Thursday 10 January 1660/61

There comes Mr. Hawley to me and brings me my money for the quarter of a year’s salary of my place under Downing that I was at sea. So I did give him half, whereof he did in his nobleness give the odd 5s. to my Jane. So we both went forth (calling first to see how Sir W. Pen do, whom I found very ill), and at the Hoop by the bridge we drank two pints of wormwood and sack. Talking of his wooing afresh of Mrs. Lane, and of his going to serve the Bishop of London.

Thence by water to Whitehall, and found my wife at Mrs. Hunt’s. Leaving her to dine there, I went and dined with my Lady, and staid to talk a while with her.

After dinner Will comes to tell me that he had presented my piece of plate to Mr. Coventry, who takes it very kindly, and sends me a very kind letter, and the plate back again; of which my heart is very glad. So to Mrs. Hunt, where I found a Frenchman, a lodger of hers, at dinner, and just as I came in was kissing my wife, which I did not like, though there could not be any hurt in it.

Thence by coach to my Uncle Wight’s with my wife, but they being out of doors we went home, where, after I had put some papers in order and entered some letters in my book which I have a mind to keep, I went with my wife to see Sir W. Pen, who we found ill still, but he do make very much of it. Here we sat a great while, at last comes in Mr. Davis and his lady (who takes it very ill that my wife never did go to see her), and so we fell to talk. Among other things Mr. Davis told us the particular examinations of these Fanatiques that are taken: and in short it is this, of all these Fanatiques that have done all this, viz., routed all the Trainbands that they met with, put the King’s life-guards to the run, killed about twenty men, broke through the City gates twice; and all this in the day-time, when all the City was in arms; are not in all about 31. Whereas we did believe them (because they were seen up and down in every place almost in the City, and had been about Highgate two or three days, and in several other places) to be at least 500. A thing that never was heard of, that so few men should dare and do so much mischief. Their word was, “The King Jesus, and the heads upon the gates.” Few of them would receive any quarter, but such as were taken by force and kept alive; expecting Jesus to come here and reign in the world presently, and will not believe yet but their work will be carried on though they do die.

The King this day came to town.

44 Annotations

First Reading

A. De Araujo  •  Link

"that so few men should dare and do so much mischief" plus ça change plus la meme chose.

Emilio  •  Link

"not in all about 31"

L&M note: "Davis was perhaps referring to the number arrested earlier in the rising, which was about thirty. Contemporary accounts agree in placing the total number of the rebels at 40-60. But it is certain that these fanatics fought with a wild courage."

And with much experience, if as previous annotators have mentioned these were hardened veterans from Cromwell's army.

The "about" is apparently a mistake in the original manuscript - L&M correct it to "above 31".

dirk  •  Link

"where I found a Frenchman (...), and just as I came in was kissing my wife, which I did not like"

A case of fundamentally different "mores" here: French easy going vs. English reserve. No doubt many British tourists to Europe today will be able to recall similar incidents!

dirk  •  Link

"and the plate back again; of which my heart is very glad"

So this was the idea all the time, as we suspected. I can imagine Sam's sigh of relief.

vincent  •  Link

Beneficium accipere libertatem est vendere. Syrus, Maxims
"..After dinner Will comes to tell me that he had presented my piece of plate to Mr. Coventry, who takes it very kindly, and sends me a very kind letter, and the plate back again; of which my heart is very glad...."
Was he glad that he could not be bribed or is SP thankfull that he still has the ever ready.
To (receive)accept a favor is to sell your liberty[freedom].
friendship and money do not equate.
Spike Milligan (Terence Alan Milligan) 1918-
Irish comedian
Money couldn’t buy friends but you got a better class of enemy.
Puckoon (1963) ch. 6

Kevin Sheerstone  •  Link

"...a Frenchman...kissing my wife..."
Poor Sam. Just over a week ago he was subjected to a Frenchman's life story (and they hadn't even been introduced!), and now here's another one kissing his wife. "They seek him here, they seek him there..."

Lawrence  •  Link

I wonder after his chat today with Mr Davies, if Sam will go and get some powder for his pistol, just a thought does anyone know how tall our Sam is?, being a shorty my self one learns to be brave after the advent,(only joking) well they say that "cowards live longer" I'm not suggesting that shorties are cowards at all.

