Monday 22 June 1663

Up betimes and to my office, reading over all our letters of the office that we have wrote since I came into the Navy, whereby to bring the whole series of matters into my memory, and to enter in my manuscript some of them that are needful and of great influence. By and by with Sir W. Batten by coach to Westminster, where all along I find the shops evening with the sides of the houses, even in the broadest streets; which will make the City very much better than it was.

I walked in the Hall from one man to another. Hear that the House is still divided about the manner of levying the subsidys which they intend to give the King, both as to the manner, the time, and the number.

It seems the House do consent to send to the King to desire that he would be graciously pleased to let them know who it was that did inform him of what words Sir Richard Temple should say, which were to this purpose: “That if the King would side with him, or be guided by him and his party, that he should not lack money:” but without knowing who told it, they do not think fit to call him to any account for it.

Thence with Creed and bought a lobster, and then to an alehouse, where the maid of the house is a confident merry lass, and if modest is very pleasant to the customers that come thither. Here we eat it, and thence to walk in the Park a good while. The Duke being gone a-hunting, and by and by came in and shifted himself; he having in his hunting, rather than go about, ’light and led his horse through a river up to his breast, and came so home: and when we were come, which was by and by, we went on to him, and being ready he retired with us, and we had a long discourse with him. But Mr. Creed’s accounts stick still through the perverse ignorance of Sir G. Carteret, which I cannot safely control as I would.

Thence to the Park again, and there walked up and down an hour or two till night with Creed, talking, who is so knowing, and a man of that reason, that I cannot but love his company, though I do not love the man, because he is too wise to be made a friend of, and acts all by interest and policy, but is a man fit to learn of. So to White Hall, and by water to the Temple, and calling at my brother’s and several places, but to no purpose, I came home, and meeting Strutt, the purser, he tells me for a secret that he was told by Field that he had a judgment against me in the Exchequer for 400l. So I went to Sir W. Batten, and taking Mr. Batten, his son the counsellor, with me, by coach, I went to Clerke, our Solicitor, who tells me there can be no such thing, and after conferring with them two together, who are resolved to look well after the business, I returned home and to my office, setting down this day’s passages, and having a letter that all is well in the country I went home to supper, and then a Latin chapter of Will and to bed.

23 Annotations

First Reading

Bradford  •  Link

"Westminster, where all along I find the shops evening with the sides of the houses, even in the broadest streets;"

Interpretation, please. Does he mean that the fronts of businesses are flush with the fronts of houses adjacent, presenting a uniform frontage to the street? (rather than jutting forward, "even in the broadest streets")

TerryF  •  Link

Bradford, indeed he does. It appears that urban renewal is reducing traffic congestion. Recall 17 March 1662/63 - "But my Lord Mayor [though a "coxcomb" and "bufflehead] resolved to do great matters in pulling down the shops quite through the City, as he hath done in many places, and will make a thorough passage quite through the City"…

TerryF  •  Link

Looks like Westminster's ahead of London in this.

Robert Gertz  •  Link

"...evening with the sides of the houses..." I'm assuming Sam means the shops are no longer being allowed to sprawl past the houses into the street. If I remember my reading, a major problem at the time and earlier had been shops and their signs on the second and upper floors spreading out into the streets and blocking out the light.

Thank God we learned from history and never allowed large decrepit buildings to blot out the sun for the city dweller again. (Stop that laughing, Pepys.)

"But Mr. Creed’s accounts stick still through the perverse ignorance of Sir G. Carteret."

Hmmn...If there's one thing about Sir George it's that he's anything but ignorant. Sam, he's on to you...Mind your own advice regards Creed.


Alls well that...

"Deer Hubs...Husband,

All is well in thise Hell into which you have consigned (Ah, she looked it up, Sam nods approvingly) your Loving Wife. After an endless jurney of been Shaken to Pieces in the Cheepest Seats of the Couc...Coache and having a Rogue of a Dog of a Foule Parsen making Lewed and Shamful Re...Speakings all the Way, Your Loving Wife reached to Bramton. Where on liting From the Said Couch...Coache, Your Poor Wretch'd Wife was Accosted by Your Father most Cruelled...Cruelly on a Matter of Dres. Your Father Having no Und...Knowing of the Ways of Court and Good Society is a much Ignorant man. I tole my Father-in-Laws, your Father that you, My Hubb...Husband has seen me Often in my Ridin Sut and sent me Off in it to Bramton. He was Then Mollyfd but If he does Writ you, Tell him, My Deer Husband the Truth of what Your Loving Wife says. I then Was led to my House of Confin...My Prisan by Your Father, a most Hard Jailer he is. He wud not let Your Poor Wife read from her book to Your Sister in the Parlor as He says the Story is Unfit. He was to Burn my book but that I Tole him it Was Yours and cost 10s which stopped him. He get Very Angy when I tell Pall and Your Mother of our House and the Worke done and Says I am Vane of it and Will Suffer for my Folly. Yore Poor Wretched Wife tole Him the Work was done by Yore Order and Plan. That seemd to Mollyf him but He keeps Taking on about 10Ls not being Faire. I Tole Him, Respectly, We Give my Papa Nothing and that seemd to Mollyf. ("She likes mollify, eh sir?" Hewer notes. "It was in Chapter nine of the book she mentions." Sam replies.)

