself for the time being.

vincent  •  Link

", I went about setting down my last four days’ observations this morning. "
Great reportage: no tape recorder, no video camera and no mikes : wow!

seadog  •  Link

"The gun over against my cabin I fired myself...but holding my head too much over the gun, I had almost spoiled my right eye."

Would this be a so-called "great gun", also used to fire shot at enemy ships (as well as salute kings and admirals and dukes), fired off by applying a burning slowmatch to a powder-primed touch-hole? If so, was it not common to get flashback from the touch-holes, making it inadvisable to stand leaning over the gun? (To say nothing of avoiding the recoil of the gun itself...)

Perhaps some reader can fill us in on the state of naval gunnery in Sam's day? What are those guns that everyone is firing...?

Roger Emmerson  •  Link

I'm not so sure about "great guns " more likely they would have let
the gentleman
use a relatively small piece -
But the priming flash from the vent stills kicks high and I have seen it deflected INTO a face by someone whose hat brim was too far over the vent

jeannine  •  Link

Sandwich's Journal Entry Today

"Tuesday. Their Royal Highnesses the Dukes of York and Gloucester, and Monsieur Obdam, came and dined aboard the Naseby and went off again in the evening, when the Prince Maurice of Nassau came on board to see the ship."

Second Reading

Terry Foreman  •  Link

"in a Dutch boats" should be "in a Dutch boat" (L&M)

Bill  •  Link

Round-House, in a ship, is the uppermost room or cabin on the stern of the ship where the master lies.
---Glossographia Anglicana Nova. 1707.

POOP of a Ship, is the Floor or Deck over the Round-house or Master's Cabin, being the highest or uppermost part of her Hull.
---Lexicon Technicum. J. Harris, 1725.

Dick Wilson  •  Link

As I read it, Clerke, North & Pickering were dunked together, coming from shore, and that Pepys & Clerke now share a bunk in the carpenter's cabin. It could be that North & Pickering and the carpenter are jammed in there, too -- and this while the big wigs and entourage were only beginning to seek space aboard ship. Charles was sailing in the Naseby, ergo everybody wanted to sail in the Naseby. The Duke of York, Montague, Coventry and Pepys met and decided who would travel where (presumably Pepys taking notes). It will be interesting to see which of the King's "dearest friends" get to sail with him, and which are relegated to the Queen's ship. The auguries are for an uncomfortably overcrowded trip, but a short one, with good music.

Chris Squire UK  •  Link

The famous literary round-house:

10. The Siege of The Round-House

'But now our time of truce was come to an end. Those on deck had waited for my coming till they grew impatient; and scarce had Alan spoken, when the captain showed face in the open door.
"Stand!" cried Alan, and pointed his sword at him. The captain stood, indeed; but he neither winced nor drew back a foot.
"A naked sword?" says he. "This is a strange return for hospitality."
"Do ye see me?" said Alan. "I am come of kings; I bear a king's name. My badge is the oak. Do ye see my sword? It has slashed the heads off mair Whigamores than you have toes upon your feet. Call up your vermin to your back, sir, and fall on! The sooner the clash begins, the sooner ye'll taste this steel throughout your vitals . . '

Great stuff.

Third Reading

San Diego Sarah  •  Link

Many artists were in the crowds on the beach and in small boats bobbing around the British ships on that special day. Amongst them were two Dutch painters named Van de Veldes Snr. and Jnr.: ‘Never had more people been seen together in Holland,’ said a contemporary – to witness Charles II’s embarkation to England after 9 years in exile.

Although technically the Third Anglo-Dutch War is considered a draw, England was better able to withstand the economic chaos it created. Charles II therefore invited the Van de Veldes to leave their homes in Amsterdam, live and work for him in London, and set them up at the Queen's House, Greenwich. James II continued their employment. Curiously it was another Dutchman, William III, who told Jnr. he needed to find other sponsors.

Their sketches, paintings and tapestries of this day and of the 1672 Battle of Solebay are included in the current exhibition of their works at Greenwich:

San Diego Sarah  •  Link

Charles II departed from the shore of Scheveningen for England on June 2, 1660 [May 23].

According to this account, 10 artists made 50 paintings, drawings, etches and medals of that day, and a crowd of 50,000 people gathered in the dunes and on the beach to see him leave.
It’s quite something -- so many images being created of one event on one day in the 17th century.

Some images are shown on this website, along with text in Dutch, and I see no way to make Google Translate help!
Later Delft blue tiles and plates, and murals were also made showing scenes from Scheveningen.

Charles II departure from Scheveningen beach was documented by at least Pieter van Abeele, Cornelis Beelt, John Bishop, Pieter Bout, Johannes Lingelbach, Hendrick de Meijer, Peter Schut, Willem van de Velde the Younger, Adriaen van de Venne and some unknown painters, artists and engravers.

At 2 o'clock in the morning of June 2/May 22 drums sounded in The Hague to summons the soldiers and civilians. Charles II rose early to meet with the States General of Holland to thank them for their hospitality and formally say Goodbye.

That 50,000 people had spent that night in the dunes of Scheveningen is astounding. Consider that in 1660:
approx. 23,000 people lived in Delft;
approx. 25 000 people lived at The Hague;
about 66 000 people lived in Leiden and Amsterdam totaling about 180,000 people. (Source: The Dutch Republic, Jonathan I. Israel).

In the crowd were many refugees from England who had fled during the civil wars and the interregnum.

