Saturday 9 August 1662

Up by four o’clock or a little after, and to my office, whither by and by comes Cooper, to whom I told my getting for him the Reserve, for which he was very thankful, and fell to work upon our modell, and did a good morning’s work upon the rigging, and am very sorry that I must lose him so soon. By and by comes Mr. Coventry, and he and I alone sat at the office all the morning upon business. And so to dinner to Trinity House, and thence by his coach towards White Hall; but there being a stop at the Savoy, we ’light and took water, and my Lord Sandwich being out of town, we parted there, all the way having good discourse, and in short I find him the most ingenuous person I ever found in my life, and am happy in his acquaintance and my interest in him. Home by water, and did business at my office. Writing a letter to my brother John to dissuade him from being Moderator of his year, which I hear is proffered him, of which I am very glad. By and by comes Cooper, and he and I by candlelight at my modell, being willing to learn as much of him as is possible before he goes.

So home and to bed.

35 Annotations

First Reading

Terry F.  •  Link

"Writing a letter to my brother John to dissuade him from being Moderator of his year"

L&M note: "John Pepys was now in his second year at Christ's College, Cambridge. Moderators presided over academic disputations."

Is John's brother concerned about an extracurricular distraction? or is it a matter of it being a greater distinction to refuse (what Samuel too views as) an honor?

Australian Susan  •  Link

Maybe being Moderator involved one in a great deal of expense? And John would not have much money and would therefore appeal to brother Sam for cash, which Sam is not keen on?
Usually when Sam has a Trinity House dinner, he talks about it - either the company or the food - but no mention today - becoming a commonplace event?? Our Sam goes up in the world.

Bradford  •  Link

"in short I find him [Coventry] the most ingenuous person I ever found in my life"

In case this adjective---"showing innocent or childlike simplicity: naive"---seems to sort ill with the Mr. Worldly of yesterday's entry, it is worth noting that obsolete definitions include "noble, honorable, straightforward" and, "by alteration," "ingenious" in its manifold meanings (including, "obs., candid").

Jeannine  •  Link

Ok, maybe because I am sleep deprived these days I am trying to figure this out--Sam has been waking up at 4 am these days, what time did he usually go to bed??? I am wondering how many hours of sleep he usually gets.

On a totally unrelated note--it would be nice to hear if he misses his missus?? No real clue about this.

Robert Gertz  •  Link

"...happy in his acquaintance and my interest in him." That's our Sam...Now anyone else would've wagged his tail and said "his interest in me" at developing such a close relationship so quickly with such a prominent figure as Coventry. But hey, our boy knows his worth.

The Missus isn't here...So...

Meanwhile, in Brampton...A certain gallant military man...

Robert Gertz  •  Link

Jeanine, he often speaks of staying up quite late, past midnight.

As for missing Bess he was very melancholy the first night she was gone...Then certain "opportunities" came to mind...

I suspect Sam operates on the "I love my wife but life is short" principle...

Terry F.  •  Link

And is Sam the man Elizabeth left when she went to Brampton? How will he "fit her in" to his new, "improved," nose-to-the-grindstone schedule with "no plays," etc.

Terry F.  •  Link

But, moreover, how will she feel?

Jeannine  •  Link

Robert--This is what I thought--how can he function on 4 hours of sleep a night--God Love him, I sure can't--I'd be a total moron, or wait, ooops, perhaps lately I am!
As for Elizabeth-- I think that Sam follows that 60's song--"If you can't be with the one you love, love the one you're with"....But alas, being a man of the 17th century--he'd be devastated if Elizabeth returned the treatment in his direction--the old double standard would apply no doubt. It's times apart like this that I truly wished we could hear her side to understand the dynamics of the relationship and how it is for them to be apart for a long time.
At least today he's so engulfed in his learning that his mind is concentrating on that and not looking for little maidens....

Terry F.  •  Link

Jeannine, Robert Gertz, have you always thought/felt so about Sam?
There were times, as I recall, when there was speculation about what his evident enjoyment of playing with others' children signalled about his hope for his own. Of course, his jealousy whenever he suspected she might be eyed/have an eye out, doesn't mean he didn't have ye olde double-standard....

