Tuesday 30 January 1665/66

Lay long till Mr. Gawden was gone out being to take a little journey. Up, and Creed and I some good discourse, but with some trouble for the state of my Lord’s matters. After walking a turne or two in the garden, and bid good morrow to Mr. Gawden’s sons, and sent my service to the ladies, I took coach after Mr. Gawden’s, and home, finding the towne keeping the day solemnly, it being the day of the King’s murther, and they being at church, I presently into the church, thinking to see Mrs. Lethulier or Batelier, but did not, and a dull sermon of our young Lecturer, too bad. This is the first time I have been in this church since I left London for the plague, and it frighted me indeed to go through the church more than I thought it could have done, to see so [many] graves lie so high upon the churchyards where people have been buried of the plague. I was much troubled at it, and do not think to go through it again a good while. So home to my wife, whom I find not well, in bed, and it seems hath not been well these two days. She rose and we to dinner, after dinner up to my chamber, where she entertained me with what she hath lately bought of clothes for herself, and Damask linnen, and other things for the house. I did give her a serious account how matters stand with me, of favour with the King and Duke, and of danger in reference to my Lord’s and Sir G. Carteret’s falls, and the dissatisfaction I have heard the Duke of Albemarle hath acknowledged to somebody, among other things, against my Lord Sandwich, that he did bring me into the Navy against his desire and endeavour for another, which was our doting foole Turner. Thence from one discourse to another, and looking over my house, and other things I spent the day at home, and at night betimes to bed. After dinner this day I went down by water to Deptford, and fetched up what money there was of W. Howe’s contingencies in the chest there, being 516l. 13s. 3d. and brought it home to dispose of.

42 Annotations

First Reading

Australian Susan  •  Link

"The King's murther"

Not how he has always viewed it!

Michael Robinson  •  Link

After dinner this day ...

L&M note this sentence is an addition crowded in between entries.

Michael Robinson  •  Link

" ... to see so [many] graves lie so high upon the churchyards where people have been buried of the plague."

L&M note that since June 1665 at St. Olave's 326 plague victims had been buried and a new churchyard opened for the purpose.

Michael Robinson  •  Link

" ... the day of the King’s murther ..."

ODNB 'Life' Charles I (1600-1649) available for general access for one week only at:-

Ruben  •  Link

"looking over my house"
should be "looking over the Navy's property house were I live but will have to look for another if fired ".

Terry Foreman  •  Link

“The King’s murther”

Australian Susan: "Not how he has always viewed it!"

True enough of Puritan Pepys in his youth; but this is now what it's called.

Cf. 27 January 1660/61: "This day the parson read a proclamation at church, for the keeping of Wednesday next, the 30th of January, a fast for the murther of the late King." http://www.pepysdiary.com/diary/1…

Terry Foreman  •  Link

"sent my service to the ladies"

L&M say this service refers to what is in their Vol. II (1661), p. 24, n. 2."

Has anyone that Volume?

Robert Gertz  •  Link

Nice of Sam to bring Bess back into the partnership, she must have been very pleased, given her past eagerness and pleasure in following his rise.

"...the dissatisfaction I have heard the Duke of Albemarle hath acknowledged to somebody, among other things, against my Lord Sandwich, that he did bring me into the Navy against his desire and endeavour for another, which was our doting foole Turner."

Of course, possibly just rumor but still quite a different face from the man who's been telling Sam how much depends on him and that he is so crucial. I wonder if perhaps Albemarle was a bit offended via the Duchess when Sam took offense in turn at her cracks at Sandwich.

Slippery footing, indeed...Maybe that why he's suddenly turned for comfort to the one person he can count on to support him whole-heartedly. Would he'd show some gratitude for having her.

Getting back to Monke for a moment though...Seems rather short-sighted of him to not remember that Charles and Jamie have no more reason to love and trust him than they do Sandwich...And that if Sandwich goes, he is the last prominent ex-Cromwellian left in the government and so a very obvious target for having his wings clipped.

cgs  •  Link

my service ! 1 meant he sent his servants over to help from
I. The condition of being a servant; the fact of serving a master.

1. The condition, station, or occupation of being a servant. (In mod. use almost exclusively spec. = domestic service.) a. In phrases with preps. {dag}at, in, {dag}into, {dag}on, out of service; to go to, put to, set to service; to go into, put into, take into service; to place out at service.

or ....

b. Similarly: A set of vessels for the altar, for the toilet, etc.

....a1700 EVELYN Diary 25 Jan. 1645, The compleate service of the purest chrystal for the altar of the Chapell.
2. a. Const. of or possessive: The condition of being a servant of a particular master.
b. That which is served up or placed on the table for a meal; the food set before a person; an allowance or portion of food. Now rare.