Rex Gordon  •  Link

A Frenchman kissing his wife, eh?
I can almost hear Mrs Hunt: "Elizabeth, I have the most charming new lodger. He's French. You'll have so much to talk about. You'll ADORE him!" You can see Sam's genuine affection for his wife in his reaction to interrupting the lodger's kiss. It's love that results in the tolerance, rather than jealousy or anger, he displays here. I don't think this is the last we'll hear of Mrs Hunt and Mrs Pepys.

Ruben  •  Link

Lawrence: the English were shorter in SP's days than in subsequent centuries.
Scarce food and disease during childhood were the reasons.

Alan Bedford  •  Link

"...we drank two pints of wormwood and sack."

Although the scientific name for wormwood is Artemisia absinthium, the quantity drunk suggests to me that Sam and Hawley were not drinking like what we weould know as absinthe. More likely they were drinking a wine flavored with wormwood (think something like, but less aromatic than, vermouth, although that wasn't to be invented for another hundred years.)

JWB  •  Link

Sam's height...
Pepys Jan 4.'69:"Will Hewer went and saw the great tall woman...and I do easily stand under her arms."
Evelyn Jan 29,'69:" I went to see a tall gigantic Woman, that measured 6 foote 10 Inches hight, at 21 years
old, the rest proportionable, borne at the Busse in the Low Countries."

JWB  •  Link

Geo. Fox: "Great mischief was done in the city this week;"
Suggest reading Capt. 14 of Geo. Fox's Autobiography found @<a href="…"

helena murphy  •  Link

The rising of Thomas Venner and his church indicates that the government's spies were ineffective as they had failed to gather any prior knowledge of Venner's plans and that they had also failed to penetrate republican circles.As a result the King immediately issued a proclamation which forbade all unauthorised meetings with the result that thousands of Quakers ,with members of other sectarian churches were imprisoned.With the realisation that the movement had not spread nationwide the Draconian measures were instantly relaxed, but Venner's militancy left a dread of armed rebellion and an intensified fear of all religous radicalism.
sources: Hutton,Ronald Charles II King of England,Scotland,and Ireland. OUP 1989

vincent  •  Link

"There comes Mr. Hawley to me....... Talking of his wooing afresh of Mrs. Lane, and of his going to serve the Bishop of London..." According to notes this Mrs Lane was also source of inspiration to Sam although this time he says nowt.{may be it be another lass ?}

Nix  •  Link

"just as I came in was kissing my wife" --




Does anyone know what the customs were at that time -- what would be enough to irritate the husband but leave him assured that "there could not be any hurt in it"?

tc  •  Link

Kissing my wife...

You don't suppose that pesky lodger was...French kissing her!?!

Perhaps it's just a slip of the tongue!

Andrew Hamilton  •  Link

"They seek him here, they seek him there"-

Good one, Kevin! The thought of Pepys as the Pimpernel is wonderfully absurd.

Glyn  •  Link

As we know, wormwood was also added to beers:

Entries for 19 February; and 24 November.

Also see "Food and Drink/Drink/Wormwood"; and also "Taverns/Hercules Pillars"

We sure are building up a mass of abstruse information.

Jean Spencer  •  Link

The Frenchman was probably kissing her on both cheeks in greeting, as they do -- and she's French herself -- as Sam says, there can be no harm in it.

vincent  •  Link

Salve! by each culture group does shock the other.
Especially those with the Saxon gene. Maybe to(-)day with gogle box exposure, it is not risque, some of the behaviours of this latest generation. It never ceases to amaze me how a human can adjust his total mind set to survive to live another day. I do believe we see the adjustment from Cromwellian ways to the Charlies ways, before our very eyes. Like the weather the moral climate swings from one set of thoughts[pleasures] to another set. For wot are we ? just pleasure seekers, we live by the pleasure rewards that we receive..

Ian  •  Link

"...expecting Jesus to come here and reign in the world presently..." I thought this cult thing was a uniquely modern phenomenon. I guess not.

vicente  •  Link

Only the wool over our eyes has changed
"I thought this cult thing was a uniquely modern phenomenon"
and the tools used to pull it over, alas the 'uman nature 'tis the same. Unfortunately one doth not have xray or infra red equipment to see into a mans mind before the event doth take place.

Pedro  •  Link

On the 10th January 60/61 Allin reaches Psara and goes ashore on the 11th.