Charles II, the royal family and the foreign ambassadors proceeded through the crowd, and they were followed by another huge crowd. They all nearly suffocated from the smoke of the Naval gun which fired salutes when the family arrived on the beach. (Text source: The Travels of the King Charles II in Germany and Flanders 1654-1660 by Eva Scott).

Charles II again said goodbye to the States General. Next he greeted Montagu with a kiss and got into his boat with his sister, nephew, and aunt the Queen of Bohemia, and the Royal Standard was raised.
With the joyful cries of the sailors, holding their hats and doublets, in the heat of excitement many threw their hats into the sea. (Text source: The Travels of the King Charles II in Germany and Flanders 1654-1660 by Eva Scott).

Around 11 am, the party boarded the Naseby, now decked out with silk flags, the decks colored scarlet, which had well-equipped cabins.

San Diego Sarah  •  Link


After dinner, Charles II and James christened the ships and changed the names of the Naseby, Richard, Speaker and Dunbar respectively to the Royal Charles, Mary, James and Henry. (Text source: The Travels of the King Charles II in Germany and Flanders 1654-1660 by Eva Scott).

Around midday, James left for the London and Henry went to the Swiftsure, while Charles II stepped onto the deck of the Royal Charles.

Later the king stood on the quarterdeck, recounting his escape from Worcester and for the first time told the true story of his adventures, which he had faithfully kept secret until then.

Late in the afternoon he went aft to look at the beach and then the time came to send off the guests. Charles II said farewell to his aunt and cousin, but his sister Henriette Anne “Minette” clung to him in such a violent fit of crying he could hardly find the heart to say goodbye to her. When the anchor was lifted, they had to tear them apart and the fleet set sail.

Two hours later the ships were out of sight of the coast of Scheveningen.


San Diego Sarah  •  Link

Apparently Montagu's efforts to ensure that the fleet was manned by royalists was a prudent move. Pepys doesn't record this, but

"... that there was found in the Fleet a man bold enough to have resolved to put fire to the powder when the King should go to see the Vessel, where he served in quality of Mariner, which obliged Admiral Montagu to seize himself on the key of the powder Magazine, and to ordain all the Captains of the other ships of the Fleet, to do the like aboard them, and to carry always the key with them; ..."

I wonder what happened to that unhappy tar.

Hath made in Holland, from the 25 of May, to the 2 of June, 1660.
Rendered into English out of the Original French, By Sir WILLIAM LOWER, Knight. [Edited by SDS into modern English.]

San Diego Sarah  •  Link

"... Henry went to the Swiftsure, ..."

On 13 May Montagu had dismissed his step-uncle, Capt. Henry Isham who, until then, had been assigned to the Swiftsure. No wonder -- Isham had held a key position in keeping a key member of the Royal Family safe while aboard the fleet.

I can't find a list of ships who sailed in this fleet, nor their captains. The Google librarian is stumped. Any ideas who took over from Isham?

San Diego Sarah  •  Link

Apologies -- I seem to have posted intoday what belongs in tomorrow. But all those people are going to be camping overnight in the sand dunes. I bet it was quite a party.

Eric the Bish  •  Link

“… so many Dutch of all sorts came to see the ship till it was quite dark, that we could not pass by one another, which was a great trouble to us all.”

The difficulties of just moving around the ship - with little light, narrow passageways, a dangerously large store of gunpowder (some of which is being carried around the ship), a large crew, authorised passengers and now … tourists(!) - should not be underestimated.

Sam Ursu  •  Link

My best guess as to the type of gun Pepys fired would be what's called a "demi-cannon" as these were certainly used aboard English ships during the Anglo-Dutch wars.

As the name suggests, it's a smaller version of the "great guns" or full-sized cannons. Even so, we're talking about a barrel length of about 3.4 meters long (11 feet) that required something like 8kg of powder to fire a 32-pound (15kg) shot, so it would've been a tremendous (face-searing) blast indeed.

Considering Pepys said that the gun was "over against my cabin" seemingly in a fixed position, I think we can rule out any kind of musket or hand-held weapon.

Demi-cannons were lit by touching a taper (candle) to a fuse, which burned down for a few seconds and then ignited the powder. Obviously, this would be incredibly dangerous for anyone who was too close when the cannon went off.

According to the diary, since they were firing these cannons off all day long, it's credible that Pepys could've asked for and been given a chance to fire one personally, although I have to believe that the sailors had a good chuckle when he nearly blew off his face.

Jean Wynn  •  Link

Thank you, SDS, for those additions regarding this splendid day. Splendid, that is, if you were a royalist!

Terry Foreman  •  Link

House of Commons today 5/22/1660

Leave to attend the King.
Ordered, That the Lord General Moncke have the Leave of this House to go and attend his Majesty at his Landing, at such Time as he shall please: And that the like Leave be given to such other Members of this House, as he shall desire to accompany him.

House of Lords today 5/22/1660

Lords Leave to meet the King.
D. Bucks,
E. Newport,
E. Peterburgh, have Leave to go and meet His Majesty for a few Days.
E. Rivers, Viscount Conway,
L. Maynard,
E. of Shrewsbury,
E. Lyndsey, hath Leave to attend His Majesty for a few Days, and will return to attend this House with their Lordships.

Peter Johnson  •  Link

"Two guns given to every man while he was drinking the King’s health, and so likewise to the Duke’s health"

Any ideas about what exactly this means? I envisage a grand meal in the largest cabin/stateroom, with a small signal/saluting cannon on deck nearby, firing on instruction as the Lords in turn made their toasts. Or something else?

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