The Lif Heer is as Always-Dull. If Lady Jem don't call for me to visit soon, I Wud rather Rish the Plague then Stay. I Miss you and Your Stories of London and the Cour Dredful. I am Tole to be ready to Rise Early but they Don't Rise Betimes as us so I am up and Dres long before Them. (That's my girl. Sam beams)

Seret: I am Dying for ye in the Morn, Sweet One....... ("That will be all, Hewer.") 1001 Loving Kisses and I am Taking Care of....... ("I said that will be all!")...For Ye. I am goin to speak with the Wise Woman you Suggested Tomrr. I Pray as Ye do that God Will Grant us Our Hart's Desire.

Yore Ma is well and Less Crazed in Mind and Spirte. Pall Wishes to say Best Wishes (I think She has Stolen my new Fan). Ashwell Wishes to be Remember'd. She has Been a Better Girl and me only Good Companie. She also calls Heer 'Hell'. Pray the Lord Lady Jem calls on us soon.

I Hope Deer you are Caring for Yourself Well in my Unhappy Absess. A Sweet and Healing Kiss for Yore Ston Cut.

Wayneman has Done It Again of which you, my Deer Husband, need no further Tale and so I will leave it to your Father to Writ. We will need to Do Some thing about him on my Return.

Which, Pray God Will be Soon.

Did Mr. Pembletan stop by?

Jest Kidding, my Deer Husband. All my Loving Hart.

Your Loving, Wretch'd Bess."

TerryF  •  Link

Wasn't Wayneman grounded?! refused permission to again wreak havoc in Brampton per the request in a letter from Samuel's father John? So mustn't Wayneman be lurking about somewhere or other, at Samusl's beck and call - or not - as has sometimes been his wont, even in London?

TerryF  •  Link

Not to discourage Elizabeth's epistolary voice, Robert.

And she's writing him in ENGLISH!

Australian Susan  •  Link

Dear Robert,

Many thanks for cheering a damp, cold day!

your antipodean friend

Paul Chapin  •  Link

"reading over all our letters of the office that we have wrote since I came into the Navy"
Interesting to note that they kept file copies of their correspondence, even when it required (I assume) writing the whole thing out twice. I wonder if those documents are still extant, or if they were consumed by some fire.

Paul Chapin  •  Link

"And she’s writing him in ENGLISH!"
I gather from this comment and others, including the fanfic representations of her voice and writing, that some annotators seem to feel that Elizabeth's English is a poor second language, pronounced with a French accent.
In fact, as Jeannine's marvelous biographical essay makes clear, Elizabeth was born in England, and lived there until the age of 8 or 9. She was taken to France for a few years, maybe 3 or 4, then returned to live in England for the rest of her life. Her father was French, but her mother was Anglo-Irish. Under those circumstances, she was clearly a native speaker of English. She was no doubt fluent in French as well, possibly bilingual (her epitaph credits her with being gifted in languages). But there's no reason to suppose she had any difficulties with English, or spoke differently than anyone else around her in London.

Michael Robinson  •  Link

I wonder if those documents are still extant, ...

From a quick search of the UK National Archives web site:-

The National Archives | The Catalogue | Full Details
"The records of the Navy before 1546 are to be found among records of the Chancery and Exchequer and among records of the Privy Council. From 1546 to 1660 the records are much dispersed: many are among records formerly preserved in the State Paper Office; some are among Exchequer records; some are in publicly and privately-owned collections outside the Public Record Office; a few are among the Admiralty's own records, which begin in the main about 1660."…

Michael Robinson  •  Link

enter in my manuscript some of them ...