“Went ashore at the foot of the old castle. There we saw a miserable poor village built with pieces of slatey rocks laid one upon the other with a little dirt and canes laid upon rafts and dirt upon them for a covering. Their old piece of enclosure full of such houses, and thither also the out-dwellers flee in when the Venetians or Turks come upon them..."

mark francis  •  Link

John Thurloe had completely penetrated Venner's first rising four years previously and put it down even thiugh i seems to have been a more widespread conspiracy, with agents reporting from the meeting house at Swan Alley and arresting and interrogating members. Unfortunately Thurloe was in a period of forced retirement at the time. (see Thurloe State Papers at britishhistoryonline).

Daniel Baker  •  Link

"The examinations of these Fanatiques that are taken..."

Would these examinations have been conducted using torture? Torture was technically illegal in England, but that had not stopped Elizabeth from using it, nor saved Guy Fawkes from being broken on the rack.

Second Reading

Terry Foreman  •  Link

Those "...expecting Jesus to come here and reign in the world presently..." were the "Fifth Monarchists or Fifth Monarchy Men, from 1649 to 1660 during the Interregnum, following the English Civil Wars of the 17th century.[1] They took their name from a prophecy in the Book of Daniel that four ancient monarchies (Babylonian, Persian, Macedonian, and Roman) would precede the kingdom of Christ. They also referred to the year 1666 and its relationship to the biblical Number of the Beast indicating the end of earthly rule by carnal human beings...."…

Bill  •  Link

"Few of them would receive any quarter, but such as were taken by force and kept alive; expecting Jesus to come here and reign in the world " Suicidal religious fanaticks. Plus ça change plus la meme chose indeed.

Sasha Clarkson  •  Link

The corrected JWB's link to George Fox's journal is below. It's well worth a read and generally speaks for itself. Under Cromwell, those most inimicable to Quakers had been the Presbyterians. This explains the persecutions in Massachusetts, and possibly contributed to the extent of harassment in England in the aftermath of Venner's failed putsch. There were still many Presbyterians in positions of influence throughout the land, who may have used the hysterical atmosphere of the time for their own purposes.…

Louise  •  Link

Kissing his wife. Probably on the hand or cheek. Ladies were unlikely to kiss passionately in public in those days--certainly not the upper classes.

Terry Foreman  •  Link

"There comes Mr. Hawley to me and brings me my money for the quarter of a year’s salary of my place under Downing that I was at sea. "

Pepys's clerkship in the Exchequer. (L&M note)

John Wheater  •  Link

Two pints of wormwood...

The Wikipedia article 'Purl' suggests that this, known also as 'wormwood ale' was made by 'infusing' the bitter plant into beer. It was very popular then, particularly in the morning.

Matt Newton  •  Link

There comes Mr. Hawley to me and brings me my money for the quarter of a year’s salary of my place under Downing that I was at sea.

Why did Sam give Mr. H half back?

Third Reading

San Diego Sarah  •  Link

"The King this day came to town."

Charles II had immediately recalled the Douglas Regiment under Col. George Douglas from France when he heard about the Venner Uprising.

The revolt was quickly crushed and they returned to France as the Cavalier Parliament refused to finance replacements for the disbanded New Model Army.

The need for a Royalist standing army will be an issue throughout Charles II's reign.

San Diego Sarah  •  Link

JWB mentions George Fox -- Venner's second Rising was the event that made non-violence a tenent of Quakerism:

"After the suppression of a violent Fifth Monarchist uprising led by Thomas Venner in January 1661, George Fox issued the "Peace Testimony" which committed the Society of Friends to pacifism and non-violence under all circumstances." --…

Fox's auto-biography says this about Venner's Rising:
... Richard Hubberthorn had been with the King, who said that none should molest us so long as we lived peaceably and promised this upon the word of a king; telling Richard that we might make use of his promise.
Some Friends were also admitted in the House of Lords, to declare their reasons why they could not pay tithes, swear, go to the steeple-house worship, or join with others in worship; and the Lords heard them moderately. There being about 700 Friends in prison, who had been committed under Oliver’s and Richard’s government, upon contempts (so called) when the King came in, he set them all at liberty.

There seemed at that time an inclination and intention in the government to grant Friends liberty, because those in authority were sensible that we had suffered as well as they under the former powers. But still, when anything was going forward in order thereto, some dirty spirits or other, that would seem to be for us, threw something in the way to stop it.

