Wednesday 4 July 1660

Up very early in the morning and landing my wife at White Friars stairs, I went to the Bridge and so to the Treasurer’s of the Navy, with whom I spake about the business of my office, who put me into very good hopes of my business. At his house comes Commissioner Pett, and he and I went to view the houses in Seething Lane, belonging to the Navy, where I find the worst very good, and had great fears in my mind that they will shuffle me out of them, which troubles me.

From thence to the Excise Office in Broad Street, where I received 500l. for my Lord, by appointment of the Treasurer, and went afterwards down with Mr. Luddyard and drank my morning draft with him and other officers. Thence to Mr. Backewell’s, the goldsmith, where I took my Lord’s 100l. in plate for Mr. Secretary Nicholas, and my own piece of plate, being a state dish and cup in chased work for Mr. Coventry, cost me above 19l. Carried these and the money by coach to my Lord’s at White Hall, and from thence carried Nicholas’s plate to his house and left it there, intending to speak with him anon. So to Westminster Hall, where meeting with M. L’Impertinent and W. Bowyer, I took them to the Sun Tavern, and gave them a lobster and some wine, and sat talking like a fool till 4 o’clock. So to my Lord’s, and walking all the afternoon in White Hall Court, in expectation of what shall be done in the Council as to our business. It was strange to see how all the people flocked together bare, to see the King looking out of the Council window.

At night my Lord told me how my orders that I drew last night about giving us power to act, are granted by the Council. At which he and I were very glad. Home and to bed, my boy lying in my house this night the first time.

32 Annotations

First Reading

Glyn  •  Link

The Bridge in today's entry would be "London Bridge" because it is the only one in London, surprisingly enough. And if you click on the link to "White Friars stairs" you'll see examples of the boats that the couple must have used. Elizabeth may have gone part of the way with Sam to visit her father-in-law, who lived nearby.

Nix  •  Link

The houses in Seething Lane --

Samuel will be moving from Westminster, near the kingm at Whitehall, into London -- indeed, to the opposite end of London, close to the Tower. Obviously he is on the rise politically and economically -- but would the new housing be better or worse than the accommodation in Axe Yard?

Jenny Doughty  •  Link

'It was strange to see how all the people flocked together bare, to see the King looking out of the Council window.' I presume this means bare-headed, having removed headwear as a sign of respect.

vincent  •  Link

"...he and I went to view.." new digs, Quite chuffed I do believe if Nowt goes wrong. But must make sure, he does his part with the presenting of the Gift.(the 19 quids worth of gold plate, 8 months old salary)
".. where meeting with M. L’Impertinent and W. Bowyer, I took them to the Sun Tavern, and gave them a lobster and some wine, and sat talking like a fool till 4 o’clock.."
Are The Lawyer 'feller' again, very good to get his advice, He who hides behind his mask of buffoonary. He always there when SP needs him, it so seems. All that case of nerves in case that Bowyer has a trick up his worn out sleeve. "Tis time of tension, SP does not count his chicks until they are hatched (well most times except when it comes to New 'Duds')

Todd Bernhardt  •  Link

re: The houses in Seething Lane (with special bonus section on lobsters!)

Nix asks "would the new housing be better or worse than the accommodation in Axe Yard?" According to Tomalin, the housing is much better ... and, over the next few weeks we'll get the added benefit of watching Sam maneuver to get the house he wants, in ways that she calls "both entertaining and shameful." For all of his "great fears" about his situation, Sam does go after what he wants with a stunning singlemindedness.

Lunchtime lobster: It seems that the lobster they would have had for lunch was probably what Americans know as the Maine-style lobster (big, meaty claws), rather than the spiny (or rock) lobster, where the tail meat is the main source of the meal ... all I could find on this was at…

helena murphy  •  Link

Such is the mystique of monarchy if all Charles has to do is look out of the Council window to draw the crowds!

vincent  •  Link

From J Evelyn july 3 "..I went to Hide-park where was his Majestie & aboundance of Gallantrie:..."
4th: "..I heard Sir Sam: Tuke harangue to the house of Lords, in behalfe of the Ro: Catholicks: & his account of the transaction at Colchester about the Murdering of my Lo: Capel, and the rest of those brave men, that suffered in cold bloud, after Articles of reddition &c:..."
Helena Murphy : "mystique of monarchy "
"tis the daddy figure that we all seek so doubting of our efforts, who save us all?"

