The overlays that highlight 17th century London features are approximate and derived from Wenceslaus Hollar’s maps:

Open location in Google Maps: 51.513389, -0.090723


The area shown on the map is based approximately on the location of the Roman walls.


This text was copied from Wikipedia on 20 July 2024 at 3:11AM.

City of London
the Square Mile, the City
Domine Dirige Nos (Latin)
"O Lord Direct us"
(motto of City of London Corporation)
Location within Greater London
Location within Greater London
Coordinates: 51°30′56″N 00°05′35″W / 51.51556°N 0.09306°W / 51.51556; -0.09306
StatusSui generis; city and ceremonial county
Sovereign stateUnited Kingdom
Roman settlementc. 47 AD (Londinium)
Wessex resettlement886 AD (Lundenburg)
 • BodyCity of London Corporation
 • Lord MayorMichael Mainelli
 • Town ClerkIan Thomas
 • Admin HQGuildhall
 • London AssemblyUnmesh Desai (Lab; City and East)
 • UK ParliamentRachel Blake (Lab; Cities of London and Westminster)
 • City1.12 sq mi (2.90 km2)
Highest elevation
69 ft (21 m)
Lowest elevation
0 ft (0 m)
 • City10,847
 • Rank295th (of 296)
 • Density9,700/sq mi (3,700/km2)
Time zoneUTC±00:00 (GMT)
 • Summer (DST)UTC+01:00 (BST)
Area code020
ISO 3166-2GB-LND
PoliceCity of London Police
Patron saintSt. Paul

The City of London, also known as the City, is a city, ceremonial county and local government district[note 1] that contains the ancient centre, and constitutes, along with Canary Wharf, the primary central business district (CBD) of London and one of the leading financial centres of the world.[2] It constituted most of London from its settlement by the Romans in the 1st century AD to the Middle Ages, but the modern area referred to as London has since grown far beyond the City of London boundary.[3][4] The City is now only a small part of the metropolis of Greater London, though it remains a notable part of central London. The City of London is not one of the London boroughs, a status reserved for the other 32 districts (including Greater London's only other city, the City of Westminster). It is also a separate ceremonial county, being an enclave surrounded by Greater London, and is the smallest ceremonial county in England.

The City of London is known colloquially as the Square Mile, as it is 1.12 sq mi (716.80 acres; 2.90 km2)[5] in area. Both the terms the City and the Square Mile are often used as metonyms for the UK's trading and financial services industries, which continue a notable history of being largely based in the City.[6] The name London is now ordinarily used for a far wider area than just the City. London most often denotes the sprawling London metropolis, or the 32 Greater London boroughs, in addition to the City of London itself.

The local authority for the City, namely the City of London Corporation, is unique in the UK and has some unusual responsibilities for a local council, such as being the police authority. It is also unusual in having responsibilities and ownerships beyond its boundaries, e.g. Hampstead Heath.[7] The corporation is headed by the Lord Mayor of the City of London (an office separate from, and much older than, the Mayor of London). The Lord Mayor, as of November 2023, is Michael Mainelli.[8] The City is made up of 25 wards, with administration at the historic Guildhall. Other historic sites include St Paul's Cathedral, Royal Exchange, Mansion House, Old Bailey, and Smithfield Market. Although not within the City, the adjacent Tower of London, built to dominate the City, is part of its old defensive perimeter. The City has responsibility for five bridges across the Thames in its capacity as trustee of the Bridge House Estates: Blackfriars Bridge, Millennium Bridge, Southwark Bridge, London Bridge and Tower Bridge.

The City is a major business and financial centre,[9] with both the Bank of England and the London Stock Exchange based in the City. Throughout the 19th century, the City was the world's primary business centre, and it continues to be a major meeting point for businesses.[10] London came second (after New York) in the Global Financial Centres Index, published in 2022. The insurance industry is located in the eastern side of the city, around Lloyd's building. Since about the 1980s, a secondary financial district has existed outside the city, at Canary Wharf, 2.5 miles (4 km) to the east. The legal profession forms a major component of the northern and western sides of the City, especially in the Temple and Chancery Lane areas where the Inns of Court are located, of which two—Inner Temple and Middle Temple—fall within the City of London boundary.

The City has a resident population of 8,583 based on 2021 census figures,[11][12] but over 500,000 are employed there (as of 2019)[13] and some estimates put the number of workers in the City to be over 1 million. About three-quarters of the jobs in the City of London are in the financial, professional, and associated business services sectors.[14]



The Waterloo Helmet, c. 150–50 BC, found in the River Thames
A surviving fragment of the London Wall, built around AD 200, close to Tower Hill

The Roman legions established a settlement known as "Londinium" on the current site of the City of London around AD 43. Its bridge over the River Thames turned the city into a road nexus and major port, serving as a major commercial centre in Roman Britain until its abandonment during the 5th century. Archaeologist Leslie Wallace notes that, because extensive archaeological excavation has not revealed any signs of a significant pre-Roman presence, "arguments for a purely Roman foundation of London are now common and uncontroversial."[15]

At its height, the Roman city had a population of approximately 45,000–60,000 inhabitants. Londinium was an ethnically diverse city, with inhabitants from across the Roman Empire, including natives of Britannia, continental Europe, the Middle East, and North Africa.[16] The Romans built the London Wall some time between AD 190 and 225. The boundaries of the Roman city were similar to those of the City of London today, though the City extends further west than Londinium's Ludgate, and the Thames was undredged and thus wider than it is today, with Londinium's shoreline slightly north of the city's present shoreline. The Romans built a bridge across the river, as early as AD 50, near to today's London Bridge.


By the time the London Wall was constructed, the city's fortunes were in decline, and it faced problems of plague and fire. The Roman Empire entered a long period of instability and decline, including the Carausian Revolt in Britain. In the 3rd and 4th centuries, the city was under attack from Picts, Scots, and Saxon raiders. The decline continued, both for Londinium and the Empire, and in AD 410 the Romans withdrew entirely from Britain. Many of the Roman public buildings in Londinium by this time had fallen into decay and disuse, and gradually after the formal withdrawal the city became almost (if not, at times, entirely) uninhabited. The centre of trade and population moved away from the walled Londinium to Lundenwic ("London market"), a settlement to the west, roughly in the modern-day Strand/Aldwych/Covent Garden area.

Anglo-Saxon restoration

During the Anglo-Saxon Heptarchy, the London area came in turn under the Kingdoms of Essex, Mercia, and later Wessex, though from the mid 8th century it was frequently under threat from raids by different groups including the Vikings.

Plaque near Southwark Bridge noting the activities around the time of King Alfred

Bede records that in AD 604 St Augustine consecrated Mellitus as the first bishop to the Anglo-Saxon kingdom of the East Saxons and their king, Sæberht. Sæberht's uncle and overlord, Æthelberht, king of Kent, built a church dedicated to St Paul in London, as the seat of the new bishop.[17] It is assumed, although unproven, that this first Anglo-Saxon cathedral stood on the same site as the later medieval and the present cathedrals.

Alfred the Great, King of Wessex occupied and began the resettlement of the old Roman walled area, in 886, and appointed his son-in-law Earl Æthelred of Mercia over it as part of their reconquest of the Viking occupied parts of England. The refortified Anglo-Saxon settlement was known as Lundenburh ("London Fort", a borough). The historian Asser said that "Alfred, king of the Anglo-Saxons, restored the city of London splendidly ... and made it habitable once more."[18] Alfred's "restoration" entailed reoccupying and refurbishing the nearly deserted Roman walled city, building quays along the Thames, and laying a new city street plan.[19]

Alfred's taking of London and the rebuilding of the old Roman city was a turning point in history, not only as the permanent establishment of the City of London, but also as part of a unifying moment in early England, with Wessex becoming the dominant English kingdom and the repelling (to some degree) of the Viking occupation and raids. While London, and indeed England, were afterwards subjected to further periods of Viking and Danish raids and occupation, the establishment of the City of London and the Kingdom of England prevailed.[20]

In the 10th century, Athelstan permitted eight mints to be established, compared with six in his capital, Winchester, indicating the wealth of the city. London Bridge, which had fallen into ruin following the Roman evacuation and abandonment of Londinium, was rebuilt by the Saxons, but was periodically destroyed by Viking raids and storms.

As the focus of trade and population was moved back to within the old Roman walls, the older Saxon settlement of Lundenwic was largely abandoned and gained the name of Ealdwic (the "old settlement"). The name survives today as Aldwych (the "old market-place"), a name of a street and an area of the City of Westminster between Westminster and the City of London.

Medieval era

Map of London in about 1300
A pivotal event during the Peasants' Revolt, 1381: their leader Wat Tyler is stabbed by William Walworth, Lord Mayor.

Following the Battle of Hastings, William the Conqueror marched on London, reaching as far as Southwark, but failed to get across London Bridge or defeat the Londoners. He eventually crossed the River Thames at Wallingford, pillaging the land as he went. Rather than continuing the war, Edgar the Ætheling, Edwin of Mercia and Morcar of Northumbria surrendered at Berkhamsted. William granted the citizens of London a charter in 1075; the city was one of a few examples of the English retaining some authority. The city was not covered by the Domesday Book.