It was said there was an instrument drawn up for confirming our liberty, and that it only wanted signing; when suddenly that wicked attempt of the Fifth-monarchy people broke out, and put the city and nation in an uproar. This was on a First-day night, and very glorious meetings we had had that day, wherein the Lord’s Truth shone over all, and His power was exalted above all; but about midnight, or soon after, the drums beat, and the cry was, “Arm, Arm!”

I got up out of bed, and in the morning took boat, and, landing at Whitehall-stairs, walked through Whitehall. The people there looked strangely at me, but I passed through them, and went to Pall-Mall, where diverse Friends came to me, though it had now become dangerous to pass through the streets; for by this time the city and suburbs were up in arms. Exceedingly rude the people and soldiers were. Henry Fell, going to a Friend’s house, was knocked down by the soldiers, and he would have been killed had not the Duke of York come by.

San Diego Sarah  •  Link


Great mischief was done in the city this week; and when the next first-day came, as Friends went to their meetings, many were taken prisoners.
I stayed at Pall-Mall, intending to be at the meeting there; but on Seventh-day night a company of troopers came and knocked at the door. The servant let them in. They rushed into the house, and laid hold of me; and, there being amongst them one that had served under the Parliament, he put his hand to my pocket and asked whether I had any pistol. I told him, “You know I do not carry pistols, why, therefore, ask such a question of me, whom you know to be a peaceable man?”
Others of the soldiers ran into the chambers, and there found in bed Esquire Marsh, who was one of the King’s bedchamber, out of his love to me came and lodged where I did. When they came down again they said, “Why should we take this man away with us. We will let him alone.”
“Oh,” said the Parliament soldier, “he is one of the heads, and a chief ringleader.”
Upon this the soldiers were taking me away, but Esquire Marsh, hearing of it, sent for the party commander, and desired him to let me alone, for he would see me forthcoming in the morning.

In the morning, before they could fetch me, and before the meeting was gathered, there came a company of foot soldiers to the house, and one of them, drawing his sword, held it over my head. I asked him why he drew his sword at an unarmed man, at which his fellows bade him put up his sword.
These foot soldiers took me away to Whitehall before the troopers came for me.
As I was going out several Friends were coming in to the meeting. I commended their boldness, and encouraged them to persevere therein.
When I was brought to Whitehall, the soldiers and people were exceedingly rude, yet I declared Truth to them. But some great persons came by, who were very full of envy. “Why,” said they, “do ye let him preach? Put him into a place where he may not stir.”
So into such a place they put me, and the soldiers watched over me. I told them that, though they could confine my body and shut that up, yet they could not stop the Word of life. Some came and asked me what I was. I told them, “A preacher of righteousness.”
After I had been kept there two or three hours, Esquire Marsh spoke to Lord Gerrard, and he came and bade them set me at liberty. The marshal, when I was discharged, demanded fees. I told him I could not give him any, neither was it our practice; and I asked him how he could demand fees of me, who was innocent.
Then I went through the guards, the Lord’s power being over them; and, after I had declared Truth to the soldiers, I went up the streets with two Irish colonels that came from Whitehall to an inn where many Friends were at that time prisoners under a guard. I desired these colonels to speak to the guard to let me go in to visit my friends that were prisoners there; but they would not. Then I stepped up to the sentry, and desired him to let me go up; and he did so.

San Diego Sarah  •  Link


While I was there the soldiers went again to Pall-Mall to search for me; but not finding me they turned towards the inn, and bade all come out that were not prisoners; so they went out. But I asked the soldiers that were within whether I might not stay there a while with my friends. They said, “Yes.” I stayed, and so escaped their hands again.
Towards night I went to Pall-Mall, to see how it was with the Friends there; and, after I had stayed a while, I went up into the city.

Great rifling of houses there was at this time to search for people. I went to a private Friend’s house, and Richard Hubberthorn was with me. There we drew up a declaration against plots and fightings, to be presented to the King and Council; but when finished, and sent to print, it was taken in the press.

On this insurrection of the Fifth-monarchy men, great havoc was made both in city and country, so that it was dangerous for sober people to stir abroad for several weeks after. Men or women could hardly go up and down the streets to buy provisions for their families without being abused.
In the country they dragged men and women out of their houses, and some sick men out of their beds by the legs. Nay, one man in a fever, the soldiers dragged out of bed to prison, and when he was brought there he died. His name was Thomas Pachyn.

