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Thomas Wriothesley
Thomas Wriothesley, 4th Earl of Southampton
Born (1607-03-10)10 March 1607
Died 16 May 1667(1667-05-16) (aged 60)
Title 4th Earl of Southampton
Tenure 1624-1667
Other titles Earl of Chichester
Lord Wriothesley
Nationality English
Offices Lord High Treasurer
Predecessor Henry Wriothesley, 3rd Earl of Southampton
Spouse(s) Rachel de Massue
Lady Elizabeth Leigh
Frances Seymour
Parents Henry Wriothesley, 3rd Earl of Southampton
Elizabeth Vernon

Thomas Wriothesley, 4th Earl of Southampton, KG (/ˈrəθsli/[1] REYE-əths-lee; 10 March 1607 – 16 May 1667), styled Lord Wriothesley before 1624, was a 17th-century English statesman, a staunch supporter of Charles II who would rise to the position of Lord High Treasurer after the English Restoration. His term as treasurer began concurrently with the assumption of power by the Clarendon Ministry, but his death would precede Lord Clarendon's impeachment from the House of Commons, after which the Cabal Ministry took over government.

Lord Southampton, having acceded to the earldom in 1624, attended St. John's College, Cambridge.[2] At first, he sided with the Parliament supporters upon the subjects leading to the English Civil War, but upon his realisation of their leaders' violence, he became a loyal supporter of Charles I. While remaining very loyal to the deposed monarch, he still vied for peace, representing the king at several peace conferences (as Encyclopædia Britannica notes, he attended at least two conferences: one in 1643, and one at Uxbridge in 1645). He was allowed to live within England, having paid the Commonwealth over £6000.

Several months after the Restoration, Lord Southampton was appointed Lord High Treasurer (8 September 1660), a position in which he would serve until his death. As the Encyclopædia Britannica notes, Lord Southampton "was remarkable for his freedom from any taint of corruption and for his efforts in the interests of economy and financial order," a noble if not completely objective view of his work as the keeper of the nation's finances.

Samuel Pepys admired Southampton's integrity and the stoicism with which he endured his painful last illness, but clearly had doubts about his competence as Treasurer; in particular he graphically described the Council meeting in April 1665 where Southampton helplessly asked him where he was to find the funds requested: "Why, what means all this, Mr. Pepys? This is true, you say, but what would you have me do? I have given all I can for my life. Why will not people lend their money?"[3] Against that, Pepys admitted that Sir William Coventry, the colleague he most admired, was in his turn an admirer of Southampton, whom he described as "a great statesman". Coventry recalled that other Ministers would joke that having said that it was "impossible" to find money, Southampton always did find it. Southampton however once grimly remarked that "Impossible will be found impossible at the last", an accurate prophecy of the crisis of 1672 which led to the Stop of the Exchequer.

Lord Southampton's name lives on in London; both Southampton Row and Southampton Street, Holborn are named after him.

Portrait of Rachel de Massue, Countess of Southampton, by Anthony van Dyck, c.1638


He was the only surviving son of Henry Wriothesley, 3rd Earl of Southampton and his wife Elizabeth Vernon.

He married three times and had three daughters. His first wife was French Huguenot Rachel de Massue (1603- 16 February 1640), the aunt of Henri de Massue, Marquis de Ruvigny, 1st Viscount Galway. Upon his death in 1667, his two daughters by Rachel, Elizabeth Wriothesley, Viscountess Campden, wife of Edward Noel, 1st Earl of Gainsborough and Rachel Wriothesley, the wife of William Russell, Lord Russell received all of their father's property. This property eventually passed to the Russell's only son, the 2nd Duke of Bedford.

His second marriage was to Lady Elizabeth Leigh, daughter of Francis Leigh, 1st Earl of Chichester from whom he inherited the title Earl of Chichester on Leigh's death.[4] Their only child, Lady Elizabeth Wriothesley would, firstly, marry Joceline Percy, 11th Earl of Northumberland and upon his decease, she, secondly, married Ralph Montagu, 1st Duke of Montagu.[5]

His third marriage was to Frances Seymour, the daughter of William Seymour, 2nd Duke of Somerset and Lady Frances Devereux. He was the second of her three husbands. This marriage remained childless.


  1. ^ Wells, J. C. Longman Pronunciation Dictionary. 3rd edition. Harlow: Pearson Education Limited, 2008.
  2. ^ "Wriothesley, Thomas (WRTY642T)". A Cambridge Alumni Database. University of Cambridge. 
  3. ^ Diary of Samuel Pepys 12 April 1665
  4. ^
  5. ^ Leslie Stephen (ed.). Dictionary of National Biography 38. p. 263. Retrieved 2009-11-02. 
Political offices
Preceded by
The Earl of Portland
The 1st Duke of Richmond
Lord Lieutenant of Hampshire
jointly with The Earl of Portland
The 1st Duke of Richmond