William built three castles around the city, to keep Londoners subdued:

Around 1132 the City was given the right to appoint its own sheriffs rather than having sheriffs appointed by the monarch. London's chosen sheriffs also served as the sheriffs for the county of Middlesex. This meant that the City and Middlesex were regarded as one administratively for addressing crime and keeping the peace (not that the county was a dependency of the city). London's sheriffs continued to serve Middlesex until the county was given its own sheriffs again following the Local Government Act 1888.[21][22] By 1141 the whole body of the citizenry was considered to constitute a single community. This 'commune' was the origin of the City of London Corporation and the citizens gained the right to appoint, with the king's consent, a mayor in 1189—and to directly elect the mayor from 1215.

From medieval times, the city has been composed of 25 ancient wards, each headed by an alderman, who chairs Wardmotes, which still take place at least annually. A Folkmoot, for the whole of the City held at the outdoor cross of St Paul's Cathedral, was formerly also held. Many of the medieval offices and traditions continue to the present day, demonstrating the unique nature of the City and its Corporation.

In 1381, the Peasants' Revolt affected London. The rebels took the City and the Tower of London, but the rebellion ended after its leader, Wat Tyler, was killed during a confrontation that included Lord Mayor William Walworth. In 1450, rebel forces again occupied the City during Jack Cade's Rebellion before being ousted by London citizens following a bloody battle on London Bridge. In 1550, the area south of London Bridge in Southwark came under the control of the City with the establishment of the ward of Bridge Without.

The "Woodcut" map of London, dating from the 1560s
Map showing the extent of the Great Fire of London, which destroyed nearly 80% of the City
The 1666 Great Fire as depicted in a 17th-century painting: it depicts Old London Bridge, churches, houses, and the Tower of London as seen from a boat near Tower Wharf.

The city was burnt severely on a number of occasions, the worst being in 1123 and in the Great Fire of London in 1666. Both of these fires were referred to as the Great Fire. After the fire of 1666, a number of plans were drawn up to remodel the city and its street pattern into a renaissance-style city with planned urban blocks, squares and boulevards. These plans were almost entirely not taken up, and the medieval street pattern re-emerged almost intact.

Early modern period

In the 1630s the Crown sought to have the Corporation of the City of London extend its jurisdiction to surrounding areas. In what is sometimes called the "great refusal", the Corporation said no to the King, which in part accounts for its unique government structure to the present.[23]

By the late 16th century, London increasingly became a major centre for banking, international trade and commerce. The Royal Exchange was founded in 1565 by Sir Thomas Gresham as a centre of commerce for London's merchants, and gained Royal patronage in 1571. Although no longer used for its original purpose, its location at the corner of Cornhill and Threadneedle Street continues to be the geographical centre of the city's core of banking and financial services, with the Bank of England moving to its present site in 1734, opposite the Royal Exchange. Immediately to the south of Cornhill, Lombard Street was the location from 1691 of Lloyd's Coffee House, which became the world-leading insurance market. London's insurance sector continues to be based in the area, particularly in Lime Street.

In 1708, Christopher Wren's masterpiece, St Paul's Cathedral, was completed on his birthday. The first service had been held on 2 December 1697, more than 10 years earlier. It replaced the original St Paul's, which had been completely destroyed in the Great Fire of London, and is considered to be one of the finest cathedrals in Britain and a fine example of Baroque architecture.

Growth of London

The 18th century was a period of rapid growth for London, reflecting an increasing national population, the early stirrings of the Industrial Revolution, and London's role at the centre of the evolving British Empire. The urban area expanded beyond the borders of the City of London, most notably during this period towards the West End and Westminster.

Expansion continued and became more rapid by the beginning of the 19th century, with London growing in all directions. To the East the Port of London grew rapidly during the century, with the construction of many docks, needed as the Thames at the City could not cope with the volume of trade. The arrival of the railways and the Tube meant that London could expand over a much greater area. By the mid-19th century, with London still rapidly expanding in population and area, the City had already become only a small part of the wider metropolis.

19th and 20th centuries

An attempt was made in 1894 with the Royal Commission on the Amalgamation of the City and County of London to end the distinction between the city and the surrounding County of London, but a change of government at Westminster meant the option was not taken up. The city as a distinct polity survived despite its position within the London conurbation and numerous local government reforms. Supporting this status, the city was a special parliamentary borough that elected four members to the unreformed House of Commons, who were retained after the Reform Act 1832; reduced to two under the Redistribution of Seats Act 1885; and ceased to be a separate constituency under the Representation of the People Act 1948. Since then the city is a minority (in terms of population and area) of the Cities of London and Westminster.

St Paul's Cathedral (pictured 1896) dominated the skyline of the City for centuries — its current structure by Christopher Wren was completed in 1706, after its medieval predecessor burned with much of the City in the Great Fire of 1666.

The city's population fell rapidly in the 19th century and through most of the 20th century, as people moved outwards in all directions to London's vast suburbs, and many residential buildings were demolished to make way for office blocks. Like many areas of London and other British cities, the City fell victim to large scale and highly destructive aerial bombing during World War II, especially in the Blitz. Whilst St Paul's Cathedral survived the onslaught, large swathes of the area did not and the particularly heavy raids of late December 1940 led to a firestorm called the Second Great Fire of London.

There was a major rebuilding programme in the decades following the war, in some parts (such as at the Barbican) dramatically altering the urban landscape. But the destruction of the older historic fabric allowed the construction of modern and larger-scale developments, whereas in those parts not so badly affected by bomb damage the City retains its older character of smaller buildings. The street pattern, which is still largely medieval, was altered slightly in places, although there is a more recent trend of reversing some of the post-war modernist changes made, such as at Paternoster Square.

The City suffered terrorist attacks including the 1993 Bishopsgate bombing (IRA) and the 7 July 2005 London bombings (Islamist). In response to the 1993 bombing, a system of road barriers, checkpoints and surveillance cameras referred to as the "ring of steel" has been maintained to control entry points to the city.

The 1970s saw the construction of tall office buildings including the 600-foot (183 m), 47-storey NatWest Tower, the first skyscraper in the UK. By the 2010s, office space development had intensified in the City, especially in the central, northern and eastern parts, with skyscrapers including 30 St. Mary Axe ("the Gherkin"'), Leadenhall Building ("the Cheesegrater"), 20 Fenchurch Street ("the Walkie-Talkie"), the Broadgate Tower, the Heron Tower and 22 Bishopsgate.

The main residential section of the City today is the Barbican Estate, constructed between 1965 and 1976. The Museum of London was based there until March 2023 (due to reopen in West Smithfield in 2026),[24] whilst a number of other services provided by the corporation are still maintained on the Barbican Estate.


Guildhall is the ceremonial and administrative centre of the city.
Mansion House is the official residence of the Lord Mayor.
John Stuttard, Lord Mayor of the City of London 2006–2007, during the Lord Mayor's Show of 2006

The city has a unique political status, a legacy of its uninterrupted integrity as a corporate city since the Anglo-Saxon period and its singular relationship with the Crown. Historically its system of government was not unusual, but it was not reformed by the Municipal Corporations Act 1835 and little changed by later reforms, so that it is the only local government in the UK where elections are not run on the basis of one vote for every adult citizen.

It is administered by the City of London Corporation, headed by the Lord Mayor of London (not to be confused with the separate Mayor of London, an office created only in the year 2000), which is responsible for a number of functions and has interests in land beyond the city's boundaries. Unlike other English local authorities, the corporation has two council bodies: the (now largely ceremonial) Court of Aldermen and the Court of Common Council. The Court of Aldermen represents the wards, with each ward (irrespective of size) returning one alderman. The chief executive of the Corporation holds the ancient office of Town Clerk of London.

The city is a ceremonial county which has a Commission of Lieutenancy headed by the Lord Mayor instead of a Lord-Lieutenant and has two Sheriffs instead of a High Sheriff (see list of Sheriffs of London), quasi-judicial offices appointed by the livery companies, an ancient political system based on the representation and protection of trades (guilds). Senior members of the livery companies are known as liverymen and form the Common Hall, which chooses the lord mayor, the sheriffs and certain other officers.


The city is made up of 25 wards. They are survivors of the medieval government system that allowed a very local area to exist as a self-governing unit within the wider city.[25] They can be described as electoral/political divisions; ceremonial, geographic and administrative entities; sub-divisions of the city. Each ward has an Alderman, who until the mid-1960s[26] held office for life but since put themselves up for re-election at least every 6 years, and are the only directly elected Aldermen in the United Kingdom. Wards continue to have a Beadle, an ancient position which is now largely ceremonial whose main remaining function is the running of an annual Wardmote of electors, representatives and officials.[27] At the Wardmote the ward's Alderman appoints at least one Deputy for the year ahead, and Wardmotes are also held during elections. Each ward also has a Ward Club, which is similar to a residents' association.[28]

The wards are ancient and their number has changed three times since time immemorial:

  • in 1394 Farringdon was divided into Farringdon Within and Farringdon Without
  • in 1550 the ward of Bridge Without, south of the river, was created, the ward of Bridge becoming Bridge Within;[29]
  • in 1978 these Bridge wards were merged as Bridge ward.[30]
A map of the wards as they were in the late 19th century
A map of the wards since 2003

Following boundary changes in 1994, and later reform of the business vote in the city, there was a major boundary and electoral representation revision of the wards in 2003, and they were reviewed again in 2010 for change in 2013, though not to such a dramatic extent. The review was conducted by senior officers of the corporation and senior judges of the Old Bailey;[31] the wards are reviewed by this process to avoid malapportionment. The procedure of review is unique in the United Kingdom as it is not conducted by the Electoral Commission or a local government boundary commission every 8 to 12 years, which is the case for all other wards in Great Britain. Particular churches, livery company halls and other historic buildings and structures are associated with a ward, such as St Paul's Cathedral with Castle Baynard, and London Bridge with Bridge; boundary changes in 2003 removed some of these historic connections.