Margaret Fell went to the King and told him what sad work there was in the city and nation, and showed him we were an innocent, peaceable people, and that we must keep our meetings as heretofore, whatever we suffered; but that it concerned him to see that peace was kept, that no innocent blood might be shed.

The prisons were now everywhere filled with Friends and others, in the city and country, and the posts were so laid for the searching of letters that none could pass unsearched. We heard of several thousands of our Friends that were cast into prison in several parts of the nation, and Margaret Fell carried an account of them to the King and Council.
The next week we had an account of several thousands more that were cast into prison, and she went and laid them also before the King and Council. They wondered how we could have such intelligence, seeing they had given such strict charge for the intercepting of all letters; but the Lord did so order it that we had an account notwithstanding all their stoppings.

Soon after the King gave forth a proclamation that no soldiers should search any house without a constable. But the jails were still full, many thousands of Friends being in prison; which mischief was occasioned by the wicked rising of the Fifth-monarchy men. But when those that were taken came to be executed, they did us the justice to clear us openly from having any hand in or knowledge of their plot.

San Diego Sarah  •  Link


After that, the King being continually importuned thereunto, issued a declaration that Friends should be set at liberty without paying fees. But great labour, travail, and pains were taken before this was obtained; for Thomas Moore and Margaret Fell went often to the King about it.

Much blood was shed this year, many of the old King’s judges being hung, drawn and quartered. Amongst them that so suffered, Colonel Hacker was one. ... But there was a secret hand in bringing this day upon that hypocritical generation of professors, who, being got into power, grew proud, haughty, and cruel beyond others, and persecuted the people of God without pity. ...

Although those Friends that had been imprisoned on the rising of the Fifth-monarchy men were set at liberty, meetings were much disturbed, and great sufferings Friends underwent. For besides what was done by officers and soldiers, many wild fellows and rude people often came in.

One time when I was at Pall-Mall there came an ambassador with a company of Irishmen and rude fellows. The meeting was over before they came, and I was gone into a chamber, where I heard one of them say that he would kill all the Quakers. I went down to him, and was moved in the power of the Lord to speak to him. I told him, “The law said, ‘An eye for an eye, and a tooth for a tooth’; but thou threateneth to kill all the Quakers, though they have done thee no hurt. But,” said I, “here is gospel for thee: here is my hair, here is my cheek, and here is my shoulder,” turning it to him.

This so overcame him that he and his companions stood as men amazed, and said that if that was our principle, and if we were as we said, they never saw the like in their lives. I told them that what I was in words, I also was in my life. Then the ambassador who stood without, came in; for he said that this Irish colonel was a desperate man that he durst not come in with him for fear he should do us some mischief. But Truth came over the Irish colonel, and he carried himself lovingly towards us; as also did the ambassador; for the Lord’s power was over them all.

At Mile-End Friends were kept out of their meeting-place by soldiers, but they stood nobly in the Truth, valiant for the Lord’s name; and at last the Truth gave them dominion.

About this time we had an account that John Love, a Friend that was moved to go and bear testimony against the idolatry of the Papists, was dead in prison at Rome; it was suspected he was privately put to death.
Also before this time we received account from New England that the government there had made a law to banish the Quakers out of their colonies, upon pain of death in case they returned; that several of our Friends, having been so banished and returning, were thereupon taken and actually hanged, and that diverse more were in prison, in danger of the like sentence being executed upon them. ...

San Diego Sarah  •  Link


While they were thus met, in came a poor Friend, who, being sentenced by their bloody law to die, had lain some time in irons expecting execution. This added to their joy, and caused them to lift up their hearts in high praise to God, who is worthy for ever to have the praise, the glory, and the honour; for He only is able to deliver, to save, and support all that sincerely put their trust in Him.

Here follows a copy of the mandamus.

“Charles R.:
“Trusty and well-beloved, We greet you well. Having been informed that several of our subjects amongst you, called Quakers, have been and are imprisoned by you, whereof some have been executed, and others (as hath been represented unto us) are in danger to undergo the like, we have thought fit to signify our pleasure in that behalf for the future; and do hereby require that if there be any of those people called Quakers amongst you, now already condemned to suffer death or other corporal punishment, or that are imprisoned and obnoxious to the like condemnation, you are to forbear to proceed any further therein; but that you forthwith send the said persons (whether condemned or imprisoned) over into this our kingdom of England, together with the respective crimes or offenses laid to their charge, to the end that such course may be taken with them here as shall be agreeable to our laws and their demerits. And for so doing, these our letters shall be your sufficient warrant and discharge. Given at our court at Whitehall the ninth day of September, 1661, in the 13th year of our reign.”