Paul Brewster  •  Link

Mr. Luddyard/Ruddyard/Ruddiard
The Gutenburg spelling is correct per Wheatley but according to L&M this is Mr. Ruddyard. In the L&M Companion he is identified as [Thomas] Ruddiard, Teller to the Excise Commissioners.

Second Reading

Bill  •  Link

"cup in chased work "

ENCHASING, Inchasing, or Chasing, the art of enriching and beautifying gold, silver, and other metal-work, by some design, or figures represented thereon, in low relievo. Enchasing is practised only on hollow thin works, as watch-cases, cane-heads, tweezer cases, or the like. It is performed by punching or driving out the metal, to form the figure, from within side, so as to stand out prominent from the plane or surface of the metal.
---A New and Complete Dictionary of Arts and Sciences. 1763.

Terry Foreman  •  Link

New digs and a footboy! -- " my boy [Will] lying in my house this night the first time."

Tonyel  •  Link

" where I received 500l. for my Lord, by appointment of the Treasurer, and went afterwards down with Mr. Luddyard and drank my morning draft with him and other officers. "
This does seem to confirm that Sam has no fears about carrying a large amount of gold into the pub - although, when he collects the plate, he takes the precaution of hiring a coach.

Neil Ferguson  •  Link

It is a great pity that Todd Bernhardt takes it upon himself to reveal what is going to happen in the next few weeks. A major delight is the anticipation of what will happen in Sam's life .

Terry Foreman  •  Link

"So to my Lord’s, and walking all the afternoon in White Hall Court,"

The legend below this plan of Whitehall Palace shows 16. The Council Office in 1680. If it was there in 1660, Pepys would probably have walked in the western Court, between the Banqueting House and the Wine Cellar.…

Terry Foreman  •  Link

"Thence to Mr. Backewell’s, the goldsmith, where I took my Lord’s 100l. in plate for Mr. Secretary Nicholas, and my own piece of plate, being a state dish and cup in chased work for Mr. Coventry, cost me above 19l."

Gifts of plate were customarily made on receiving appointments or titles, their value being fixed by the standing of the grant. Cf.… and…

San Diego Sarah  •  Link

In honor of America's 4th of July celebrations today, I thought it worth noting that George Washington modeled his behavior on “The Rules of Civility & Decent Behavior in Company and Conversation,” a code of conduct. This was based on a 16th-century set of precepts compiled for young gentlemen by Jesuit instructors.

Many are outmoded, many baroque in their detail, but some should never go out of style. You will see some concern the wearing of hats, an issue Pepys had to deal with. Don't dismissing these maxims as mere politeness, as they address moral issues. They could work in our century as the Jesuits intended them to work — indirectly — by putting us in a compatible frame of mind.

The 110 “Rules of Civility” have been modernized for spelling and punctuation:

1. Every action done in company ought to be with some sign of respect to those who are present.
2. When in company, put not your hands to any part of the body not usually discovered.
3. Show nothing to your friend that may affright [offend?] him.
4. In the presence of others, sing not to yourself with a humming voice, or drum with your fingers or feet.
5. If you cough, sneeze, sigh or yawn, do it not loud but privately, and speak not in your yawning, but put your handkerchief or hand before your face and turn aside.
6. Sleep not when others speak, sit not when others stand, speak not when you should hold your peace, walk not on when others stop.
7. Put not off your clothes in the presence of others, nor go out of your chamber half dressed.
8. At play and attire, it's good manners to give place to the last comer, and affect not to speak louder than ordinary.
9. Spit not into the fire, nor stoop low before it; neither put your hands into the flames to warm them, nor set your feet upon the fire, especially if there be meat before it.
10. When you sit down, keep your feet firm and even, without putting one on the other or crossing them.
11. Shift not yourself in the sight of others, nor gnaw your nails.
12. Shake not the head, feet, or legs; roll not the eyes; lift not one eyebrow higher than the other, wry not the mouth, and bedew no man's face with your spittle by approaching too near him when you speak.
13. Kill no vermin, or fleas, lice, ticks, etc. in the sight of others; if you see any filth or thick spittle put your foot dexterously upon it; if it be upon the clothes of your companions, put it off privately, and if it be upon your own clothes, return thanks to him who puts it off.
14. Turn not your back to others, especially in speaking; jog not the table or desk on which another reads or writes; lean not upon anyone.