Each ward elects an alderman to the Court of Aldermen, and commoners (the City equivalent of a councillor) to the Court of Common Council of the corporation. Only electors who are Freemen of the City of London are eligible to stand. The number of commoners a ward sends to the Common Council varies from two to ten, depending on the number of electors in each ward. Since the 2003 review it has been agreed that the four more residential wards: Portsoken, Queenhithe, Aldersgate and Cripplegate together elect 20 of the 100 commoners, whereas the business-dominated remainder elect the remaining 80 commoners. 2003 and 2013 boundary changes have increased the residential emphasis of the mentioned four wards.

Census data provides eight nominal rather than 25 real wards, all of varying size and population. Being subject to renaming and definition at any time, these census 'wards' are notable in that four of the eight wards accounted for 67% of the 'square mile' and held 86% of the population, and these were in fact similar to and named after four City of London wards:

Extract of census 'wards' where approximate to underlying legal wards[32]
Census ward % of the City
of London
Residents % of built-upon land
Commercial Residential
Cripplegate (east half of Barbican neighbourhood) 10.0% 2,782 79% 21%
Aldersgate (west half of Barbican neighbourhood) 4.5% 1,465 81% 19%
Farringdon Without (and much of Castle Baynard) 22.1% 1,099 90% 10%
Portsoken (contains Aldgate Underground station) 6.6% 985 86% 14%


The city has a unique electoral system. Most of its voters are representatives of businesses and other bodies that occupy premises in the city. Its ancient wards have very unequal numbers of voters. In elections, both the businesses based in the city and the residents of the City vote.

The City of London Corporation was not reformed by the Municipal Corporations Act 1835, because it had a more extensive electoral franchise than any other borough or city; in fact, it widened this further with its own equivalent legislation allowing one to become a freeman without being a liveryman. In 1801, the city had a population of about 130,000, but increasing development of the city as a central business district led to this falling to below 5,000 after the Second World War. It has risen slightly to around 9,000 since, largely due to the development of the Barbican Estate. In 2009, the business vote was about 24,000, greatly exceeding residential voters.[33] As the City of London Corporation has not been affected by other municipal legislation over the period of time since then, its electoral practice has become increasingly anomalous. Uniquely for city or borough elections, its elections remain independent-dominated.

The business or "non-residential vote" was abolished in other UK local council elections by the Representation of the People Act 1969, but was preserved in the City of London. The principal reason given by successive UK governments for retaining this mechanism for giving businesses representation, is that the city is "primarily a place for doing business".[34] About 330,000 non-residents constitute the day-time population and use most of its services, far outnumbering residents, who number around 7,000 (2011). By contrast, opponents of the retention of the business vote argue that it is a cause of institutional inertia.[35]

The City of London (Ward Elections) Act 2002, a private Act of Parliament,[36] reformed the voting system and greatly increased the business franchise, allowing many more businesses to be represented. Under the new system, the number of non-resident voters has doubled from 16,000 to 32,000. Previously disenfranchised firms (and other organisations) are entitled to nominate voters, in addition to those already represented, and all such bodies are now required to choose their voters in a representative fashion. Bodies employing fewer than 10 people may appoint 1 voter; those employing 10 to 50 people 1 voter for every 5 employees; those employing more than 50 people 10 voters and 1 additional voter for each 50 employees beyond the first 50. The Act also changed other aspects of an earlier act relating to elections in the city, from 1957.

The Temple

Inner Temple and Middle Temple (which neighbour each other) in the western ward of Farringdon Without are within the boundaries and liberties of the City, but can be thought of as independent enclaves. They are two of the few remaining liberties, an old name for a geographic division with special rights. They are extra-parochial areas,[37] historically not governed by the City of London Corporation[38] (and are today regarded as local authorities for most purposes[39]) and equally outside the ecclesiastical jurisdiction of the Bishop of London.

Other functions

Leadenhall Market is a historic market nestled between Gracechurch Street and Lime Street.

Within the city, the Corporation owns and runs both Smithfield Market and Leadenhall Market. It owns land beyond its boundaries, including open spaces (parks, forests and commons) in and around Greater London, including most of Epping Forest and Hampstead Heath. The Corporation owns Old Spitalfields Market and Billingsgate Fish Market, in the neighbouring London Borough of Tower Hamlets. It owns and helps fund the Old Bailey, the Central Criminal Court for England and Wales, as a gift to the nation, having begun as the City and Middlesex Sessions. The Honourable The Irish Society, a body closely linked with the corporation, also owns many public spaces in Northern Ireland.

The city has its own independent police force, the City of London Police—the Common Council (the main body of the corporation) is the police authority.[40] The corporation also run the Hampstead Heath Constabulary, Epping Forest Keepers and the City of London market constabularies (whose members are no longer attested as constables but retain the historic title). The majority of Greater London is policed by the Metropolitan Police Service, based at New Scotland Yard.

The city has one hospital, St Bartholomew's Hospital, also known as 'Barts'. Founded in 1123, it is located at Smithfield, and is undergoing a long-awaited regeneration after doubts as to its continuing use during the 1990s.

The city is the third largest UK patron of the arts. It oversees the Barbican Centre and subsidises several important performing arts companies.

The London Port Health Authority, which is the responsibility of the corporation, is responsible for all port health functions on the tidal part of the Thames, including the Port of London and related seaports, and London City Airport.[41] The Corporation oversees the Bridge House Estates, which maintains Blackfriars Bridge, Millennium Bridge, Southwark Bridge, London Bridge and Tower Bridge. The City's flag flies over Tower Bridge, although neither footing is in the city.[42]

The boundary of the City

City of London boundary marker on approach to London Bridge

The size of the city was constrained by a defensive perimeter wall, known as London Wall, which was built by the Romans in the late 2nd century to protect their strategic port city. However the boundaries of the City of London no longer coincide with the old city wall, as the City expanded its jurisdiction slightly over time. During the medieval era, the city's jurisdiction expanded westwards, crossing the historic western border of the original settlement—the River Fleet—along Fleet Street to Temple Bar. The city also took in the other "City bars" which were situated just beyond the old walled area, such as at Holborn, Aldersgate, West Smithfield, Bishopsgate and Aldgate. These were the important entrances to the city and their control was vital in maintaining the city's special privileges over certain trades.

Dragon statue on the Temple Bar monument, which marks the boundary between the City of London and City of Westminster

Most of the wall has disappeared, but several sections remain visible. A section near the Museum of London was revealed after the devastation of an air raid on 29 December 1940 at the height of the Blitz. Other visible sections are at St Alphage, and there are two sections near the Tower of London. The River Fleet was canalised after the Great Fire of 1666 and then in stages was bricked up and has been since the 18th century one of London's "lost rivers or streams", today underground as a storm drain.

The boundary of the city was unchanged until minor boundary changes on 1 April 1994, when it expanded slightly to the west, north and east, taking small parcels of land from the London Boroughs of Westminster, Camden, Islington, Hackney and Tower Hamlets. The main purpose of these changes was to tidy up the boundary where it had been rendered obsolete by changes in the urban landscape. In this process the city also lost small parcels of land, though there was an overall net gain (the City grew from 1.05 to 1.12 square miles). Most notably, the changes placed the (then recently developed) Broadgate estate entirely in the city.[43]

Southwark, to the south of the city on the other side of the Thames, was within the City between 1550 and 1899 as the Ward of Bridge Without, a situation connected with the Guildable Manor. The city's administrative responsibility there had in practice disappeared by the mid-Victorian period as various aspects of metropolitan government were extended into the neighbouring areas. Today it is part of the London Borough of Southwark. The Tower of London has always been outside the city and comes under the London Borough of Tower Hamlets.

Arms, motto and flag

City of London arms on a saddle blanket, as seen outside the Royal Courts of Justice during the Lord Mayor's Show, 2011

The Corporation of the City of London has a full achievement of armorial bearings consisting of a shield on which the arms are displayed, a crest displayed on a helm above the shield, supporters on either side and a motto displayed on a scroll beneath the arms.[44][45][46]

The coat of arms is "anciently recorded" at the College of Arms. The arms consist of a silver shield bearing a red cross with a red upright sword in the first quarter. They combine the emblems of the patron saints of England and London: the Cross of St George with the symbol of the martyrdom of Saint Paul.[45][46] The sword is often erroneously supposed to commemorate the killing of Peasants' Revolt leader Wat Tyler by Lord Mayor of London William Walworth. However the arms were in use some months before Tyler's death, and the tradition that Walworth's dagger is depicted may date from the late 17th century.[45][47][48][49]

The Latin motto of the city is "Domine dirige nos", which translates as "Lord, direct us". It is thought to have been adopted in the 17th century, as the earliest record of it is in 1633.[46][48]

A banner of the arms (the design on the shield) is flown as a flag.