JWB  •  Link

"...and in short I find him the most ingenuous person I ever found in my life..."
Recall Spring '61 when Sam made "great sport" of Coventry and his shorthand Psalm Book.

Cumgranissalis  •  Link

from Jeannine " would be nice to hear if he misses his missus?? ..."
As me old Granny said to me bride [blue moons ago]. "look after thy self my dear as he [me] looks after himself" and we have been sharing the same palliass for neary 50 years without serious problem.
Relationships styles be of many styles and no two be alike. Unfortunately our lives are between the lugholes and eyesockets. I once heard it said when the wife departs then half the world doth be lost and when the man doth depart then the world doth not exist.
Samuell has already mention a thought that be only venial, so far not turned into practice, so Elizabeth could deliver a pre emptive strike as Samuell did think about going off the straight and narrow.
Not all men be Carlos duo or be in a monastry, just many variations , to keep the Genes stired up.
Re: sleep there be some that can run on 4 hrs of eye closure, and eeg be in a rest state, others be needing 12 hrs.
When I be in 20'/30's I could and did survive on 4 to 6 hours of bliss with a few cat naps for refill.

Terry F.  •  Link

Yes, JWB, and only 6 weeks ago Sandwich saw his position severely threatened by none other than Coventry -- what a read:…

(Cumgranissalis, I could do a 4-hour night one night in a row; but my younger son. who is an animator, could do that in art-school and does now at 27: perhaps these genes are from my paternal line -- farmers who in season could work days and nights on end.)

DrCari  •  Link

Sam is only in his twenties at this point in the Diary....While in my twenties and early thirties I frequently functioned on short sleep while completing graduate studies.
Wouldn't the sunrise begin around 4am during the summer at Sam's latitude anyway?

Terry F.  •  Link

"did a good morning's work upon the rigging”: Sam reviews with Cooper the finest points that he needs to know for his job
- following Coventry’s advice of yesterday: sticking on task;
- optimizing his remaining time with Cooper while the model is there;
considering the masts, booms, gaffs (spars), also the sails, cordage and davits: article and figure about “rigging” here:…

Dave Bell  •  Link

Sunrise and Sunset

The BBC weather forecasts on the web give Sunrise and Sunset times in the 5-day forecast, currently timed in BST. While there's also the calendar slippage to contend with, at this time of year it's a bit less than nine hours of darkness.


Remember to allow for twilight when you check some of Sam's journeys. That, and a full moon, can make summer nights not very dark.

Robert Gertz  •  Link

Oh, I think Sam still wants children...And the best incident in that regard is yet to come. But he's a man who can be insanely jealous and yet casually contemplate a bout or two with the maids or others...

Not unlike another famous husband who suffered a bit more, Napoleon...Whose sad, jealous letter from Egypt about his 'domestic troubles' made him the laughingstock of England if not Europe and whose later philanderings became notorious.

Mary  •  Link

early starts and moonlight.

Let's not forget starlight, too. Although London skies may have been relatively smoky, areas outside urban centres would have benefitted from bright starlight on clear nights. Given clear skies and a clean atmosphere, starlight can illuminate a whole landscape.

Jeannine  •  Link

Terry--Sam wanting children...I've ALWAYS thought that Sam had wanted children and think that his not having them was a tremendous sadness to him (and to Elizabeth)....I also know that he can (and will... a little spoiler) have some thoughts of jealousy to come... but it's the part of real "fondness" or "empathy" (like what Cumgranissalis refers to above) towards his wife that doesn't come through too much in his writing of the diary. She so often is physically there in person (mentioned in his writing) but not desribed with the depth and feeling that he expresses for others (except when he's angry with her!). So she's gone, he's melancholy for a day and then....??? it'll be interesting if mention ofher pops up in his writing over the time she is away.