San Diego Sarah  •  Link

15. Keep your nails clean and short, also your hands and teeth clean, yet without showing any great concern for them.
16. Do not puff up the cheeks, loll not out the tongue with the hands or beard, thrust out the lips or bite them, or keep the lips too open or too close.
17. Be no flatterer, neither play with any that delight not to be played withal.
18. Read no letter, books, or papers in company, but when there is a necessity for the doing of it, you must ask leave; come not near the books or writings of another so as to read them unless desired, or give your opinion of them unasked. Also, look not nigh when another is writing a letter.
19. Let your countenance be pleasant but in serious matters somewhat grave.
20. The gestures of the body must be suited to the discourse you are upon.
21. Reproach none for the infirmities of nature, nor delight to put them that have in mind of thereof.
22. Show not yourself glad at the misfortune of another, although he were your enemy.
23. When you see a crime punished, you may be inwardly pleased; but always show pity to the suffering offender.
24. Do not laugh too loud or too much at any public spectacle.
25. Superfluous compliments and all affectation of ceremonies are to be avoided, yet where due they are not to be neglected.
26. In putting off your hat to persons of distinction, as noblemen, justices, churchmen, etc., make a reverence, bowing more or less according to the custom of the better bred, and quality of the persons. Among your equals expect not always that they should begin with you first, but to pull off the hat when there is no need is affectation. In the manner of saluting and resaluting in words, keep to the most usual custom.
27. 'Tis ill manners to bid one more eminent than yourself be covered, as well as not to do it to whom it is due. Likewise, he that makes too much haste to put on his hat does not well, yet he ought to put it on at the first, or at most the second time of being asked. Now what is herein spoken, of qualification in behavior in saluting, ought also to be observed in taking of place and sitting down, for ceremonies without bounds are troublesome.
28. If anyone come to speak to you while you are sitting, stand up, although he be your inferior, and when you present seats, let it be to everyone according to his degree.
29. When you meet with one of greater quality than yourself, stop and retire, especially if it be at a door or any straight place, to give way for him to pass.

San Diego Sarah  •  Link

30. In walking, the highest place in most countries seems to be on the right hand; therefore, place yourself on the left of him whom you desire to honor. But if three walk together the middest place is the most honorable; the wall is usually given to the most worthy if two walk together.
31. If anyone far surpasses others, either in age, estate, or merit, yet would give place to a meaner than himself in his own lodging or elsewhere, the one ought not to except it. So he on the other part should not use much earnestness nor offer it above once or twice.
32. To one that is your equal, or not much inferior, you are to give the chief place in your lodging, and he to whom it is offered ought at the first to refuse it, but at the second to accept though not without acknowledging his own unworthiness.
33. They that are in dignity or in office have in all places precedency, but whilst they are young, they ought to respect those that are their equals in birth or other qualities, though they have no public charge.
34. It is good manners to prefer them to whom we speak before ourselves, especially if they be above us, with whom in no sort we ought to begin.
35. Let your discourse with men of business be short and comprehensive.
36. Artificers and persons of low degree ought not to use many ceremonies to lords or others of high degree, but respect and highly honor then, and those of high degree ought to treat them with affability and courtesy, without arrogance.
37. In speaking to men of quality do not lean nor look them full in the face, nor approach too near them at left. Keep a full pace from them.
38. In visiting the sick, do not presently play the physician if you be not knowing therein.
39. In writing or speaking, give to every person his due title according to his degree and the custom of the place.
40. Strive not with your superior in argument, but always submit your judgment to others with modesty.
41. Undertake not to teach your equal in the art himself professes; it savors of arrogance.
42. Let your ceremonies in courtesy be proper to the dignity of his place with whom you converse, for it is absurd to act the same with a clown and a prince.
43. Do not express joy before one sick in pain, for that contrary passion will aggravate his misery.
44. When a man does all he can, although it succeed not well, blame not him that did it.
45. Being to advise or reprehend anyone, consider whether it ought to be in public or in private, and presently or at some other time; in what terms to do it; and in reproving show no signs of choler but do it with all sweetness and mildness.
46. Take all admonitions thankfully in what time or place soever given, but afterwards, not being culpable, take a time and place convenient to let him know it that gave them.