The City of London is the smallest ceremonial county of England by area and population, and the fourth most densely populated. Of the 326 English districts, it is the second smallest by population, after the Isles of Scilly, and the smallest by area. It is also the smallest English city by population (and in Britain, only two cities in Wales are smaller), and the smallest in the UK by area.

The elevation of the City ranges from sea level at the Thames to 21.6 metres (71 ft) at the junction of High Holborn and Chancery Lane.[50] Two small but notable hills are within the historic core, Ludgate Hill to the west and Cornhill to the east. Between them ran the Walbrook, one of the many "lost" rivers or streams of London (another is the Fleet).


Modern borders of the City of London, showing surrounding London boroughs and the pre-1994 boundary (where changed) in red. The area covered by the Inner and Middle Temple is marked in green.

Beginning in the west, where the City borders Westminster, the boundary crosses the Victoria Embankment from the Thames, passes to the west of Middle Temple, then turns for a short distance along the Strand and near Temple Bar then north up Chancery Lane, where it borders Camden. It turns east along Holborn to Holborn Circus and then goes northeast to Charterhouse Street. As it crosses Farringdon Road it becomes the boundary with Islington. It continues to Aldersgate, goes north, and turns east into some back streets soon after Aldersgate becomes Goswell Road, since 1994 embracing all of the corporation's Golden Lane Estate. Here, at Baltic Street West, is the most northerly extent. The boundary includes all of the Barbican Estate and continues east along Ropemaker Street and its continuation on the other side of Moorgate, becomes South Place. It goes north, reaching the border with Hackney, then east, north, east on back streets, with Worship Street forming a northern boundary, so as to include the Broadgate estate. The boundary then turns south at Norton Folgate and becomes the border with Tower Hamlets. It continues south into Bishopsgate, and takes some backstreets to Middlesex Street (Petticoat Lane) where it continues south-east then south. It then turns south-west, crossing the Minories so as to exclude the Tower of London, and then reaches the Thames.

The boundary then runs up the centre of the low-tide channel of the Thames, with the exception that Blackfriars Bridge (including the river beneath and land at its south end) is entirely part of the City, whilst the span and southern abutment of London Bridge is part of the city for some purposes[51] (and as such is part of Bridge ward).[52]

The boundaries are marked by black bollards bearing the city's emblem, and by dragon boundary marks at major entrances, such as Holborn and the south end of London Bridge. A more substantial monument marks the boundary at Temple Bar on Fleet Street.

In some places, the financial district extends slightly beyond the boundaries, notably to the north and east, into the London boroughs of Tower Hamlets, Hackney and Islington, and informally these locations are regarded as being part of the "Square Mile". Since the 1990s the eastern fringe, extending into Hackney and Tower Hamlets, has increasingly been a focus for large office developments due to the availability of large sites compared to within the city.

Gardens and public art

Finsbury Circus, the largest public open space, seen from Tower 42

The city has no sizeable parks within its boundary, but does have a network of a large number of gardens and small open spaces, many of them maintained by the corporation. These range from formal gardens such as the one in Finsbury Circus, containing a bowling green and bandstand, to churchyards such as St Olave Hart Street, to water features and artwork in courtyards and pedestrianised lanes.[53]

Gardens include:

There are a number of private gardens and open spaces, often within courtyards of the larger commercial developments. Two of the largest are those of the Inner Temple and Middle Temple Inns of Court, in the far southwest.

The Thames and its riverside walks are increasingly being valued as open space and in recent years efforts have been made to increase the ability for pedestrians to access and walk along the river.


The nearest weather station has historically been the London Weather Centre at Kingsway/ Holborn, although observations ceased in 2010. Now St. James Park provides the nearest official readings.

The city has an oceanic climate (Köppen "Cfb") modified by the urban heat island in the centre of London. This generally causes higher night-time minima than outlying areas. For example, the August mean minimum[55] of 14.7 °C (58.5 °F) compares to a figure of 13.3 °C (55.9 °F) for Greenwich[56] and Heathrow[57] whereas is 11.6 °C (52.9 °F) at Wisley[58] in the middle of several square miles of Metropolitan Green Belt. All figures refer to the observation period 1971–2000.

Accordingly, the weather station holds the record for the UK's warmest overnight minimum temperature, 24.0 °C (75.2 °F), recorded on 4 August 1990.[59] The maximum is 37.6 °C (99.7 °F), set on 10 August 2003.[60] The absolute minimum[61] for the weather station is a mere −8.2 °C (17.2 °F), compared to readings around −15.0 °C (5.0 °F) towards the edges of London. Unusually, this temperature was during a windy and snowy cold spell (mid-January 1987), rather than a cold clear night—cold air drainage is arrested due to the vast urban area surrounding the city.

The station holds the record for the highest British mean monthly temperature,[62] 24.5 °C (76.1 °F) (mean maximum 29.2 °C (84.6 °F), mean minimum 19.7 °C (67.5 °F) during July 2006). However, in terms of daytime maximum temperatures, Cambridge NIAB[63] and Botanical Gardens[64] with a mean maximum of 29.1 °C (84.4 °F), and Heathrow[65] with 29.0 °C (84.2 °F) all exceeded this.

Climate data for London Weather Centre 1971–2000, 43 m asl
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Mean daily maximum °C (°F) 8.3
Mean daily minimum °C (°F) 3.7

Public services

City of London coat of arms on the street

Police and security

A City of London Police vehicle on Blackfriars Bridge

The city is a police area and has its own police force, the City of London Police, separate from the Metropolitan Police Service covering the majority of Greater London. The City Police previously had three police stations, at Snow Hill, Wood Street and Bishopsgate. They now only retain Bishopsgate along with an administrative headquarters at Guildhall Yard East.[67] The force comprises 735 police officers including 273 detectives.[68] It is the smallest territorial police force in England and Wales, in both geographic area and the number of police officers.

Where the majority of British police forces have silver-coloured badges, those of the City of London Police are black and gold featuring the City crest. The force has rare red and white chequered cap bands and unique red and white striped duty arm bands on the sleeves of the tunics of constables and sergeants (red and white being the colours of the city), which in most other British police forces are black and white. City police sergeants and constables wear crested custodian helmets whilst on foot patrol. These helmets do not feature either St Edward's Crown or the Brunswick Star, which are used on most other police helmets in England and Wales.

The city's position as the United Kingdom's financial centre and a critical part of the country's economy, contributing about 2.5% of the UK's gross national product,[69] has resulted in it becoming a target for political violence. The Provisional IRA exploded several bombs in the early 1990s, including the 1993 Bishopsgate bombing.

The area is also spoken of as a possible target for al-Qaeda. For instance, when in May 2004 the BBC's Panorama programme examined the preparedness of Britain's emergency services for a terrorist attack on the scale of the 11 September 2001 attacks, they simulated a chemical explosion on Bishopsgate in the east of the city. The "Ring of Steel" was established in the wake of the IRA bombings to guard against terrorist threats.

Fire brigade

The city has fire risks in many historic buildings, including St Paul's Cathedral, Old Bailey, Mansion House, Smithfield Market, the Guildhall, and also in numerous high-rise buildings. There is one London Fire Brigade station in the city, at Dowgate, with one pumping appliance.[70] The City relies upon stations in the surrounding London boroughs to support it at some incidents. The first fire engine is in attendance in roughly five minutes on average, the second when required in a little over five and a half minutes.[70] There were 1,814 incidents attended in the City in 2006/2007—the lowest in Greater London. No-one died in an event arising from a fire in the four years prior to 2007.[70]


There is power station located in Charterhouse Street that also provides heat to some of the surrounding buildings.[71]


Population pyramid of the City of London in 2021
Historical population
1801 130,117—    
1811 122,924−5.5%
1821 127,040+3.3%
1831 125,353−1.3%
1841 127,514+1.7%
1851 132,734+4.1%
1861 108,078−18.6%
1871 83,421−22.8%
1881 58,764−29.6%
1891 43,882−25.3%
1901 32,649−25.6%
1911 24,292−25.6%
1921 19,564−19.5%
1931 15,758−19.5%
1941 10,920−30.7%
1951 7,568−30.7%
1961 5,718−24.4%
1971 4,325−24.4%
1981 4,603+6.4%
1991 3,861−16.1%
2001 7,186+86.1%
2011 7,375+2.6%
2021 8,600+16.6%
Sources: Office for National Statistics[72]

The Office for National Statistics recorded the population in 2011 as 7,375;[73] slightly higher than in the previous census, 2001,[74] and estimates the population as at mid-2016 to be 9,401. At the 2001 census the ethnic composition was 84.6% White, 6.8% South Asian, 2.6% Black, 2.3% Mixed, 2.0% Chinese and 1.7% were listed as "other".[74] To the right is a table showing the change in population since 1801, based on decadal censuses. The first half of the 19th century shows a population of between 120,000 and 140,000, decreasing dramatically from 1851 to 1991, with a small increase between 1991 and 2001. The only notable boundary change since the first census in 1801 occurred in 1994.