Jeannine  •  Link

Lack of sleep---I doubt that this appears in the Book of Common Prayer (but maybe our resident expert Australian Susan can confirm--Susan --it might be hand written in the notes somewhere) but my recollection of the Creation of the world includes that line , "And on the 8th day he created coffee....." so not only are Sam's short sleep requirements notewothy but the apparent lack of a good morning jolt of caffeine to give him a wake up boost is really amazing.

A. Hamilton  •  Link

Sam's summer sleep habits

A look back at the last 40 days finds 10 mentions of a 4 AM rising, three of a 5 AM rising, and a number of "early" or "very early" risings. During July Sam mentions on at least two occasions that he goes to bed by daylight, meaning early evening (probably before 10 PM); on others he has supper and goes straight to bed. Only occasionally does he stay up late, as on the night of August 5-6, when he got to bed at 3 AM after a long journey and slept until 9 AM. On three of the four Sundays in July, with Elizabeth at home, he records rising late. To me this sounds like a man getting 7-8 hrs of sleep most nights, but ready to shorten his sleep when business is pressing (like today, when he stays up by candlelight to continue his ship studies, or when traveling or struggling with his roofless house), and also ready to recharge his batteries with a long time abed on Sundays. Not so abnormal, I'd say.

A. Hamilton  •  Link

(Lord's day). Lay long in bed to-day with my wife merry and pleasant. (July 6)

Nice insight into Sam’s cozy feelings for Elizabeth

A. Hamilton  •  Link

Calculating first light, darkness for Sam's summer days

Sam's Julian calendar dates for 1662 are ten days earlier than our Gregorian calendar dates for 2005.…

The U.S. Naval Observatory has a web page that calculates the Greenwich Mean Time (or "universal time") for the onset and end of twilight, sunrise, transit and set, and moon rise transit and set, for any date and location from 1700 onward.…

For Friday July 16, 1700, (corresponding to the Julian July 6), at London, "civil twilight" began at 3:16 AM ahead of sunrise at 4:01 AM; sunset was at 20:10 (8:10 PM)and "civil twilight" ended at 20:55. For August 19, 1700 (corresponding to August 9, Julian), first light was at 4:15 AM, sunrise at 4:52, sunset at 19:15, end of twilight at 19:52. While sunrise and sunset were probably close to these times on the same dates in 1662, the phases of the moon would have been different, so I have not recorded them here. My sense of Sam at this time in his life is that he is anticipating Poor Richard"s Almanac: "Early to bed and early to rise, makes a man healthy, wealthy and wise."

Nix  •  Link

"no two be alike" --

Thanks to grain'o'salt for reminding us of the difficulty of seeing clearly into one's own marriage, much less someone else's at 350 years removed.

As to the likelihood of preemptive wandering by Elizabeth, while she certainly enjoyed flirting and flattery, recall that her gynecological condition made anything more quite unlikely.

(New readers might check out the annotations under Elizabeth's entry --… )

JonTom Kittredge  •  Link

Pepys the Libertine
I think it is only fair to SP to point out that while Elizabeth has been away he has not, in fact, taken advantage of "opportunities". He has written at least twice how hard it is to keep from forcing himself on Jane. Of course, what kept him in line was nothing more high-minded than fear of exposure, but, or whatever reason, he hasn't strayed.

One thing I remember from Clair Tomlin's biography ("The Unequaled Self"), was that SP has an undeserved reputation as a womanizer. She describes him, as I remember (I'm sorry, I can't give a reference -- it's been a few years and I don't have the book at hand), as lecherous without much follow-through.

He is clearly obsessed with pretty women, and we have seen a couple of occasions, as far as I recall, where he has had a tumble. This is a handful of times over two and a half years. Even the assignation in Portsmouth did not lead to anything, as far as I could tell. He is not a faithful husband, but he's also not one of history's great Libertines.

Of course, this is assuming that he has been forthright in his diary. Given how long his days have been since his wife has been gone, if he's been getting any, I'm amazed at how he found the time.

Australian Susan  •  Link

"And on the eighth day God looked about him and said, "Have I done the right thing.....?"

