This is the first mention in the Diary of this famous prince, third son of Frederick, Prince Palatine of the Rhine, and Elizabeth, daughter of James I., born December 17th, 1619. He died at his house in Spring Gardens, November 29th, 1682.
This text comes from a footnote on a diary entry in the 1893 edition edited by Henry B. Wheatley.
Paul Brewster • Link
L&M: "Prince Rupert, first cousin of Charles II, had in the Civil War and afterwards quarrelled with Charles I and most of the royalists including Hyde. Since 1654 he had absented himself from Court. The King now gave him an annuity (which ran from this day [29 Sep 1660]) but nothing else ... He was not admitted to the Privy Council until April 1662."
Paul Brewster • Link
Here's a site with a biography:
john lauer • Link
Rupert introduced "Prince Rupert's Drops"
to the Royal Society in March of 1660-61. They are tear-drop shaped glass, highly stressed by rapid cooling in water, and so very resistant to crushing by hammer blows, but they explode when the tail is broken off in the fingers! Google the quoted title for many detailed references. Modern day stressed plate windows for autos, which shatter into small cubes when scratched deeply, demonstrate the same effect.
David Chapman • Link
Here is a link to genealogical info for Rupert:
anonymous • Link
Gentlemen, I had thought or, rather, hoped that Prince Rupert, Duke of Cumberland, was a man of integrity until I read that he was the father of two bastard children by two ladies.
vicente • Link
"Prince Rupert's Drops” pg 417 De Beer’s John Evelyn, nice drawing of said glasse, has the appearance of a musical note [quarter] on its side with a little fluteing at the junction.
according to JE is was presented by his Majesty march 6th 1661:The Society failed to find a satisfactory solution to “Why”, so many objections presented by the Learned with no consensus of cause of the phenomenon.
vicenzo • Link
Prince Rupert was considered by some to be a pyrate in 1650's, upsetting the Dutch off and on the Guinea coast along with with his daring Adm. Holmes [Royal African Company] and using the word Hoogmogendheiden for his troubles, in saxon [anglo] it be Hogan Morgan , High Mightyness.
Rupert's portrait by Lely
in Aqua Scripto • Link
from :Dirk Background info: on Prince Rupert’s Drops
Annotations 13 January 1661/62:
And further down that same page - pictures:
+ from Terry F. http://faraday.physics.uiowa.edu/mech/1R20.70.htm
From Grammont's footnotes
Grandson of James the First, whose actions during the civil wars are well known. He was born 19th December, 1619, and died at his house in Spring Gardens, November 22, 1682. Lord Clarendon says of him, that "he was rough and passionate, and loved not debate; liked what was proposed, as he liked the persons who proposed it; and was so great an enemy to Digby and Colepepper, who were only present in the debates of the war with the officers, that he crossed all they proposed." -- History of the Rebellion, vol. ii. p. 554. He is supposed to have invented the art of mezzotinto. --
Lord Orford's contrast to this character of Prince Rupert is too just to be here omitted. "Born with the taste of an uncle whom his sword was not fortunate in defending, Prince Rupert was fond of those sciences which soften and adorn a hero's private hours, and knew how to mix them with his minutes of amusement, without dedicating his life to their pursuit, like us, who, wanting capacity for momentous views, make serious study of what is only the transitory occupation of a genius. Had the court of the first Charles been peaceful, how agreeably had the prince's congenial propensity flattered and confirmed the inclination of his uncle! How the muse of arts would have repaid the patronage of the monarch, when, for his first artist, she would have presented him with his nephew! How different a figure did the same prince make in a reign of dissimilar complexion! The philosophic warrior, who could relax himself into the ornament of a refined court, was thought a savage mechanic, when courtiers were only voluptuous wits. Let me transcribe a picture of Prince Rupert, drawn by a man who was far from having the least portion of wit in that age, who was superior to its indelicacy, and who yet was so overborne by its prejudices, that he had the complaisance to ridicule virtue, merit, talents. -- But Prince Rupert, alas! was an awkward lover!" Lord Orford here inserts the character in the text, and then adds, "What pity that we, who wish to transmit this prince's resemblance to posterity on a fairer canvas, have none of these inimitable colours to enface the harsher likeness! We can but oppose facts to wit, truth to satire. -- How unequal the pencils! yet what these lines cannot do, they may suggest: they may induce the reader to reflect, that if the prince was defective in the transient varnish of a court, he at least was adorned by the arts with that polish which alone can make a court attract the attention of subsequent ages." -- Catalogue of Engravers, p. 135, 8vo. ed.
[Lord Orford thus relates the circumstance of his inventing mezzo-tinto: "We must take up the prince in his laboratory, begrimed, uncombed, perhaps in a dirty shirt; on the day I am going to mention, he certainly had not shaved and powdered to charm Miss Hughes, for it happened in his retirement at Brussels, after the catastrophe of his uncle. Going out early one morning, he observed the sentinel, at some distance from his post, very busy doing something to his piece. The prince asked what he was about? He replied, the dew had fallen in the night, had made his fusil rusty, and that he was scraping and cleaning it. The prince looking at it, was struck with something like a figure eaten into the barrel, with innumerable little holes closed together, like friezed work on gold or silver, part of which the fellow had scraped away.