The city's full-time working residents have much higher gross weekly pay than in London and Great Britain (England, Wales and Scotland): £773.30 compared to £598.60 and £491.00 respectively.[75] There is a large inequality of income between genders (£1,085.90 in men compared to £653.50 in women), though this can be explained by job type and length of employment respectively.[75] The 2001 Census showed the city as a unique district amongst 376 districts surveyed in England and Wales.[74] The city had the highest proportional population increase, one-person households, people with qualifications at degree level or higher and the highest indications of overcrowding.[74] It recorded the lowest proportion of households with cars or vans, people who travel to work by car, married couple households and the lowest average household size: just 1.58 people.[74] It also ranked highest within the Greater London area for the percentage of people with no religion and people who are employed.[74]


Ethnic Group Year
1981 estimations[76] 1991[77] 2001[78] 2011[79] 2021[80]
Number % Number % Number % Number % Number %
White: Total 3,732 95.5% 3,840 92.7% 6,075 84.6% 5,799 78.5% 5,955 69.4%
White: British 4,909 68.3% 4,243 57.5% 3,649 42.5%
White: Irish 241 % 180 2.4% 185 2.2%
White: Gypsy or Irish Traveller 3 0.0% 0 0.0%
White: Roma 59 0.7%
White: Other 925 12.8% 1,373 18.6% 2,062 24.0%
Asian or Asian British: Total 217 5.2% 638 8.9% 940 12.5% 1,445 16.7%
Asian or Asian British: Indian 69 1.7% 159 2.2 % 216 2.9% 321 3.7%
Asian or Asian British: Pakistani 20 0.5% 23 0.3 % 16 0.2% 33 0.4%
Asian or Asian British: Bangladeshi 9 276 3.8 % 232 3.1% 287 3.3%
Asian or Asian British: Chinese 56 1.3% 147 2 % 263 3.5% 545 6.3%
Asian or Asian British: Other Asian 63 1.5% 33 % 213 2.8% 259 3.0%
Black or Black British: Total 38 0.9% 184 2.6% 193 2.5% 232 2.7%
Black or Black British: African 12 0.3% 117 1.6 % 98 1.3% 153 1.8%
Black or Black British: Caribbean 12 0.3% 51 % 46 0.6% 54 0.6%
Black or Black British: Other Black 14 0.3% 16 % 49 0.6% 25 0.3%
Mixed or British Mixed: Total 163 2.3% 289 3.8% 470 5.5%
Mixed: White and Black Caribbean 33 % 38 0.5% 53 0.6%
Mixed: White and Black African 16 % 37 0.5% 49 0.6%
Mixed: White and Asian 57 % 111 1.5% 179 2.1%
Mixed: Other Mixed 57 % 103 1.3% 189 2.2%
Other: Total 47 1.1% 125 1.7% 154 2% 482 5.6%
Other: Arab 69 0.9% 114 1.3%
Other: Any other ethnic group 47 1.1% 125 1.7 % 85 1.1% 368 4.3%
Ethnic minority: Total 177 4.5% 302 7.3% 1,110 15.4% 1,576 21.5% 2,629 30.6%
Total 3,909 100% 4,142 100% 7,185 100% 7,375 100% 8584 100%


The Bank of England, on Threadneedle Street, is the central bank of the United Kingdom.

The City of London vies with New York City's Downtown Manhattan as the financial capital of the world. The London Stock Exchange (shares and bonds), Lloyd's of London (insurance) and the Bank of England are all based in the city.[81] Over 500 banks have offices in the city. The Alternative Investment Market, a market for trades in equities of smaller firms, is a recent development. In 2009, the City of London accounted for 2.4% of UK GDP.[14]

London's foreign exchange market has been described by Reuters as 'the crown jewel of London's financial sector'.[82] Of the $3.98 trillion daily global turnover, as measured in 2009, trading in London accounted for around $1.85 trillion, or 46.7% of the total.[14] The pound sterling, the currency of the United Kingdom, is globally the fourth-most traded currency[83] and the fourth most held reserve currency.[84]

Canary Wharf, a few miles east of the City in Tower Hamlets, which houses many banks and other institutions formerly located in the Square Mile, has since 1991 become another centre for London's financial services industry. Although growth has continued in both locations, and there have been relocations in both directions, the Corporation has come to realise that its planning policies may have been causing financial firms to choose Canary Wharf as a location.

In 2022, 12.3% of City of London residents had been granted non-domicile status in order to avoid their paying tax in the UK.[85]


Paternoster Square, since 2004 the home of the London Stock Exchange

Many major global companies have their headquarters in the city, including Aviva,[86] BT Group,[87] Lloyds Banking Group,[88] Quilter, Prudential,[89] Schroders,[90] Standard Chartered,[91] and Unilever.[92]

A number of the world's largest law firms are headquartered in the city, including four of the "Magic Circle" law firms (Allen & Overy, Freshfields Bruckhaus Deringer, Linklaters and Slaughter & May), as well as other firms such as Ashurst LLP, DLA Piper, Eversheds Sutherland, Herbert Smith Freehills and Hogan Lovells.

Other sectors

Barbican Centre

Whilst the financial sector, and related businesses and institutions, continue to dominate, the economy is not limited to that sector. The legal profession has a strong presence, especially in the west and north (i.e., towards the Inns of Court). Retail businesses were once important, but have gradually moved to the West End of London, though it is now Corporation policy to encourage retailing in some locations, for example at Cheapside near St Paul's. The city has a number of visitor attractions, mainly based on its historic heritage as well as the Barbican Centre and adjacent Museum of London, though tourism is not at present a major contributor to the city's economy or character. The city has many pubs, bars and restaurants, and the "night-time" economy does feature in the Bishopsgate area, towards Shoreditch. The meat market at Smithfield, wholly within the city, continues to be one of London's main markets (the only one remaining in central London) and the country's largest meat market. In the east is Leadenhall Market, a fresh food market that is also a visitor attraction.

Retail and residential

The trend for purely office development is beginning to reverse as the Corporation encourages residential use, albeit with development occurring when it arises on windfall sites. The city has a target of 90 additional dwellings per year.[93] Some of the extra accommodation is in small pre-World War II listed buildings, which are not suitable for occupation by the large companies which now provide much of the city's employment. Recent residential developments include "the Heron", a high-rise residential building on the Milton Court site adjacent to the Barbican, and the Heron Plaza development on Bishopsgate is also expected to include residential parts.

Since the 1990s, the City has diversified away from near exclusive office use in other ways. For example, several hotels and the first department store opened in the 2000s. A shopping centre was more recently opened at One New Change, Cheapside (near St Paul's Cathedral) in October 2010, which is open seven days a week. However, large sections remain quiet at weekends, especially in the eastern section, and it is quite common to find shops, pubs and cafes closed on these days.


Historic buildings

Fire, bombing and post-World War II redevelopment have meant that the city, despite its history, has fewer intact historic structures than one might expect. Nonetheless, there remain many dozens of (mostly Victorian and Edwardian) fine buildings, typically in historicist and neoclassical style. They include the Monument to the Great Fire of London ("the Monument"), St Paul's Cathedral, the Guildhall, the Royal Exchange, Dr. Johnson's House, Mansion House and a great many churches, many designed by Sir Christopher Wren, who also designed St Paul's.

Prince Henry's Room and 2 King's Bench Walk are notable historic survivors of heavy bombing of the Temple area, which has largely been rebuilt to its historic form. Another example of a bomb-damaged place having been restored is Staple Inn on Holborn. A few small sections of the Roman London Wall exist, for example near the Tower of London and in the Barbican area. Among the twentieth-century listed buildings are Bracken House, the first post World War II buildings in the country to be given statutory protection, and the whole of the Barbican and Golden Lane Estate.

The Tower of London is not in the city, but is a notable visitor attraction which brings tourists to the southeast of the city. Other landmark buildings with historical significance include the Bank of England, the Old Bailey, the Custom House, Smithfield Market, Leadenhall Market and St Bartholomew's Hospital. Noteworthy contemporary buildings include a number of modern high-rise buildings (see section below) as well as the Lloyd's building.

The Bank of England (left) and the Royal Exchange (centre) are two of the many significant buildings in the City of London.

Skyscrapers and tall buildings

The City skyline in 2021, including 20 Fenchurch Street, the Leadenhall Building, 30 St Mary Axe & 22 Bishopgate, the tallest building in the City of London. London Bridge to the bottom left.

A growing number of tall buildings and skyscrapers are principally used by the financial sector. Almost all are situated in the eastern side around Bishopsgate, Leadenhall Street and Fenchurch Street, in the financial core of the city. In the north there is a smaller cluster comprising the Barbican Estate's three tall residential towers and the commercial CityPoint tower. In 2007, the 100 m (328 ft) tall Drapers' Gardens building was demolished and replaced by a shorter tower.