Sam's libido - one point made by some biographers is that Sam's operation caused him to be forever lusting after women, but I think it more likely he was just more honest than most recorders of their times that we have access to. So, given that he is normal for his times, we need to remember (Tomalin points this out) Sam does not often "follow through" with his sexual advances - he was more interested in what in my youth was called "heavy petting". There was a great fear of STDs, but lack of proper knowledge of transmission. So Sam gets sexually excited, but does not act on it all that often and then not completely.

JonTom Kittredge  •  Link

Mr Coopers "Interest" in Sam
Speaking of "interest" in the 17th Century sense, on reading this entry I was struck by how on the mark Tom's annotation for August 7 seems: "so this is how Mr Cooper gets paid for his lessons."

When SP started the lessons with Mr Cooper, he wrote something like "I sense a little thing will satisfy him" which sounded patronizing, as if he could be fobbed with a few shillings for his time. Now I'm thinking that it was understood between them that in return SP would use his influence, "interest," to help Mr Cooper. He thought Mr Cooper would be delighted to have command of a fourth rate.

I don't mean to say that this was explicitly between them. Contemporary life then was dependant by such a web of connections that it may have been entirely completely tacit.

dirk  •  Link

Calculating first light etc.

re- A. Hamilton

The following site provides calculations also for the 1600's. The date input has to be according to the Gregorian (continental) calendar, i.e. British (Julian calendar) date plus 10 days, to obtain the correct result.…

Terry F.  •  Link

"my interest in him"

The “objective” meaning of “interest” to which language hat provides a link — esp. "influence due to personal connexion; power of influencing the action of others; personal influence with a person or body of persons" remains in use until after the turn of the 19th century:
By Rev. W.Farmer
“It was another amiable trait in his character, that the interest he had with persons in elevated situations in life, was employed more in the behalf of others than in his own. When Dr. Tillotson was Archbishop he used his interest with him in procuring a pardon for Dr. N. Crew, Bishop of Durham, who for his conduct in the ecclesiastical commission, had been excepted out of the act of indemnity, which passed in sixteen hundred and ninety.”
Leeds, May 3d, 1815.
W. F.…

Robert Gertz  •  Link

You quite right language hat. However I see Sam as having little surprise or self-doubt at Coventry's obvious courting/grooming of him. He knows he's the fittest man in the office and the right man for Coventry to select as a potential support to the new regime...And perhaps the future king, his employer, who is building or (having built for him), a network of 'friends' in the government.

Second Reading

Bill  •  Link

"in short I find him the most ingenuous person I ever found in my life" We’ve had annotations about the word “ingenuous” before and probably will again. Which word was Pepys thinking of?

INGENIOUS , quick-witted, full of Wit or Invention.
INGENUOUS, frank, free, open, sincere, plain.
---An Universal Etymological English Dictionary. N. Bailey, 1724.

John York  •  Link

Bill, the problem with not reading the diary in sequence is that you don't know whether entries have been or are still to come.
However on 14 March 1662/63 we will get this footnote.

"1. For ingenious. The distinction of the two words ingenious and ingenuous by which the former indicates mental, and the second moral qualities, was not made in Pepys’s day."…

Which could be indicating that, in the editor's opinion, the words are interchangeable in Pepys useage.

Sasha Clarkson  •  Link

To clarify regarding the calendar: today would be 19th August in the Gregorian calendar; therefore sunrise would be around 04:51 GMT. Daylight saving time was not observed in Sam's day. Hence Sam is getting up in the twilight before dawn.

Bill  •  Link

John, as I said, we've done this before. And this same footnote was also mentioned last September. But I think the dictionary entry from 62 years later shows at least the beginning of a distinction between the two words. And this English-French dictionary from 1684 does indeed seem to be distinguishing between the "mental" and "moral" qualities. So I think that footnote might be wrong.

Ingenious, ingenieux, adroit, spirituel; ingenieux, subtil, inventif. [ingenious, clever, witty; ingenious, subtle, inventive.]

Ingenuous, ingenu, honnite. [ingenuous, honest]
---A short dictionary English and French. G. Miège, 1684.
[The translation is modern, but this same dictionary also gives "witty" as one possible definition of "spirituel."]

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