San Diego Sarah  •  Link

47. Mock not nor jest at anything of importance. Break no jests that are sharp, biting, and if you deliver anything witty and pleasant, abstain from laughing thereat yourself.
48. Wherein you reprove another be unblameable yourself, for example is more prevalent than precepts.
49. Use no reproachful language against any one; neither curse nor revile.
50. Be not hasty to believe flying reports to the disparagement of any.
51. Wear not your clothes foul, or ripped, or dusty, but see they be brushed once every day at least and take heed that you approach not to any uncleanness.
52. In your apparel be modest, and endeavor to accommodate nature, rather than to procure admiration; keep to the fashion of your equals, such as are civil and orderly with respect to time and places.
53. Run not in the streets, neither go too slowly, nor with mouth open; go not shaking of arms, nor upon the toes, kick not the earth with your feet, go not upon the toes, nor in a dancing fashion.
54. Play not the peacock, looking everywhere about you, to see if you be well decked, if your shoes fit well, if your stockings sit neatly and clothes handsomely.
55. Eat not in the streets, nor in the house, out of season.
56. Associate yourself with men of good quality if you esteem your own reputation; for 'tis better to be alone than in bad company.
57. In walking up and down in a house, only with one in company if he be greater than yourself, at the first give him the right hand and stop not till he does and be not the first that turns, and when you do turn let it be with your face towards him; if he be a man of great quality walk not with him cheek by jowl but somewhat behind him, but yet in such a manner that he may easily speak to you.
58. Let your conversation be without malice or envy, for 'tis a sign of a tractable and commendable nature, and in all causes of passion permit reason to govern.
59. Never express anything unbecoming, nor act against the rules moral before your inferiors.
60. Be not immodest in urging your friends to discover a secret.
61. Utter not base and frivolous things among grave and learned men, nor very difficult questions or subjects among the ignorant, or things hard to be believed; stuff not your discourse with sentences among your betters nor equals.
62. Speak not of doleful things in a time of mirth or at the table; speak not of melancholy things as death and wounds, and if others mention them, change if you can the discourse. Tell not your dreams, but to your intimate friend.
63. A man ought not to value himself of his achievements or rare qualities of wit; much less of his riches, virtue or kindred.
64. Break not a jest where none take pleasure in mirth; laugh not aloud, nor at all without occasion; deride no man's misfortune although there seem to be some cause.

San Diego Sarah  •  Link

65. Speak not injurious words neither in jest nor earnest; scoff at none although they give occasion.
66. Be not forward but friendly and courteous, the first to salute, hear and answer; and be not pensive when it's a time to converse.
67. Detract not from others, neither be excessive in commanding.
68. Go not thither, where you know not whether you shall be welcome or not; give not advice without being asked, and when desired do it briefly.
69. If two contend together take not the part of either unconstrained, and be not obstinate in your own opinion. In things indifferent be of the major side.
70. Reprehend not the imperfections of others, for that belongs to parents, masters and superiors.
71. Gaze not on the marks or blemishes of others and ask not how they came. What you may speak in secret to your friend, deliver not before others.
72. Speak not in an unknown tongue in company but in your own language and that as those of quality do and not as the vulgar. Sublime matters treat seriously.
73. Think before you speak, pronounce not imperfectly, nor bring out your words too hastily, but orderly and distinctly.
74. When another speaks, be attentive yourself and disturb not the audience. If any hesitate in his words, help him not nor prompt him without desired. Interrupt him not, nor answer him till his speech be ended.
75. In the midst of discourse ask not of what one treats, but if you perceive any stop because of your coming, you may well entreat him gently to proceed. If a person of quality comes in while you're conversing, it's handsome to repeat what was said before.
76. While you are talking, point not with your finger at him of whom you discourse, nor approach too near him to whom you talk, especially to his face.
77. Treat with men at fit times about business and whisper not in the company of others.
78. Make no comparisons and if any of the company be commended for any brave act of virtue, commend not another for the same.
79. Be not apt to relate news if you know not the truth thereof. In discoursing of things you have heard, name not your author. Always a secret discover not.
80. Be not tedious in discourse or in reading unless you find the company pleased therewith.
81. Be not curious to know the affairs of others, neither approach those that speak in private.
82. Undertake not what you cannot perform, but be careful to keep your promise.
83. When you deliver a matter, do it without passion and with discretion, however mean the person be you do it to.
84. When your superiors talk to anybody hearken not, neither speak nor laugh.