The city's buildings of at least 100 m (328 ft) in height are:

Rank Name Completed Image Architect Use Height to roof Floors Location
metres feet
1 Twentytwo 2020 PLP Architects Office 278 912 62 22 Bishopsgate
2 Heron Tower 2010 Kohn Pedersen Fox Office 230 754 46 110 Bishopsgate
3 Leadenhall Building 2014 Rogers Stirk Harbour + Partners Office 225 737 48 122 Leadenhall Street
4 8 Bishopsgate 2022 WilkinsonEyre Office 204 669 51 8 Bishopsgate
5 The Scalpel 2018 Kohn Pedersen Fox Office 190 630 39 52 Lime Street
6 Tower 42 1980 R Siefert & Partners Office 183 600 47 25 Old Broad Street
7 30 St Mary Axe 2003 Foster and Partners Office 180 590 40 30 St Mary Axe
8 100 Bishopsgate 2019 Allies and Morrison Office 172 563 40 100 Bishopsgate
9 Broadgate Tower 2008 SOM Office 164 538 35 201 Bishopsgate
10 20 Fenchurch Street 2014 Rafael Viñoly Office 160 525 37 20 Fenchurch Street
11 40 Leadenhall Street 2022 Make Architects Office 154 505 34 40 Leadenhall Street
12 One Bishopsgate Plaza 2020 MSMR Hotel 135 443 44 150 Bishopsgate
13 CityPoint[A] 1967 F. Milton Cashmore and H. N. W. Grosvenor[94] Office 127 417 36 1 Ropemaker Street
14 Willis Building 2007 Foster and Partners Office 125 410 26 51 Lime Street
=15 Cromwell Tower 1973 Chamberlin, Powell and Bon Residential 123 404 42 Barbican Estate
=15 Lauderdale Tower 1974 Chamberlin, Powell and Bon Residential 123 404 42 Barbican Estate
=15 Shakespeare Tower 1976 Chamberlin, Powell and Bon Residential 123 404 42 Barbican Estate
18 St. Helen's 1969 GMW Architects Office 118 387 28 1 Undershaft
19 The Heron 2013 David Walker Architects Residential 112 367 35 Milton Court
20 St Paul's Cathedral 1710 Sir Christopher Wren Cathedral 111 365 n/a Ludgate Hill
21 99 Bishopsgate 1976 GMW Architects Office 104 340 26 99 Bishopsgate
22 One Angel Court 2017 Fletcher Priest Office 101 331 24 1 Angel Court
23 Stock Exchange Tower 1970 Richard Llewelyn-Davies, Baron Llewelyn-Davies, Weeks, Forestier-Walker and Bar Office 100 328 27 125 Old Broad Street
  1. ^ CityPoint was originally completed in 1967 and named Britannic House standing at 122 m tall, but was refurbished in 2000 and increased to 127 m in height.

The timeline of the tallest building in the city is as follows:

Years as tallest
Height to roof (m)
Height to roof (ft)
Twentytwo 2019–present 278 912 62
Heron Tower 2010–2019 230 754 46
Tower 42 1980–2010 183 600 47
CityPoint 1967–1980 122 400 35
St Paul's Cathedral 1710–1967 111 365 n/a
St Mary-le-Bow 1683–1710 72 236 n/a
Monument to the Great Fire of London 1677–1683 62 202 n/a
Old St Paul's Cathedral 1310–1677 150 493 n/a


London Underground roundel (flanked by City dragons) at Bank station

Rail and Tube

The city is well served by the London Underground ("tube") and National Rail networks.

Seven London Underground lines serve the city:[95]

In addition, Aldgate East (District Line Hammersmith & City Line), Farringdon (Circle line (London Underground) Hammersmith & City Line Metropolitan Line), Temple (Circle line (London Underground) District Line) and Tower Hill (Circle line (London Underground) District Line) tube stations are all situated within metres of the City of London boundary.[95]

DLR trains link the City directly to Canary Wharf.

The Docklands Light Railway (DLR Docklands Light Railway) has two termini in the city: Bank and Tower Gateway. The DLR links the City directly to the East End. Destinations include Canary Wharf and London City Airport.[95][96]

The Elizabeth line (constructed by the Crossrail project) runs east–west underneath the City of London. The line serves two stations in the City – Farringdon and Liverpool Street – which additionally serves the Barbican and Moorgate areas. Elizabeth line services link the City directly to destinations such as Canary Wharf, Heathrow Airport, and the M4 Corridor high-technology hub (serving Slough and Reading).[97]

The city is served by a frequent Thameslink rail service which runs north–south through London. Thameslink services call at Farringdon, City Thameslink, and London Blackfriars. This provides the city with a direct link to key destinations across London, including Elephant & Castle, London Bridge, and St Pancras International (for the Eurostar to mainland Europe). There are also regular, direct trains from these stations to major destinations across East Anglia and the South East, including Bedford, Brighton, Cambridge, Gatwick Airport, Luton Airport, and Peterborough.[98]

The Stansted Express departs from Liverpool Street Station in the city and runs directly to Stansted Airport in Essex.

There are several "London Terminals"[98][99] in the city:

All stations in the city are in London fare zone 1.[95]


Space taken vs numbers in City of London (transport)[101]

The national A1, A10 A3, A4, and A40 road routes begin in the city. The city is in the London congestion charge zone, with the small exception on the eastern boundary of the sections of the A1210/A1211 that are part of the Inner Ring Road. The following bridges, listed west to east (downstream), cross the River Thames: Blackfriars Bridge, Blackfriars Railway Bridge, Millennium Bridge (footbridge), Southwark Bridge, Cannon Street Railway Bridge and London Bridge; Tower Bridge is not in the city. The city, like most of central London, is well served by buses, including night buses. Two bus stations are in the city, at Aldgate on the eastern boundary with Tower Hamlets, and at Liverpool Street by the railway station. However although the London Road Traffic Act 1924 removed from existing local authorities the powers to prevent the development of road passengers transport services within the London Metropolitan Area, the City of London retained most such powers. As a consequence, neither Trolleybus nor Green Line Coach services were permitted to enter the City to pick up or set down passengers. Hence the building of Aldgate (Minories) Trolleybus and Coach station as well as the complex terminal arrangements at Parliament Hill Fields. This restriction was removed by the Transport Act 1985


Cycleway 6 runs between Elephant & Castle and Kentish Town, passing through the City of London between Blackfriars and Farringdon.

Cycling infrastructure in the city is maintained by the City of London Corporation and Transport for London (TfL).[102]

The Sandander Cycles and Beryl bike sharing systems operate in the City of London.[102][103]


One London River Services pier is on the Thames in the city, Blackfriars Millennium Pier, though the Tower Millennium Pier lies adjacent to the boundary near the Tower of London. One of the Port of London's 25 safeguarded wharves, Walbrook Wharf, is adjacent to Cannon Street station, and is used by the corporation to transfer waste via the river. Swan Lane Pier, just upstream of London Bridge, is proposed to be replaced and upgraded for regular passenger services, planned to take place in 2012–2015. Before then, Tower Pier is to be extended.[104]

There is a public riverside walk along the river bank, part of the Thames Path, which opened in stages – the route within the city was completed by the opening of a stretch at Queenhithe in 2023.[105] The walk along Walbrook Wharf is closed to pedestrians when waste is being transferred onto barges.

Travel to work (by residents)

According to a survey conducted in March 2011, the methods by which employed residents 16–74 get to work varied widely: 48.4% go on foot; 19.5% via light rail, (i.e. the Underground, DLR, etc.); 9.2% work mainly from home; 5.8% take the train; 5.6% travel by bus, minibus, or coach; and 5.3% go by bicycle; with just 3.4% commuting by car or van, as driver or passenger.[106]


The Aldgate School (using its former name)

The city is home to a number of higher education institutions including: the Guildhall School of Music and Drama, the Cass Business School, The London Institute of Banking & Finance and parts of three of the universities in London: the Maughan Library of King's College London on Chancery Lane, the business school of London Metropolitan University, and a campus of the University of Chicago Booth School of Business. The College of Law has its London campus in Moorgate. Part of Barts and The London School of Medicine and Dentistry is on the Barts hospital site at West Smithfield.

The city has only one directly maintained primary school, The Aldgate School (formerly Sir John Cass's Foundation Primary School) at Aldgate[107] (ages 4 to 11). It is a Voluntary-Aided (VA) Church of England school, maintained by the Education Service of the City of London.

City residents send their children to schools in neighbouring Local Education Authorities, such as Islington, Tower Hamlets, Westminster and Southwark.

The City controls three independent schools, City of London School (a boys' school) and City of London School for Girls in the city, and the City of London Freemen's School (co-educational day and boarding) in Ashtead, Surrey. The City of London School for Girls and City of London Freemen's School have their own preparatory departments for entrance at age seven. It is the principal sponsor of The City Academy, Hackney, City of London Academy Islington, and City of London Academy, Southwark.[108]

Public libraries

The Maughan Library, King's College London, located on Chancery Lane

Libraries operated by the Corporation include three lending libraries; Barbican Library, Shoe Lane Library and Artizan Street Library and Community Centre. Membership is open to all – with one official proof of address required to join.