Perhaps not today's manuscript but sounds something like:-

The National Archives | The Catalogue | ADM 7/827
Entry book entitled `Duke of York's Orders and Instructions' of orders, memoranda, establishments, etc. relating to the Admiralty, Navy Board and Navy, 1565 and 1649 to 1695, some entered or certified by Samuel Pepys.

[c. 1660] - 1695"…

Robert Gertz  •  Link

"I gather from this comment and others, including the fanfic representations of her voice and writing, that some annotators seem to feel that Elizabeth’s English is a poor second language, pronounced with a French accent."

Not at all in my case as to Bess' spoken English. I assume it was excellent though different enough from a typical Londoner of the time's to make her a bit distinctive. Also we might assume French was spoken by Alex at home and may have flavored her accent. My feeling though is that her spelling and grammar would tend to be somewhat more haphazard than Sam's in a casual letter given her sporadic education. Add to that Sam's own occasional variations on spelling and that many writers (including some well-educated ones) of the time seem to have felt it proper to capitalize words for emphasis and you get my crude attempt to give a Bess letter written by her in haste for the post in less than quality circumstances. Naturally for her important letter to Sam on her unhappiness she concentrated and edited many times and he did mention being impressed by her writing it well and in English.

Benvenuto  •  Link

That was terrific, Robert, thanks!

C.J.Darby  •  Link

I love the expression "shifted himself" which I presume to mean that James Stewart changed his cloths or shift.

Glyn  •  Link

There are letters written by Pepys or dictated and then signed by him throughout his career that are stored at Kew Public Records Office. If you put on a pair of linen gloves you are perfectly allowed to handle them. Currently in the Museum of London shop there is a paperback book of collected business letters of his.

A. Hamilton  •  Link

too wise to be made a friend of

What a striking concept! I take it to mean that Sam thinks Creed is worldly wise and puts "interest and policy" (inferentially, his own and that of Sandwich)over the consideration one would hope to have from a true friend.

I must say I enjoy the picture of Sam rising early; going to the office and for several hours intently absorbing the history of the Navy board through its official correspondence, in the course of constructing a manuscript guide to office policy; then going out on the town to catch up with gossip, network, pay his weekly offical call on the Duke, etc., then coming home, making his diary entry, tutoring Will and "to bed." A productive and gratifying day, even to finding out that Field is spreading false stories about his legal victory.

TerryF  •  Link

That Elizabeth had written Samuel a contentious letter in English - that others could read - that he tore up in front of her face in a rage, suggests that she oft wrote him (or could be expected to write him, for reasons Robert explained) in French, esp. when it mattered most.

"Deer" for "Dear" also passed muster, before (and even after) the publication of Samuel Johnson's *Dictionaryof the English Language* (1755), as suggested by "Between a Son and His Father: Sam’s Letter to John Sr regarding Brampton" - thanks to Jeannine.…

Robert Gertz  •  Link

With Creed I'd worry about which hand the knife is in and in what vital organ I can expect it to be stuck...

Amazing career our dear Puritan's had.

[But, perhaps like a certain fictional British agent who started out a ruthless rough type and acquired such polish that he became the epitome of the gentleman, John Creed will one day experience yet another transformation.

Crimes against the King and people have to be avenged...By agents extraordinaire...


"Ah, Mrs. Peel...We're needed." (Yes I did think of saying Mrs. Pepys but I couldn't do that to Sam or Bess) ]

TerryF  •  Link

"It seems the House do consent to send to the King to desire that he would be graciously pleased to let them know who it was that did inform him of what words Sir Richard Temple should say, which were to this purpose: “That if the King would side with him, or be guided by him and his party, that he should not lack money:” but without knowing who told it, they do not think fit to call him to any account for it."

From the H of C yesterday:

Privilege- Charge against Sir R. Temple.

Sir Charles Hussey reports from the Committee appointed to examine the Matter concerning Sir Richard Temple, That the Committee, upon Examination of the Matter, had passed some Resolves, to be nominated to the House: Which he read in his Place; and after, delivered the same in at the Clerk's Table.

And the Votes being twice read; and debated;

Resolved, That the King's Majesty be humbly desired, that he would be graciously pleased to name the Person that did deliver the Message to his Majesty from Sir Richard Temple: And that his Majesty's Two Principal Secretaries of State, Mr. Treasurer, and Sir William Compton, do attend his Majesty, and acquaint him with the Desires of this House.

From: 'House of Commons Journal Volume 8: 20 June 1663', Journal of the House of Commons: volume 8: 1660-1667 (1802), p. 507. URL:…. Date accessed: 26 June 2006.