English Interregnum
Preceded by
Sir Henry Wallop
Custos Rotulorum of Hampshire
Preceded by
In Commission
(First Lord: Sir Edward Hyde)
Lord High Treasurer
Succeeded by
In Commission
(First Lord: The Duke of Albemarle)
Honorary titles
English Interregnum Custos Rotulorum of Hampshire
Succeeded by
Lord Percy
Lord Lieutenant of Norfolk
Succeeded by
The Lord Townshend
Lord Lieutenant of Hampshire
Succeeded by
Lord St John
Preceded by
The Duke of Somerset
Lord Lieutenant of Wiltshire
Succeeded by
The Earl of Clarendon
Preceded by
The Lord Windsor
Lord Lieutenant of Worcestershire
Succeeded by
The Lord Windsor
Preceded by
The Earl of Winchilsea
Lord Lieutenant of Kent
Succeeded by
The Earl of Winchilsea
The 3rd Duke of Richmond
Peerage of England
Preceded by
Henry Wriothesley
Earl of Southampton
Preceded by
Francis Leigh
Earl of Chichester

9 Annotations

Cumgranissalis  •  Link

prev: ref
Wriothesley, Thomas (4th Earl of Southampton, Lord Treasurer)
Thomas Wriothesley, 4th earl of Southampton born 1607
died May 16, 1667, London, Eng
major supporter of both Charles I and Charles II of England.
The only surviving son of the 3rd Earl, Thomas attended St. John's College, Cambridge. When the dispute began between Charles I and Parliament, he took the side of the latter, but soon the violence of its leaders drove him to support Charles, one of whose most loyal advisers he remained thereafter.

Cumgranissalis  •  Link

Family seat: The Manor of Botley ??????
Botley good for golf -N.E of Southhampton NW of Portsmouth

Wim van der Meij  •  Link

Warrington has the following as a note to 'Southampton's parks and lands': "Titchfield House, erected by Sir Thomas Wriothesley, on the site of an abbey of Premonstratensians, granted to him with their estates, 29th Henry VIII. Upon the death of his descendant, Thomas Wriothesley, Earl of Southampton, the Lord Treasurer, without male issue, the house and manor were allottes to his eldest daughter Elizabeth, wife of Edmund Noel, first Earl of Gainsborough; and their only son dying s.p.m., the property devolved to his sister Elizabeth, married to Henry Bentinck, first Duke of Portland, whose grandson, the third duke, alienated it to Mr Delme. The duke's second title is taken from this place."

Bill  •  Link

He was a man [The Earl of Southampton] of great vertue, and of very good parts. He had a lively apprehension, and a good judgment. He had merited much by his constant adhering to the King's interest during the war, and by the large supplies he had sent him every year during his exile, for he had a great estate, and only three daughters to inherit it. He was Lord Treasurer: But he grew soon weary of business; for as he was subject to the stone, which returned often and violently upon him, so he retained the principles of liberty, and did not go into the violent measures of the Court. When he saw the King's temper, and his way of managing, or rather of spoiling business, he grew very uneasy, and kept himself more out of the way than was consistent with that high post. The King stood in some awe of him; and saw how popular he would grow, if put out of his service: And therefore he chose rather to bear with his ill humour and contradiction, than to dismiss him. He left the business of the treasury wholly in the hands of his secretary, Sir Philip Warwick, who was an honest, but a weak man, understood the common road of the treasury, he was an incorrupt man, and during seven years management of the treasury made but an ordinary fortune out of it. Before the Restoration the Lord Treasurer had but a small salary, with an allowance for a table; but he gave, or rather sold, all the subaltern places, and made great profits out of the estate of the Crown: But now, that estate being gone, and the Earl of Southampton disdaining to sell places, the matter was settled so, that the Lord Treasurer was to have 8000 l. a year, and the King was to name all the subaltern officers. It continued to be so all his time: But since that time the Lord Treasurer has both the 8000 l. and a main hand in the disposing of those places.
---History of His Own Time. G. Burnet, 1724

Bill  •  Link

The earl of Southampton, like another Sully, was placed at the head of the treasury after the ravage and confusion of the civil war. He, with the capacity and application of that able minister, undertook to reduce the public accounts to regularity and order; and happily succeeded in that great attempt. But the king, who had not the least œconomy himself, was too apt to overlook that virtue in others; and, what was still worse, was inclined to pull down much faster than his treasurer could build up. This excellent person, who was loyal, and yet a patriot, died too soon for the good of his country. He was a man of a quick and lively conception, prompt elocution, and invincible integrity. He was of an amiable and examplary character in domestic life; and, to say all in one word, was in his great office in the treasury, what his friend the lord Clarendon was in the high court of chancery. Ob. 16 May, 1667. Upon his decease, the treasury was put into commission, and the duke of Albemarle was appointed first commissioner.
---A Biographical History of England. J. Granger, 1779.

Bill  •  Link

WRIOTHESLEY, THOMAS, fourth Earl Of Southampton (1607-1667), son of Henry Wriothesley, third earl of Southampton; succeeded to title, 1624; of Eton and Magdalen College, Oxford; supported resolution of House of Commons that redress of grievances should precede supply, but subsequently joined Charles I; privy councillor, 1642; became one of Charles I's closest advisers, making repeated efforts for peace; after Charles I's execution lived in retirement in country; privy councillor to Charles II and K.G.; lord high treasurer of England, 1660-7; opposed in council and parliament bill for liberty of conscience, 1663.
---Dictionary of National Biography: Index and Epitome. S. Lee, 1906.

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