Guildhall Library, and City Business Library are also public reference libraries, specialising in the history of London and business reference resources.[109]

Money laundering

The City of London's role in illicit financial activity such as money laundering has earned the financial hub sobriquets like ‘The Laundromat’ and ‘Londongrad.’[110]

London’s role as the world’s dirty money clearing house is well-documented but efforts are being made to clean up through legislation, e.g. authorising unexplained wealth orders. High-value properties are sought after by criminals and money launderers legitimising their gains by investing in the city’s prestigious real estate.[111][112][113]

See also


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  11. ^ "How life has changed in the City of London: Census 2021". Archived from the original on 12 October 2023. Retrieved 8 September 2023.
  12. ^ UK Census (2021). "2021 Census Area Profile – City of London (E09000001)". Nomis. Office for National Statistics. Retrieved 30 January 2024.
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  14. ^ a b c "City of London Jobs" (PDF). The City of London. Archived (PDF) from the original on 25 August 2017. Retrieved 25 August 2017.
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Further reading


  1. ^ The City of London is a sui generis unit of local government, referred by the Ordnance Survey as the City and County of the City of London[1] to distinguish it as such on their mapping and in their datasets.

18 Annotations

First Reading

Phil  •  Link

The arrow on the map indicates the rough centre of the area known as the City of London. "The City" does not refer to London as a whole, but a small part of it, what was the historical centre of the city (since Roman times). It is the financial centre of London and its government and independence retains many anachronisms of history. The offical site is here:

Bored  •  Link

The City has the Tower Of London at its eastern extreme, and extends almost as far as the Law Courts at the west, and the Barbican to the north. To the south is the Thames.

The curve of the roads around the City suggests that the mediaeval street-pattern formed by the city walls still survives, as it does in many other British towns and cities (and sometimes the walls themselves).

There is still one city gateway surviving to the north, as far as I recall it is also called the Barbican.

A more inclusive view of the City can be obtained by moving one square west on the Streetmap link above. I would say the centre of the City nowerdays, at least, is where the several roads join together at the Bank Of England.

Martin K. Foys  •  Link

In Pepys' time, would they still consider "The City" to be only that area contained within the Romano-Medieval walls? If so, Liverpool Station looks a bit north to be the centre . . .

Glyn  •  Link

The Heraldic Symbols of the City of Westminster was and still is the Portcullis; and that of the City of London was and is the Griffin (1/2 eagle, 1/2 lion). If you walk down Fleet Street you will see a statue of a Griffin defending its territory: and the lampposts there bear either a portcullis or a griffin to show where you are.

Here are some pics of City of London Griffins:…

Phil  •  Link

Bored is probably right - I've moved the pointer on the map to point at the junction by Bank.

Steve  •  Link

The City is the area enclosed by the old Roman wall. It starts in the East at the Tower of London, which was built by William the Conqueror where the wall joined the Thames, in order to control the independant minded Londoners. From the Tower it goes due North (you can see it just outside Tower Hill Tube and there is a really good bit 100yds North in a hotel courtyard) and runs just West of The Minories. It then sweeps Westwards along London Wall to the Barbican, where you can see another bit, but not up close. It then heads South again to the river, doing a bit of a dog-leg to include St. Paul's (St. Paul's is on one of two hills included within the City walls, and there has been religious activity there for a couple of thousand years; the Romans had their main sports arena between St Paul's and the river). The wall hits the river just East of Balckfriars Bridge.

There were a number of gates, including Bishops Gate, the Barbican and Crosswall. Bank Tube is more-or-less the geographic centre of the City. From here, if you walk East along Lombard Street, you will be walking along one of the original Roman main streets to the North side of the central Forum. If you stand at the corner of Lombard Street and Gracechurch, you can look South across the forum to the Monument, which commemorates the starting point of the Great Fire of London in 1666.

vincent  •  Link

View of the City of London from Southwark looking across London Bridge with an angel like figure in the sky.…
showing higate and hampstead heath

Ismail Mazzara  •  Link

The heraldic symbol of the City of London is not the Gryphon but the Heraldic Dragon -as seen at Holborn Bar,the Embankment,and the site of the old Temple Bar on Fleet Street,near the Royal Courts of Justice. The reason I know this is because I'm on the Corporation of London's City Guides course where they have hammered this distinction into us for months.

Michael Robinson  •  Link

Wenceslaus Hollar (Czech/British 1607-1677)
London [the long view]
Cornelius Dankerts: Amsterdam, 1647
(also re-printed and re-issued in 1661 by Justus Danckerts).

Sheet 1 / 7: printed from a single plate on one sheet: plate 1 showing Whitehall to Durham House with a figure of Law and cherubs one wearing a lion skin; plate 7 showing the region east of the Tower with a river god and putti dressed as an American Indian with an ostrich. 1647…

Sheet 2 showing the area of the Strand from Salisbury House to Baynard's Castle, with the Globe theatre in the foreground; three cherubs in the sky with books and one holding a caduceus. 1647…

Sheet 3 showing the area with old St Paul's in the centre and Winchester House in the foreground; River Thames in between; in the sky a figure of Mercury. 1647…

Sheet 4 showing the area of the city from Bow Church to St Peter's, with Southwark in the foreground; in the sky a cartouche flanked by lions with the title "LONDON" and surmounted by the city arms. 1647…

Sheet 5 showing London Bridge and the east of the city from St Magnus to Barking; in the sky a winged genius blowing a trumpet. 1647…

Sheet 6 showing the Tower of London and the east end of the city, with St Olaf in the foreground; in the sky three putti with a parrot, jewel chest, crown and chain. 1647…

Second Reading

Bill  •  Link

City (The), the general name for London within the gates and within the bars. Originally the City of London was wholly within the wall, which served at once for defence and boundary. Dwellers within the wall were citizens, those without foreigners. But as the wall became too restricted a boundary for the increased trade and population dwellers within defined districts outside the wall were recognised as citizens. Generally these districts were annexed to the nearest wards, and designated Without, as Farringdon Without, Cripplegate Without, Bishopsgate Without. As the gates marked the boundary wall of the City, bars were set up to mark the limits of the liberties on the great thoroughfares leading from them. Thus, as Ludgate marked the western boundary of the City within the wall, Temple Bar marked the western limit of the City liberties without the wall; with Newgate corresponded Holborn Bar; on the north-west were Smithfield Bars, beyond Aldersgate was Aldersgate Bar, Bishopsgate, the bars at Spitalfields; and Aldgate, Whitechapel Bars, by Petticoat Lane, the boundary of the City on the east. On the south the Thames served as the boundary of the City within the wall; the borough of Southwark being an out-liberty under the designation of Bridge Ward Without.
---London, Past and Present. H.B. Wheatley, 1891.

Third Reading

San Diego Sarah  •  Link

Sometimes blogs and articles come up that just take my breath away -- this is one of them:

Two centuries ago, John Thomas Smith set out to record the last vestiges of ancient London that survived from before the Great Fire of 1666 but which were vanishing in his lifetime.

You can click on any of these images to enlarge them and study the tender human detail that Smith recorded in these splendid etchings he made from his own drawings.…

This is the London where Pepys lived.

San Diego Sarah  •  Link

Date Candidate
27 Mar. 1660 WILLIAM WILDE
19 Mar. 1661 JOHN FOWKE
Sir Richard Ford
10 Feb. 1663 (SIR) JOHN FREDERICK vice Fowke, deceased
17 Feb. 1679 SIR ROBERT CLAYTON ...

Thanks to the diary of Samuel Pepys no period of London history is better known than the years of the Restoration, which had come about through a tax-payers’ revolt against the Rump, in alliance with the well-disciplined forces of George Monck.
It was widely believed that London always ‘led the dance’, and great was the dismay at Court when the general election of 1661 returned 4 opponents of the Church; but on this occasion the rest of England marched to a different tune.
The spectacular growth of the western suburbs, accelerated by the Great Fire of 1666, suggested that a second capital might arise at Westminster, as a centre of administration, fashion and commerce.

Pepys, one of the comparatively few to be equally familiar with both places, wrote about the bonfires lit for the 6th anniversary of the Restoration: "Lord, to see the difference between how many there was on the other side, and so few our, the City side of the Temple, would make one wonder the difference between the temper of one sort of people and the other."

Hence the obstructive attitude of the City Members to the proposal to build a bridge at Putney: ‘this will make the skirts (though not London) too big for the body’.

The exclusion agitation, during which most political literature was produced and printed in London, and the City’s obstinate but unsuccessful defence of its charter against a quo warranto, once again placed it in the forefront; but it did nothing to bring about the [GLORIOUS] Revolution, and when a hotly-contested by-election was fought a few months later nobody except a casual American visitor even noticed.

The executive branch of the corporation of London comprised the lord mayor and aldermen, consisting of 26 members elected for life; while the legislative branch consisted of the 236 members of the common council elected annually in the several wards by the inhabitant householders.
The aldermen, being the wealthier merchants, many of them members of the monied companies and government contractors, tended to be more moderate and amenable to court pressure than the common council.

