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Henry Mordaunt

2nd Earl of Peterborough
2ndEarlOfPeterborough.jpg
Born(1621-11-15)15 November 1621
Died19 June 1697(1697-06-19) (aged 75)
AllegianceEngland

Henry Mordaunt, 2nd Earl of Peterborough KG PC FRS (15 November 1621 – 19 June 1697) was an English soldier, peer and courtier.

Early life

Styled Lord Mordaunt from 1628, he was the eldest son of John Mordaunt, 1st Earl of Peterborough. He was educated at Eton, under Sir Henry Wotton, and shortly before the outbreak of the First English Civil War was sent to France to be out of harm's way.[1]

He returned to England in 1642, and served for a little while in the parliamentary army, where he commanded his ailing father's troop of horse. In April 1643, after his father's death, he deserted to the king at Oxford. Now Earl of Peterborough, he joined the Cavaliers and fought at the battles of Bristol, Gloucester and Newbury in 1643. At Newbury he was wounded in the arm and thigh, and had his horse shot under him. In command of a regiment raised at his own expense he served in the west during the following summer and winter, at Cropredy Bridge and Lostwithiel in 1644. In about December 1644, he married Lady Penelope O'Brien (the only daughter of the 5th Earl of Thomond) and they had two daughters. He was in France during the later phases of the struggle. In 1646 he returned to England and compounded for his estates. A private interview with Charles I as he passed through Ampthill to Hampton Court, in the summer of 1647, prompted him to make a last effort on the king's behalf, and in July 1648 he united with George Villiers, 2nd Duke of Buckingham and Henry Rich, 1st Earl of Holland in raising the royal standard at Dorking. The plan was to seize Reigate, but foiled in this, the insurgents were driven back on Kingston, and eventually dispersed in the neighbourhood of Harrow by the parliamentary forces (7 July). Mordaunt was severely wounded, but escaped to Antwerp, and in the following year returned to England and recompounded for his estates (May 1649).[1]

Under Charles II

Mortlake tapestry owned and presumably commissioned by Mordaunt, The Seizure of Cassandra by Ajax from a set of The Horses, c. 1650-70.

When Charles married Catherine of Braganza in 1661, he acquired English Tangier as part of her dowry and Peterborough was sent there as its Governor, arriving 29 January 1662 in command of a regiment of foot which he raised in England (and which would become known as the Tangier Regiment), Harley's (ex-Parliamentary) regiment from Flanders, and remnants of Royalist regiments, also from Flanders. The force was ill-equipped, lacking basic supplies of fuel, beds, cooking-pots and ordnance equipment. In April 1662, he concluded a treaty with the Moors under Ahmad al-Khadir ibn Ali Ghaïlan but, in a disastrous sally out (3 May 1662), his force was soundly defeated.[2] Confining the rest of the troops within the city walls, he himself returned to England unexpectedly, arriving in Plymouth on 8 June 1662. He was sent back, with some reinforcements, but was recalled in December of that year and replaced by Andrew Rutherford. He himself was awarded a generous pension.[3]

He served in the Dutch war, at first as a volunteer in the fleet of the Earl of Sandwich, afterwards in command of the Unicorn at the Battle of Lowestoft in 1665 under James, Duke of York. Later he commanded the Prince at the Battle of Solebay in 1672.

In 1670 he was appointed Groom of the Stole to the Duke of York, and on 24 February 1673 ambassador extraordinary to arrange the terms of his proposed marriage with the Archduchess Claudia Felicitas of Innsbruck. He had hardly crossed the Channel, however, when the news of the Emperor Leopold I's determination to marry the archduchess himself put an end to the project. He was then commissioned to ascertain the respective personal and other attractions of the Princess Mary of Modena, and several other ladies between whom the duke's choice lay, and Mary having been fixed upon, proceeded to Modena in the following August as ambassador extraordinary to arrange the match. After some demur on the grounds of religion, Pope Clement X refusing a dispensation for the marriage of the princess with a prince who was not a declared Catholic, the scruples of the family were overcome, Peterborough being proxy for the duke (30 September 1673). Peterborough then escorted the princess to England.[1]

On 10 July 1674 Peterborough was sworn of the privy council, and in 1676 was appointed deputy earl-marshal. In 1680 he was deprived of that office and his pension, and excluded from the council, on suspicion of complicity in the alleged Popish Plot. Nevertheless, though suffering from fever, he had himself carried down to Westminster Hall, to vote against the condemnation of Lord Stafford (7 December) In October 1681 he was summoned to Scotland by the Duke of York, whom he attended on his return to England in the following March. On 28 February 1683 he was restored to his place in the council.[1]

Under James II

He bore St. Edward's sceptre at the coronation of James II, by whom he was made Groom of the Stole and a Knight of the Garter in 1685, and colonel of the 3rd regiment of horse. In March 1687 he was received into the Roman church. When the King fled England in 1688, Peterborough was caught trying to escape with him, taken near Ramsgate and committed to the Tower of London (24 December).[1]