28. a. The furniture of the table; esp. a set of dishes and other utensils required for serving a particular meal. Often with defining word, as dinner, dessert, breakfast, tea service.

not this!!!! 36. The action of covering a female animal. (Cf. SERVE v. 52.)

Mary  •  Link

"sent my service to the ladies" simply means that Sam sent his regards to the ladies of the house. He had greeted Mr. Gawden's sons in person, but evidently not the ladies. This type of 'service' had nothing to do with either a church service or material service: in effect Sam is saying a formal "Your servant, ladies" by proxy.

The L&M reference to the note in Vol.2 of the diary is attached to the words "day of the King's Murther". It is not attached to the words "sent my service to the ladies".

On the anniversary of the execution of Charles I, a fast was, by royal proclamation, to be held throughout the kingdom. Parish priests were instructed to remind their congregations of the fast each year on the Sunday before 30th January.

Australian Susan  •  Link

The service for January 30th "a Form of PRAYER with FASTING, to be used yearly upon the 30th of January, being the Day of the Martyrdom of the blessed King Charles the First: to implore the mercy of God, that neither the Guilt of that sacred and innocent Blood, nor those other sins, by which God was provoked to deliver up both us and our King into the hands of cruel and unreasonable men, may at any time hereafter be visited upon us or our Posterity." was published in the 1662 Book of Common Prayer and removed in the 1854 revision. There is a version for both Morning and Evening Prayer. One of the Collects for the Morning Prayer begins: "O Most mighty God, terrible in thy judgments and wonderful in thy doings toward the children of men; who in thy heavy displeasure didst suffer the life of our gracious Sovereign King Charles the First, to be (as this day) taken away by the hands of cruel and bloody men..." and so on. ['suffer' here means "allow"].

Australian Susan  •  Link

There are several churches dedicated to Charles as King and Martyr. Here is the website of one. There is also a society dedicated to Charles as Martyr (an Anglican devotional society).

Michael Robinson  •  Link

" ... sent my service to the ladies ..."

Terry F. my copy of L&M has the footnote superscript indicator (1) after 'day of the King's Murther;' Vol ii p. 24, n.2. is a reference to:

By the King· A proclamation, for observation of the thirtieth day of January as a day of fast and humiliation according to the late Act of Parliament for that purpose.
London : printed by John Bill, printer to the King’s most excellent Majesty, 1660. At the King’s Printing-House in Black-Friers, [1661]
3 sheets (versos blank); obl. 1⁰.

At end of text: Given at our court at Whitehall, the twenty fifth day of January, in the twelfth year of our reign, one thousand six hundred and sixty.
Wing (CD-ROM, 1996) C3349; Steele, I, 3283 (other variant issue Steele 3284)
Ordered to be read in all churches each year on the Sunday, before the fast day.

Michael Robinson  •  Link

"There are several churches dedicated to Charles as King and Martyr."

Under 'Commemoration' the ODNB article linked to above notes:

" In 1660 parliament declared Charles a martyr, added him to the calendar of Anglican saints, and ordered prayers to be said in his memory and honour on the anniversary of his death, a practice that quickly became a duty cheerfully taken up by some and ignored by others. ... Sir Christopher Wren designed a great mausoleum for him [Charles I] in the 1670s that was intended for Hyde Park, but Charles II's government lacked the funds to erect it, and so it was adapted to become a church for the churchless and allegedly godless Tunbridge Wells, subscription money having been raised for a more sober place of worship. This church was to be one of the six dedicated to Charles, king and martyr, around England and Wales in the final third of the seventeenth century (the others are in Falmouth; Newton-in-Wem, Shropshire; Peak Forest; Plymouth; and Shelland, Suffolk). There was a further surge in the late nineteenth century and first half of the twentieth: there are now at least eighteen churches and chapels in the United Kingdom, two in Ireland, one in Scotland, four in the old Commonwealth, and ten in the USA (the most prominent being in Huntsville, Alabama)."

A. De Araujo  •  Link

"Charles as King and Martyr"
Czar Nicholas has also been declared a Saint; come to think of it, why not Marie Antoinette?

cgs  •  Link

Thanks MR: the light doth dawn: copy of the church service to ladies.
"...sent my service to the ladies …”
Of course on the back of be his link name for future reference if they might need a lighted way to his rendezvous point!!!!