San Diego Sarah  •  Link


The City of London was virtually a state within a state, able to afford sanctuary to the ‘guilty Commons’ between sessions.
Its vast patronage was exercised mainly through the powerful committees of the common council, run by a handful of people, including most of the men who were or became the Members for London. They controlled the City lands from which most of its revenue came, the hospitals, the prisons, the markets and the Ulster plantation.
The chamber of London (its treasury) combined municipal finance with public banking. The loans voted to the crown by the common council on the security of the parliamentary taxes were collected by way of subscriptions by the chamberlain of London, paid into the chamber, transferred to the Exchequer in bulk payments, and later repaid with interest to individual subscribers.
The common hall, consisting of the members of the City companies who had taken their livery, elected the 4 Members of Parliament and the 2 sheriffs, who were returning officers for Middlesex as well as for London. They also elected annually the chamberlain, the bridgemasters, and the auditors of the bridgehouse accounts, all ‘places of profit and advantage’.
The corporation enjoyed a unique relationship with the Commons; its sheriffs alone had the right to present petitions directly at the bar of the House.
Most, if not all parliamentary elections in this period were decided by the show or the cry; at general elections all the aldermen were presented in turn, followed by any other candidates who had been nominated. All were either present or past members of the corporation.
Although the population probably shrank, the electorate was substantially enlarged. Hon. Roger North complained: "Increasing the number, and debasing the quality of the livery trades and liverymen ... hath been effectually, though almost insensibly, done in a few years. ... First the lord mayors and aldermen were gained so far as to give the privilege of the livery to divers companies that were poor and populous; and commonly the meaner the trade, the more numerous the traders. ... This led immediately to invigorate the course of garbling and forming the common hall, which only had to do with elections."

During this period the financial stability of the chamber became increasingly dubious, despite official denials, a situation reflected in the erratic payment of parliamentary wages.

The Convention was the only Parliament in this period in which London was represented by its recorder (William Wilde… ), and he received 5s. a day to cover boat-hire and diet.
One of his colleagues, John Robinson… , who was in Pepys’ view good only for giving sumptuous banquets, recovered £37 4s. after he had failed to secure re-election.

San Diego Sarah  •  Link


In the Cavalier Parliament the tight-fisted John Fowke… demanded his wages, and on 8 Apr. 1662 it was resolved to pay him his livery (£6 13s. 4d. per session) and those wages ‘due by the Statute’; but he died before it could be carried into effect.
His successor, Sir John Frederick… , was paid in February 1664, but returned the money as a gift to the corporation.
Only John Jones… received payment throughout the Cavalier Parliament, and it has been suggested this must have been a charitable grant.

In 1677 two of his colleagues, Sir William Thompson… and William Love… , testified that London had ceased to pay them.

On the day before the 1660 general election a declaration was issued in the name of the City renouncing any form of government except by King, Lords and Commons, and, out of the 30 or 40 candidates nominated, 4 Royalists ‘were chosen without any dispute, which was never known before’.
Of these only Major-Gen. Richard Browne… could be called a national figure; a Presbyterian who had served with distinction in the parliamentary forces, he had been removed from the bench in 1649, and at the time of his election held no London office apart from the command of the train-bands.
The other wing of the Royalist conspiracy was represented by John Robinson; the son of an archdeacon and executor of the martyred archbishop [LAUD?], he had concealed his Anglican and royalist convictions sufficiently to be elected alderman in 1655 and appointed to the command of a militia regiment.
Wilde and William Vincent… were less colourful figures.

The provisional government and the restored monarchy depended heavily, and not always successfully, on loans from the City until the revenue could be settled and the army disbanded. An advance of £30,000 on 10 May, 1660, was produced by the 3 merchant Members, with Thomas Bludworth… and Thomas Rich.
Robinson’s little nest-egg of £4,500 ‘in ready gold’ proved particularly useful, and the remainder was provided by bills on Amsterdam.
But another group of Members, Londoners sitting for provincial constituencies, headed by Frederick in the absence of the other aldermen who were attending Charles II, found it too hard to raise even the modest sum of £2,000, which they eventually advanced themselves.
The most substantial loan was the £100,000 for which a joint committee of both Houses attended a special meeting of the common council on 14 Aug.; but according to Arthur Annesley… they ‘could then have no positive answer’.

San Diego Sarah  •  Link


Eventually the corporation agreed, but only on condition that their own chamber staff should take charge of the disbandment payments, an unsatisfactory arrangement because no accounts were ever rendered to the Exchequer.

Evidence of the widening gap between the aldermen and the electorate was provided by the proposal to levy a rate for the militia. Leave to bring in a bill to raise £140,000 for this purpose was refused on 26 Nov., with Robinson acting as teller for the minority.
By claiming that the money was needed to defray the expenses of the Restoration, Silius Titus… , an associate of Brown’s, had more success; but even then Alexander Baker, as representative of the small property-owners, claimed that there was no popular support for the expenditure, and 56 Members voted against the second reading.
Eventually Bludworth piloted the bill through its remaining stages on the day before the dissolution of the Convention.

The Government failed to take account of these warning signals, and in particular of the resentment aroused by the poll-tax and the excise. Complaints were heard in the City that ‘none of their Members opened their mouth against them’, although this was unfair to Vincent, for one.

The measures taken after Venner’s Jan. 1661 millenarian rising provoked a campaign in the pulpits, most of which were still occupied by the enemies of the Church of England.
In his ‘subtle, witty’ preaching little Dr. Crofton… ceaselessly ‘banged’ the bishops, ‘which theme he doth most exquisitely handle’.

Preparations for the 1661 election were made in a republican club under the direction of John Wildman I… and the political theorist [James] Harrington…, and the management committed to Francis Jencks, a linen-draper of Cornhill.

On behalf of the Court, letters were written in favour of Wilde, Sir Richard Ford… , Sir Nicholas Crisp… , and the philanthropic alderman, Sir Thomas Adams… .

Ten thousand voters were said to have attended the hustings ‘in their liveries’, and 33 candidates were proposed. The hecklers had evidently been well rehearsed. When Wilde was nominated for re-election, there was an answer made: ‘We have been too wild already’. Even popular churchmen, like Robinson and Bludworth, were hissed and cried down with ‘No bishops!’.

San Diego Sarah  •  Link


The only contest was between Ford and the Presbyterian Jones, who never attained the bench and had lost his seat on the common council as long ago as 1647. But the crowd never ceased crying ‘A Jones! a Jones!’, and he was successful by 5-to-1.
There had never been ‘so general a union of Presbyterians, Independents, and Anabaptists crying down the Episcopalians, who went away cursing and swearing and wishing they had never come’.
The other successful candidates were all aldermen:
Fowke, ‘not much noted for religion, but ... deeply engaged in bishops’ lands’, Love, one of the republican committee, and the Presybterian Sir William Thompson… who, like Jones, had represented the City in Richard Cromwell’s Parliament.
‘Never knew so small an affair create such a prattle’, wrote a supporter; but most of the 68 letters intercepted in the Post Office urged other constituencies to follow suit, and in an account of the election written for the ambassador to the Sublime Porte it was admitted that ‘the choice hath much disgusted his Majesty’.

The 2 Presbyterians gave little trouble in Parliament; ‘Jones of late years has been esteemed both honest and able’, a Royalist wrote.
Love was effectually excluded from the House for most of the Clarendon administration by the sacramental test.
But in the opening session of the Cavalier Parliament until his death in April 1662 Fowke was the boldest opponent of the Court.

In May, Love was removed from the bench. But Charles II refused to renew the charter until 4 other aldermen had been replaced, and only then was the writ issued to fill the vacancy caused by Fowke’s death.

Although his successor, Frederick, probably had Presbyterian inclinations, his firm was heavily involved in financing diplomatic missions throughout Europe, and his election probably pleased the Court.
Also the common council had been taken in hand by Robinson, who was clearly much more than the ‘talking, bragging bufflehead’ depicted by Pepys. It concentrated on its own affairs without meddling in high politics, and voted regular loans to the crown, although after 1664 they were generally undersubscribed.

The situation changed with the calamities of the second Anglo-Dutch war, the Plague and the Fire.
In the mass of legislation that followed, the administrative measures were often bold and successful, notably the creation of the Fire Court… under Sir Matthew Hale… , the suspension of guild privileges, and the ‘sanitary charter’ of 1671. But the financial expedients, such as the levy on coal, were inadequate to arrest the decline of the chamber into insolvency.

Much revenue was lost to the corporation by the destruction of property in the Fire, and the westward drift of trade accelerated. The deficit rose from £265,000 in 1666 to £700,000 in 1680.

San Diego Sarah  •  Link


The lapse of the first Conventicles Act in 1669 showed that the Church of England had failed to make any serious inroads on dissent; although its successor was not strictly enforced, it was much disliked by the aldermen, most of whom considered that molestation of dissenters must be prejudicial to trade, ‘which is driven by many worthy persons of that opinion’.
A demonstration against it, which coincided with Charles II’s absence at Dover to conclude the alliance with France, alarmed the magistrates, not least by its good order and discipline.

The third Anglo-Dutch war caused less damage to commerce than its predecessor, and the City lost little in the Stop of the Exchequer; but several years later ...

FROM https://www.historyofparliamenton…

San Diego Sarah  •  Link

Did you know there are more Baroque buildings in London than any other city besides Rome? Nor did I -- 51, apparently. Thank you, Christopher Wren and the Great Fire.

I learned this in Episode 3 of "The Baroque Tradition: From St. Peter's to St. Paul's" -- hosted by Waldemar Januszczak -- but I recommend watching the whole series!…

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Chart showing the number of references in each month of the diary’s entries.