"One knows what a mere good officer would have said on such an accident; if a fashionable officer, he might have damned the poor fellow, and given him a shilling: but the Génie fécond en expériences from so trifling an accident conceived mezzotinto. The prince concluded that some contrivance might be found to cover a brass plate with such a grained ground of fine pressed holes, which would undoubtedly give an impression all black, and that by scraping away proper parts, the smooth superficies would leave the rest of the paper white. Communicating his idea to Wallerant Vaillant, a painter whom he maintained, they made several experiments, and at last invented a steel roller, cut with tools to make teeth like a file or rasp, with projecting points, which effectually produced the black grounds; those being scraped away and diminished at pleasure, left the gradations of light."
Evelyn, in his Diary, March 13, 1661, says: "This afternoon, Prince Rupert shewed me with his own hands the new way of graving called mezzotinto, which afterwards, by his permission, I published in my history of Chalcography; this set so many artists on work, that they soon arrived to the perfection it is since come, emulating the tenderest miniatures."
Pepys, in his Diary, February 4, 1664-5, says: "My Lord Bellasses told us an odd passage; how the king having put out Prince Rupert of his generalship, upon some miscarriage at Bristol, and Sir Richard Willis of his governorship of Newark, at the entreaty of the gentry of the county, and put in my Lord Bellasses; the great officers of the king's army mutinied, and* came in that manner with swords drawn, into the market-place of the town where the king was; which the king hearing, says: 'I must horse.' And there himself personally, when everybody expected they should have been opposed, the king came, and cried to the head of the mutineers, wtiich was Prince Rupert, 'Nephew, I command you to be gone.' So the prince, in all his fury and discontent, withdrew, and his company scattered."
Dallaway says: "He was the author of several inventions of decided utility, in his own profession, of a method to bore cannons, and of a mixed metal, of which they should be composed, and of great improvement in the manufacture of gunpowder. He communicated to Christopher Kirby a method of tempering steel for the best fish-hooks ever made in England."
Prince Rupert was also famous for his play at tennis, and for being an excellent shot. A particular instance of his skill is mentioned by Plot, where he is said to have sent two balls successively, with a horse-pistol, through the weather-cock of St. Mary's steeple at Stafford. The distance was sixty yards, and the feat was performed in the presence of Charles I.]
http://www.pseudopodium.org/repress/grammont/no... see note 151
Prince Rupert had a daughter Ruperta by Margaret Hughes (actress) and a son, Dudley Rupert by Francesca, daughter of Henry Brad, Viscount Bellomont, both illegitimate, but both provided for in his will. He also provided well for Margaret Hughes after his death. (Footnote from Grammont 1910 version, not online)
Michael Robinson • Link
For Rupert's connection with the process and early history of mezzotint in England see:-
The invention of the mezzotint process is particularly associated with Ludwig von Siegen (1609-c.1680), an obscure name but certainly a name familiar in the history of printmaking, but also with Prince Rupert, Count Palatine (1619-1682) also known as 'Rupert of the Rhine' a much more famous individual perhaps best known as the exiled Palatinate Prince and dashing Royalist Cavalry Commander during the English Civil War. ..." Continued in detail:-
Prince Rupert, who was a man of harsh features, a great humourist, and of little elegance in his manners or his dress, was but indifferently qualified to shine in the court of Charles the Second. He made a much better figure in his laboratory, or at the head of the fleet; in which station he was equal, in courage at least, to any of the sea-officers of this reign. He particularly distinguished himself in that memorable engagement in the second Dutch war, in which the brave earl of Ossory commanded under him. He died at his house in Spring-Gardens, the 29th of Nov. 1682.
---A Biographical History of England. J. Granger, 1779.
Prince RUPERT is celebrated for the invention of mezzotinto, of which he is said to have taken the hint from a soldier scraping his rusty fusil. It is also said that the first print of this kind ever published was done by his highness; it may be seen in the first edition of Evelyn's "Sculptura." The secret is said to have been soon after discovered by Sherwin the engraver, who made use of a loaded file for laying the ground. The prince, upon sight of one of his prints, suspected that his servant had lent him his tool, which was a channelled roller; but upon receiving full satisfaction to the contrary, he made him a present of it. The roller was afterwards laid aside, and an instrument with a crenelled edge, in shape like a shoemaker's cutting-knife, was used instead of it. The glass drops invented by him are well known. He also invented a metal called by his name, in which guns were cast, and contrived an excellent method of boring them, for which purpose a water-mill was erected at Hackney Marsh, to the great detriment of the undertaker, as the secret died with the illustrious inventor. He communicated to Christopher Kirby the secret of tempering the best fish-hooks made in England.
---A Biographical History of England. J. Granger, 1775.
They [PR's drops] are formed by dropping melted glass into water. These drops are still called after Prince Rupert, who brought them out of Germany, where they were named "Lacrymae Batavicae." They consist of glass drops with long and slender tails, which burst to pieces on the breaking off those tails in any part. The invention is thus alluded to in Hudibras:—
"Honour is like that glassy bubble
That finds philosophers such trouble,
Whose least part cracked, the whole does fly,
And wits are cracked to find out why."
Port II., canto ii., line 385.
---Diary and correspondence of Samuel Pepys, the diary deciphered by J. Smith. 1854.
Chart showing the number of references in each month of the diary’s entries.