San Diego Sarah  •  Link

85. In company of those of higher quality than yourself, speak not 'til you are asked a question, then stand upright, put off your hat and answer in few words.
86. In disputes, be not so desirous to overcome as not to give liberty to each one to deliver his opinion and submit to the judgment of the major part, especially if they are judges of the dispute.
87. Let your carriage be such as becomes a man grave, settled and attentive to that which is spoken. Contradict not at every turn what others say.
88. Be not tedious in discourse, make not many digressions, nor repeat often the same manner of discourse.
89. Speak not evil of the absent, for it is unjust.
90. Being set at meat, scratch not, neither spit, cough or blow your nose, except there's a necessity for it.
91. Make no show of taking great delight in your victuals. Feed not with greediness. Eat your bread with a knife. Lean not on the table, neither find fault with what you eat.
92. Take no salt or cut bread with your knife greasy.
93. Entertaining anyone at table it is decent to present him with meat. Undertake not to help others undesired by the master.
94. If you soak bread in the sauce, let it be no more than what you put in your mouth at a time, and blow not your broth at table but stay 'til it cools of itself.
95. Put not your meat to your mouth with your knife in your hand; neither spit forth the stones of any fruit pie upon a dish nor cast anything under the table.
96. It's unbecoming to heap much to one's meal. Keep your fingers clean and when foul, wipe them on a corner of your table napkin.
97. Put not another bite into your mouth 'til the former be swallowed. Let not your morsels be too big for the jowls.
98. Drink not nor talk with your mouth full; neither gaze about you while you are drinking.
99. Drink not too leisurely nor yet too hastily. Before and after drinking wipe your lips. Breathe not then or ever with too great a noise, for it is uncivil.

San Diego Sarah  •  Link

100. Cleanse not your teeth with the tablecloth, napkin, fork or knife, but if others do it, let it be done with a pick tooth.
101. Rinse not your mouth in the presence of others.
102. It is out of use to call upon the company often to eat. Nor need you drink to others every time you drink.
103. In company of your betters be not longer in eating than they are. Lay not your arm but only your hand upon the table.
104. It belongs to the chiefest in company to unfold his napkin and fall to meat first. But he ought then to begin in time and to dispatch with dexterity that the slowest may have time allowed him.
105. Be not angry at table whatever happens, and if you have reason to be so, show it not but on a cheerful countenance especially if there be strangers, for good humor makes one dish of meat a feast.
106. Set not yourself at the upper of the table but if it be your due, or that the master of the house will have it so. Contend not, lest you should trouble the company.
107. If others talk at table be attentive, but talk not with meat in your mouth.
108. When you speak of God or His attributes, let it be seriously and with reverence. Honor and obey your natural parents although they be poor.
109. Let your recreations be manful not sinful.
110. Labor to keep alive in your breast that little spark of celestial fire called conscience.

Terry Foreman  •  Link

George Washington's “The Rules of Civility & Decent Behavior in Company and Conversation,”
By age sixteen, Washington had copied out by hand, 110 Rules of Civility & Decent Behavior in Company and Conversation. They are based on a set of rules composed by French Jesuits in 1595. Presumably they were copied out as part of an exercise in penmanship assigned by young Washington's schoolmaster. The first English translation of the French rules appeared in 1640, and are ascribed to Francis Hawkins the twelve-year-old son of a doctor.…

Matt Newton  •  Link

Anyone any idea as to the weight of the gold Sam collected today?

Terry Foreman  •  Link

"he and I went to view the houses in Seething Lane, belonging to the Navy, where I find the worst very good, and had great fears in my mind that they will shuffle me out of them, which troubles me."