Later life

He was stripped of all his former offices and on 26 October 1689 he was impeached of high treason, together with the Earl of Salisbury, 'in departing from their allegiance, and being reconciled to the Church of Rome.' The proceedings were stalled by the subsequent dissolution, and on 9 October 1690 he was released on bail. In February 1696 he again fell under suspicion of treasonable practices, and was confined to his own house, but was enlarged in the following May. Peterborough was lord of the manors of Turvey in Bedfordshire and Drayton, Northamptonshire, and was for many years lord-lieutenant of the latter county. He died on 19 June 1697, and was buried in the parish church of Turvey.[1]

Family

Peterborough married, in 1644, Lady Penelope O'Brien, daughter of Barnabas O'Brien, 6th Earl of Thomond and Anne Fermor, by whom he had two daughters: Elizabeth, who died unmarried, and Mary, who married Henry Howard, 7th Duke of Norfolk, from whom she was divorced in 1700. The Countess of Peterborough was groom of the stole to Mary of Modena, and survived till April 1702.[1] Samuel Pepys admired her: "a very wise woman".

On his death in 1697, his earldom passed to his nephew, the Earl of Monmouth, and his barony (which was able to pass through the female line) passed to his daughter, the Duchess of Norfolk. Since she died childless, the barony returned to the earls of Peterborough until that title died out in 1814.

References

  1. ^ a b c d e f g s:Mordaunt, Henry, second Earl of Peterborough (DNB00)
  2. ^ Davis, Lt Col John (1887). History of the Second Queen's Royal Regiment. Richard Bentley & Son.
  3. ^ Pepys' Diary, 15 December 1662; 3 April 1663
Attribution

 This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain"Mordaunt, Henry, second Earl of Peterborough". Dictionary of National Biography. London: Smith, Elder & Co. 1885–1900.

27 Oct 2004, 12:40 a.m. - Pauline

from L&M Companion (partial) (1623-97). Governor of Tangier 1661-2; living 1665-74 in Long Acre. A close associate of the Duke of York; a commissioner of his household (from 1667)who negotiated his marriage with Mary of Modena in 1673.

27 Oct 2004, 3:52 a.m. - vicente

His appointment to The Garrison took place on 20th April 1661. He became Colonel of the 3rd Regiment of Horse (later 2nd Dragoon Guards) on 20th June 1685 and died on 19th June 1697. http://www.queensroyalsurreys.org.uk/colonels/001.html John Mordaunt, was created Viscount Mordaunt of Avalon and Baron Mordaunt of Reigate, Surrey, in 1659 ; His son Charles became the famous one http://34.1911encyclopedia.org/P/PE/PETERBOROUGH_AND_MONMOUTH_CHARLES_MORDAUNT_EARL_OF.htm

27 Oct 2004, 8:48 a.m. - Wim van der Meij

Warrington also mentions that the Earl was a Privy Counsellor and that he was made Groom of the Stole in 1685. He was also K.G.

7 Dec 2006, 5:39 p.m. - Pedro

Henry Mordaunt. The Earl of Peterborough bought Mortlake tapestries in the 1650's or 1660's. Among them were The Seizure of Cassandra by Ajax and The Daughters of Niobe. Although not on this site a typical tapestry can be seen... http://www.musee-labenche.com/Anglais/tapisse1.htm

19 Feb 2007, 6:02 p.m. - Clement

Update of 1911 Encyclopedia link above: http://www.1911encyclopedia.org/Charles_Mordaunt,_earl_of_Peterborough_and_Monmouth

8 Jul 2007, 10:23 p.m. - Terry Foreman

Henry Mordaunt, 2nd Earl of Peterborough http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Henry_Mordaunt,_2nd_Earl_of_Peterborough

22 Aug 2014, 3:06 a.m. - Bill

Henry Mordaunt, second Earl of Peterborough, born November 16th, 1621; Captain-General of the Forces in Tangier, Fez, and Morocco, and Chief Governor of Tangier from September 6th, 1661, to June, 1663; Privy Councillor, 1674-79, 1683; and in 1685 made Groom of the Stole to James II. He was created K.G. 1685, and died June 19th, 1697. ---Wheatley, 1899.

22 Aug 2014, 6:02 p.m. - Bill

MORDAUNT, HENRY, second Earl of Peterborough (1624?-1697), cavalier; educated at Eton; served in the parliamentary army; deserted to Charles I, 1643; raised the royal standard at Dorking, 1647, but was defeated and wounded; escaped to Antwerp, 1647; governor of Tangier, 1661; resigned, 1662: escorted Mary of Modena to England, 1673; privy councillor, 1674; suspected of complicity in the Popish plot; K.G., 1685; became a Roman catholic, 1687; impeached, 1689, but released on bail, 1690; published a book on the genealogies of his family under the pseudonym 'Robert Halstead,' 1685. ---Dictionary of National Biography: Index and Epitome. S. Lee, 1906.

21 Dec 2014, 11:57 p.m. - Bill

Jan. 30 [1662] The Earl of Peterborough took possession of Tangier. ---A Chronological History of England. J. Pointer, 1714.

19 Jun 2022, 3:06 a.m. - San Diego Sarah

Please note that Vicente, above on 27 Oct. 2004, refers to the Earl's younger brother, John, who is at https://www.pepysdiary.com/encyclopedia/8120/