Second Reading

Terry Foreman  •  Link

Clarendon's government, appointed by the King to manage the Commons, "often gave an uncertain lead on the vital matter of parliamentary supply" (L&M note). Sir Richard Temple was £19,468 in debt. He attempted to gain office (and a badly-needed income) by a promise to manage the Commons.
(See Pauline's post… )

For the immediate sequel see…

Terry Foreman  •  Link

Correction: "Sir Richard, at age nineteen, in 1653, on his father's death, came into an estate burdened with a debt of £19,468. Through a favorable settlement
with his creditors he reduced that debt in 1656 to £12,000; but the weight
of that £12,000 insured that at the Restoration Sir Richard should seek
profitable employment at Court."
"Sir Richard Temple: "The Pickthank Undertaker"", Clayton Roberts
Huntington Library Quarterly, Vol. 41, No. 2 (Feb., 1978), p. 137…

San Diego Sarah  •  Link

Meanwhile, in Dublin, Sir William Petty’s second ‘sluice vessel’ was much bigger than his ‘cylinder’ boat, being 30 tons, although otherwise designed on similar lines. It also carried the customary load of 5 tons of guns and a crew of 30.

The objections raised against the cylinder boat were also laid against the sluice vessel: her small grip on the water and large surface exposed to the wind would make her ride badly, and she was likely to break up in a gale.

(Both objections ultimately proved true, as she broke adrift in Dublin Bay, drove ashore, and was severely damaged; and a successor was eventually lost at sea.)

The sluice vessel is best known for her excellent sailing powers, which were described in a contemporary newspaper account:

‘Sir William Petty is become famous’ (wrote the Dublin correspondent on 29 June, 1663) ‘by the success of his new Invention of the double-bottom’d ship, against the Judgement and Resolution of almost all mankind. When first the ship adventured to Holyhead, she staid there many days before her return, and ’tis pleasant to consider how her adversaries insulted, and having first establisht the conclusion that she was cast away, afterwards discourst the several necessities why it must be so. But her return in triumph has checkt the division of some, and becalmed the violence of others, the first point being clearly gained that she can bear the seas.

‘There has been much ado in this Town for these last 9 or 10 months, about projecting a new way of Shipping, and the success of it hath been such as that we have been all in faction about it. Several of the Vertuosi have more or less approved it, whilst the generality have much denied and reproached it. There have been three several vessels built, and made to sail, all consisting of double Bodies conjoined, each of several shapes, dimensions and distances: but the last being the first that seems to be of use, Burthen, Beauty and Accommodation, is the first likewise which I thought fit so particularly to give you an account of. ...

‘On Wednesday this new Device, … returned the second time from Holyhead on the 22nd instant about five in the afternoon directly against the Wind. She set out from thence with the Ossory Ketch, the most famed of all our three Pacquet Boats, and to which we are most beholding for the speedy transport of our Letters, especially in contrary Winds, but arrived sixteen hours before the said Ketch, whom she ran out of sight and left to Leeward, in a watch or four houres time, whereby we guess that she outdoes ordinary vessels half in half.

San Diego Sarah  •  Link


‘She undertook this last Voyage upon a Wager, notwithstanding her Antagonist at the time appointed (though all full of confidence before) durst not engage against her. Whereby, to speak truth, she won rather Money than Honour, otherwise then as she met accidentally means of asserting that too. In her former voyage to Holyhead, she turned in against Wind and Tide into that narrow Harbour amongst the Rocks and Ships with such Dexterity, as many ancient Seamen confessed they had never seen the like. Upon these experiments most gainsayers are now silent, objecting only the excessive charge of building her, and of men to Sail her, and the danger of separation of her bodies in a Storm. But as to charge, let the Author look to it, and the Passengers to the danger of separation.’

After the race the ship went to London, Petty giving a banquet to his crew in October 1663 before they started, and taking the opportunity of making a speech. ‘The intention was to send them with a vessel to His Majesty, which, though full of ugly faults and eyesores, being built for a fresh-water lough, and to be carried 8 miles on land, was to outsail any other vessel whatever, and to endure all the hazards of the troublesome passage from hence to London. Wherefore, he advised them, if they did not believe he should answer these ends, they should not venture their lives to make them and him ridiculous.’

The vessel reached London safely early in 1664, and although Charles II was inclined at first to poke fun at Sir William Petty, he was quickly prevailed upon to lend him respect, and to launch what must have been Petty’s third, or fourth?, ‘sluice-boat.’

For more about Sir William Petty's experiments, see…

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