L&M: These houses weds built on to the Navy Office, between Crutched Friars and Seething Lane: Pepys was to live in one from 1660 until the fire which destroyed them and the Office in 1673. The practice of having the Principal Officers live in official accommodations at the Navy Office was one of the most useful innovations of the revolutionary and Restoration periods.

San Diego Sarah  •  Link

John Evelyn's Diary – he and Mary Browne Evelyn live at Saye's Court, Deptford.



4 July, 1660.
I heard Sir Samuel Tuke harangue to the House of Lords, in behalf of the Roman Catholics, and his account of the transaction at Colchester in murdering Lord Capel, and the rest of those brave men, that suffered in cold blood, after articles of rendition.


Col. Samuel Tuke, Evelyn’s cousin --…
A letter from Evelyn to Samuel Tuke’s brother, George, from January 1658, says that Samuel has turned Catholic, which accounts for Samuel's feeling impassioned on this subject:…

Top right there’s a box with links to both the House of Commons and the House of Lords records for today. No mention of this speech, sadly:…

The Siege of Colchester…

Third Reading

San Diego Sarah  •  Link

"I went to the Bridge and so to the Treasurer’s of the Navy, with whom I spake about the business of my office, ... At his house comes Commissioner Pett, and he and I went to view the houses in Seething Lane, belonging to the Navy, ..."

In this case I believe the Treasurer of the Navy referred to is:
1651 Hutchinson, Richard Appointed by parliament.
Gt. 1 Jan. 1651 (AO 1/1707/94); accounted to 7 July 1660 (AO 1/1710/101).…

All of Carteret's lodgings are close to Whitehall or in Deptford. Hutchinson's Navy office was adjacent to Seething Lane.

San Diego Sarah  •  Link

"Carried these and the money by coach to my Lord’s at White Hall, and from thence carried Nicholas’s plate to his house and left it there, intending to speak with him anon."

At the restoration Nicholas returned to England with Charles II, and in June 1660 was granted lodgings in Whitehall (Hist. MSS. Comm. 12th Rep. vii. 26).…

So Pepys didn't have to carry all that plate very far.

Neil Wallace  •  Link

The first English etiquette book seems to have been written by Daniel of Beccles in the early 1200s.
The Book of the Civilized Man contains (in Latin, though recently translated and published) a long but entertaining listing of rules to be followed at table, in conversation and in the marital and extra-marital bed.…

As a resident of Beccles, I should report that exemplary behaviour is always observed, at table or in conversation. I draw a veil over other areas.

San Diego Sarah  •  Link

The Wiki article is hilarious, Neil -- I'll try to live up to Daniel of Beccles' expectations!!!

As a horse rider in my youth, I never heard of the requirement to loosen the reins when riding over a bridge. Anyone got any suggestions?

RLB  •  Link

@Tonyel: I suspect the difference is that money can come in the form of promissory notes (proper banknotes didn't *quite* yet exist in Europe yet), which can be kept discreetly on one's person. Probably not coinage, to the sum of £500, since that would weigh a lot, but even that would be somewhat compact. Plate, by contrast, is bulky and ostentatious. You can't put a £100 coffee pot and set of dishes in your belt pocket or sleeve without it being obvious.

San Diego Sarah  •  Link

RLB and Tonyel: Good solution, RLB. And it explains why Quarter Day settlements were important.

In three month's time, Secretary Nicholas and Goldsmith Backwell would have numerous exchanges. When they settled up, the difference could be a few pounds either way. Or a lot -- which they could agree to carry forward, or the creditor could demand payment in full or in part. Or settle up by the exchange of a horse or a house, etc.

The shortage of coins made people very creative.

Stephane Chenard  •  Link

Order in Council, Whitehall, 4 July: On Report of a Committee of Council, in favour of the Appointment of Commissioners of the Navy to manage its affairs, - that John Lord Berkeley, Sir Wm. Penn, and Peter Pett be so appointed, in connection with Sir George Carteret, treasurer, the future comptroller, Sir Wm. Baker, surveyor, AND SAM PEPYS, CLERK OF THE NAVY; specifying also the salaries to be received by each. (State Papers; sorry, we couldn't help shouting).

"Order in Council", cuz. Doesn't get more official than that.

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