Australian Susan  •  Link

In the most up to date Calendar of the CofE (from the newest worship book, Common Worship, Charles' day is still commemorated. See http://www.cofe.anglican.org/wors… , but I have never heard been to a church which practised that commemoration (and as I have moved a lot, that's quite a lot of churches!)(Anglican). Here in Australia, Charles is,as a Martyr, also in the Calendar of the Anglican Church of Australia, (now an independent Anglican Church, but part of the Anglican Communion - which is somewhat like the difference between the British Empire and the Commonwealth), which has not retained all the commemorations from the Church of England.

Mary  •  Link

cgs- you joke, of course.

Michael Robinson  •  Link

" ... copy of the church service ..."

CGS, subject to correction I believe that printed church service sheets etc. are a nineteenth century genre; the earliest examples I know of extant copies were both for ceremonial 'state occasions,' Nelson's funeral, Jan 9th. 1806, and Wellington's State Funeral, Nov. 18th. 1852.

language hat  •  Link

Like Mary, I assume cgs was joking, but it can be hard to tell.

cgs  •  Link

joke or not to joke ?
part II was so but the first part of service is still unclear :
To be of service, is to help in some way, and to my illiterate mind Samuell was giving help to ladies so that on this occasion of not complying fully with the edict of the day, he supplied the information required so that they the ladies were not to be criticized or embarrassed by others.
Tradition always start in some off beat way until someone of stature thinks it is a good idea and takes credit and even gets it blessed by patenting it or even publishing it.
So it is not obvious what Samuell meant by "...and sent my service to the ladies,..." we can only make assumptions and we all know how to spell that.

language hat  •  Link

It is quite clear what "service" means here; it is the OED's definition 9:
a. In complimentary expressions: Respect, ‘duty’. my service to you: a phrase accompanying the drinking to a person. In epistolary use, give my service to = remember me respectfully to (a third person).

Some citations:

1606 SHAKES. Tr. & Cr. V. v. 3 Fellow, commend my seruice to her beauty.
1646 ENDECOTT in Hutchinson Collect. Papers Massachusetts Bay 158 [P.S.] My wife desires to have her service remembred to Mrs. Winthrop.
1679 LADY R. RUSSELL Lett. I. i. 9 My kindest service to all the dear young ones.
1711 SWIFT Jrnl. to Stella 4 Apr., Give my hearty service to Stoyte and Catherine.
c1751 CHATHAM Lett. Nephew i. (1805) 3 Pray shew him this letter, with my service to him.

Mary  •  Link

Exactly so, LH. He sent his regards to the ladies of the house. Thank you for taking the trouble to identify the citations, something that I should have done myself 12 annotations ago.

cgs  •  Link

thanks LH and Mary for the clarification, my biased filter missed the citations.

Todd Bernhardt  •  Link

Why "murther" rather than "murder"? When did the pronunciation/spelling switch to the modern form?

language hat  •  Link

The form in -th- is earlier. The OED says:

"The noun is not found in continental West Germanic languages, but compare cognates of the corresponding verb and agent noun listed s.vv. MURDER v. and MURTHER n.1 [meaning 'murderer']. Compare also nouns ultimately from the same Germanic base in French and Latin, although it is uncertain whether these show loans from unattested continental West Germanic forms of the noun, or are derived ultimately from the corresponding verb (see MURDER v.): Anglo-Norman murdre, moerdre, mordre, mourdre, Old French mordre, mortre, murdre, murtre (12th cent.), Middle French, French meurtre (1530), and post-classical Latin murdrum murder (8th or early 9th cent. as mordrum; frequently from late 11th cent. in British sources; also in forms multrum (12th-13th centuries), murdra (12th cent. in British sources), murtrum (13th-14th centuries in British sources)), fine imposed on a manor or hundred in which a murder had been committed (frequently from late 11th cent. in British sources; compare MURDRUM n.). Both the -u- and the -d- of the modern form of the word are probably partly attributable to the influence of Anglo-Norman, Old French, and post-classical Latin forms ..., although on the change of original {edh} to d see also E. J. Dobson Eng. Pronunc. 1500-1700 (ed. 2, 1968) II. §383."

It would be interesting to know what Dobson wrote about the change, if anyone has access to that book.

Mary  •  Link

Yes, Dobson here.

But I'm hampered by not having at my fingertips a font that gives the sign for the [th] consonant which is called 'eth' and which sounds like the /th/ that we use at the beginning of words such as that, these, those.

Dobson says that where eth was immediately followed by r where this combination preceded a vowel, late OE and early ME showed a tendency for eth to change to d. He quotes burthen and murther as examples of this.

His whole paragraph is much too lengthy to quote here but details parallel developments in such words as fathom (where eth appears before a non-syllabic nasal), farthing,farther,further.

The pattern by which the d-forms entered the language suggests that this may have been a vulgar or dialectal variation that gradually ousted the earlier pronunciation in such words.