Subscribed: “To our trusty and well-beloved John Endicott, Esquire, and to all and every other the Governor or governors of our plantations of New England, and of all the colonies thereunto belonging, that now are or hereafter shall be, and to all and every the ministers and officers of our plantations and colonies whatsoever within the continent of New England. ” By his majesty’s command,
-- “William Morris.”

San Diego Sarah  •  Link


As for the Fifth-monarchy men I was moved to give forth a paper, to manifest their error to them; for they looked for Christ’s personal coming in an outward form and manner, and fixed the time to the year 1666; at which time some of them prepared themselves when it thundered and rained, thinking Christ was then come to set up His kingdom, and they imagined they were to kill the whore without them.

But I told them that the whore was alive in them, and was not burned with God’s fire, nor judged in them with the same power and Spirit the Apostles were in; and that their looking for Christ’s coming outwardly to set up His kingdom was like the Pharisees’ “Lo here,” and “Lo there.” But Christ was come, and had set up His kingdom above 1600 years ago, according to Nebuchadnezzar’s dream and Daniel’s prophecy, and He had dashed to pieces the four monarchies, the great image, with its head of gold, breast and arms of silver, belly and thighs of brass, legs of iron, and its feet part of iron part of clay; and they were all blown away with God’s wind, as the chaff in the summer threshing-floor.

And I told them that when Christ was on earth, He said His kingdom was not of this world; if it had been, His servants would have fought; but it was not, therefore His servants did not fight. Therefore all the Fifth-monarchy men that are fighters with carnal weapons are none of Christ’s servants, but the beast’s and the whore’s. Christ said, “All power in heaven and in earth is given to me”; so then His kingdom was set up above 1600 years ago, and He reigns. “And we see Jesus Christ reign,” said the Apostle, “and He shall reign till all things be put under His feet”; though all things are not yet put under His feet, nor subdued.

... And it goes on -- Fox's biography is at…

Now we understand the fear that Munster's Protestantism-gone-awry trauma represented, the blanket reaction of rounding up thousands of innocent people across the nation comes into focus.
It's like labeling a communal living situation as being 'like Jonestown' today. Red flags go up everywhere, regardless of whether or not they are justified.…

San Diego Sarah  •  Link

"Why did Sam give Mr. H half back?"

We all noticed that Pepys didn't have much to do at his job the first months of the Diary, but he did have some responsibilities. While he was at sea with Montagu for 3 months, his role was filled by Hawley.
I suspect Pepys didn't expect to see this pay day -- but Hawley was honest enough to bring over the money.
Arguably, Hawley should have received all of it. Maybe there was a rule covering this sort of situation? Maybe they had discussed how to split the money before Pepys left?

Nice of Hawley to give Jane a tip.

David  •  Link

To enlarge on JWB's post of 11th Jan 2004 the human head is about one eighth of the total height so the gigantic woman's head would have been about 10 inches top to bottom, say her outstretched arms were about four inches in diameter at the shoulder then Sam would have to have been roughly five foot seven inches tall (or maybe a bit less) to stand beneath her. that is my rough calculation.

Stephane Chenard  •  Link

On the excesses of repression noted by George Fox, as quoted by Susan, a royal proclamation can be expected in a few days to dial it down a little, and Mercurius Politicus will add this backgrounder: "Now heare in London many abuses was commited upon the acount of the serchinge for armes in the houses of the Fift Monorchy men, Quakers, and Anabaptists, that many were very ill delt withall; for that they robed them, sorely wounded others, and draged some to prison, and all this done without orders."

But on this day, royal secretary Edward Nicholas will note sternly in a letter to Henry Bennet (State Papers, at…) that, apart from the Fifth Monarchists being so violent and irreducible, "The nation is too sensible of their principles not to secure the public peace against them". In other words, they're not a tiny fringe of crazies. We like it when officialdom is so frank.

San Diego Sarah  •  Link

"Maybe they had discussed how to split the money before Pepys left?"

They did set this up, and Downing knew about it as of Sept. 9, 1660:
"This morning at my Lord’s I had an opportunity to speak with Sir George Downing, who has promised me to give me up my bond, and to pay me for my last quarter while I was at sea, that so I may pay Mr. Moore and Hawly."…

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