Dobson refers to the standard philological works by Jordan (para.206) and Sievers-Brunner (para.201 note 7).

cgs  •  Link

I assume Dobson to be:
Dobson, Eric J. English Pronunciation 1500-1700. Oxford: Clarendon, 1955.

Along with phonetic changes, ideas and 'tort' changed to, genetics and food???

Mary  •  Link

Yes, that's the one. I'm using the second (1968) edition.

GrahamT  •  Link

If you use Windows, Times New Roman contains eth - ð and thorn - þ. They are also available in any Icelandic font.
The similarity of written eth to a small d may have helped the transition from murðer to murder.
I thought the initial th sound was usually thorn as in þe = the, which, when printed with a Latin character set not containing thorn, became ye, as in ye olde pizza shoppe ;-)

Todd Bernhardt  •  Link

Mmm ... pizza. :-)

Thanks, all! Very interesting.

Mary  •  Link

You're right about thorn being misinterpreted as 'ye.' As for initial 'th' sounds, they are variously represented by thorn and eth, depending on the scribe, the locality and the date of the MS.

Not at all sure about your second point; and no Windows here, I'm afraid, though thank you for the suggestion. But perhaps we're straying too far from the 17th Century.

language hat  •  Link

Thanks very much, Mary!

"The similarity of written eth to a small d may have helped the transition from murðer to murder."

Very doubtful. The change was in the spoken language, and most people were illiterate anyway.

Second Reading

Terry Foreman  •  Link

"Charles as King and Martyr" has an Anglican devotional society

The Society of King Charles the Martyr is an Anglican devotional society and one of the Catholic Societies of the Church of England. It is also active in North America and has international members elsewhere. It is dedicated to and under the patronage of King Charles I of England (19 November 1600–30 January 1649). https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Soc…

Claire  •  Link

The final sentence (beginning 'After dinner this day') is interesting. Thanks to Michael Robinson for pointing out it was an addition inserted between entries. However, Sam appears to contradict himself with this; he reports going to Deptford after dinner but just prior to this he writes 'I spent the day at home, and at night betimes to bed'. Am I the only one confused?

I should probably say hello, sorry. This is my first post here. I'm researching 1660s England and it's a delight to have found this site.

San Diego Sarah  •  Link

Welcome Claire ... you're in the right place. We look forward to learning more about your interests.

As to your question, I doubt anyone knows the answer. My guess is that he wrote the Diary as the usual stream of consciousness, and was really into his justified paranoia. A few days later he remembered he had taken this trip and not documented it, so he added the note. I think it's remarkable he doesn't do more of these add-ons. On the other hand, there are so many "dangling comments" and "spent the day in the office" blanket days that it's clear he doesn't/cannot document everything.

Claire  •  Link

Thanks so much for your reply and kind welcome, San Diego Sarah! Yes, the Restoration period has really grabbed my interest in recent years and I'm currently writing historical fiction set in the 1660s.

Finding additions sandwiched between entries gives a nice reminder of how committed Sam was to his diary, as he seemed keen to include as much as he could when he thought of it, even after the date concerned. I'm just a bit confused here as Sam seems to be saying he both spent all day at home and went to Deptford.

Like you point out though, he had a lot troubling his mind on this day.

mountebank  •  Link

Following the discussion of how "Charles the Martyr" is viewed reminded me of recent news. It's still a current issue for some people after nearly 400 years:


"A county councillor is calling for a place of worship to change its name as he claims it is dedicated to a "dictator and warmonger".

Cllr Seán Holden (Con) wants King Charles the Martyr church to reconsider its name on the 370th anniversary of the "tyrant" king's execution.

Charles I was famously executed after his quarrel with parliament about power led to the English Civil War.

In an open letter to the Reverend Laurence Powell, the councillor criticised the commemoration of "a man who started four wars against his own people in which tens of thousands of English and Scots died"."

San Diego Sarah  •  Link

My feeling is that Charles II "martyred" his father as a way of
1. Dignifying his father's end;
2. Testing what it means to be "Defender of the Faith";
3. Snubbing the Pope who did nothing to aid the Restoration;
4. Reassuring the English Roman Catholics that he had not strayed too far from the fold;
5. Defining the late struggles from the Royalist point of view.

Rather like Eisenhower adding "In God We Trust" to the currency during the Cold War to remind Good Americans why they fought Communism. Nothing like having God on your side of the argument.

john  •  Link

According to David Chrystal, "Spell it out" -- delightful book, by the way -- we can blame Flemish typesetters for changing Þ (thorn) to ye.

john  •  Link

As a late response to San Diego Sarah, Prussion heraldry often had "Gott mit uns" and this was on Wehrmacht belt buckles.

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