Sunday 30 August 1663

[The Gutenberg text of the Wheatley edition of the diary has no entry for this date. Below is the entry from the Latham & Matthews edition. P.G.]

Lords Day. Lay long, then up; and Will being ill of the tooth-ake, I stayed at home and made up my accounts; which to my great content arise to 750l. clear Creditor, the most I have had yet. Dined alone with my wife, my brother dining abroad at my uncle Wights I think. To church, I alone, in the afternoon; and there saw Pembleton come in and look up, which put me into a sweat, and seeing not my wife there, went out again. But Lord — how I was afeared that he might, seeing me at church, go home to my wife; so much it is out of my power to preserve myself from jealousy — and so sot impatient all the sermon. Home and find all well and no sign of anybody being there, and so with great content playing and dallying with my wife; and so to my office, doing a little business there among my papers, and home to my wife to talk — supper and bed.

48 Annotations

First Reading

jeannine  •  Link

The L&M Version for today reads as follows:

Lords Day. Lay long, then up; and Will being ill of the tooth-ake, I stayed at home and made up my accounts; which to my great content arise to 750£ clear Creditor, the most I have had yet. Dined alone with my wife, my brother dining abroad at my uncle Wights I think. To church, I alone, in the afternoon; and there saw Pembleton come in and look up, which put me into a sweat, and seeing not my wife there, went out again. But Lord-how I was afeared that he might, seeing me at church, go home to my wife; so much it is out of my power to preserve myself from jealousy *- and so sot impatient all the sermon. Home and find all well and no sign of anybody being there, and so with great content playing and dallying with my wife; and so to my office, doing a little business there among my papers, and home to my wife to talk-supper and bed.
* s.h. repl. l.h. ‘Jealousy” written over another l.h. word (-‘ment’) now illegible.

jeannine  •  Link

oops, one typo

should say "sat impatient all the sermon"

Robert Gertz  •  Link

Thanks Jeannine.

Bess' stock rising for the second day...

"Playing and dallying..." you crazy kids, you...

And Johnny Jr. still hanging round...When does the term start, anyway?

Fortunate that Sam's jealousy seems to completely ignore John's presence in the house.

Robert Gertz  •  Link

"Nice leg of beef, love. But even nicer...Leg of Bess."

"Sam'l!" Giggle. "Stop it, sir!"

"Sadly, my lady, no one is here to protect you from the fiendish...Dancing Master."

"Hmmn? Sam'l? Dancing master?" Ha..Ha-ha-ha-hah. "You...You're still jealous of that Mr. Pembleton? Oh, Sam'l!"

"Not at all, not at all. But they do say a good dancer can have a way with the ladies."

"Pity you didn't study harder, then. Oh, no..."


"It's them again..." Bess nods our way...

"You there, go way...This is a private residence." Sam waving us off.

"You had to write about our home life in that silly Diary. Now we can never get rid of these people."

"Made you immortal, sweetheart."


language hat  •  Link

Thanks, jeannine!
Man, he really has it bad. I can't believe he's still going on about Pembleton.

dirk  •  Link

Those who want to read the entry online, can use the following link:…

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Patricia  •  Link

Sam skips morning worship because Will has the toothache? Very puzzling behaviour in a regular attender.

TerryF  •  Link

Patricia, did he stay home because he had to get himself up, Will being indisposed. St. Mattress in the Springs today?

dirk  •  Link

The Rev. Josselin & his diary:

"God good [...] harvest god good in the word a very thin audience, as if daring Magistracy, that begins to punish absentees from public worship, the lord give me a heart to serve him faithfully."

The Act of Conformity at work...

dirk  •  Link

John Evelyn's diary...

"Mr. Lloyd our Curate on 24. Act: 16: In the Afternoone I walked to Greenewich and heard Mr. Plume Expound on the Catechisme."

Acts 24:16
"And herein do I exercise myself, to have always a conscience
void to offence toward God, and toward men."

Joe  •  Link

"750£ clear Creditor"

I was hoping Pepys would give us a clearer picture of his financial accounting this time, given the recent change in the loan to Sandwich. This doesn't help me very much, though. Anybody else?

Many thanks to Jeannine!

Australian Susan  •  Link

Pembleton is rather giving cause for concern - he only seems to have started coming to church again now Bess is back from the country and now pointedly staring up at the Navy Office gallery pew. Hmm.

Sam doesn't comment on what readings he heard, nor the sermon (well, he had other things on his mind...) but Evelyn's sermon was based on "And herein do I exercise myself to have always a conscience void of offence toward God and toward men." This could have been a sermon to trouble Sam.
The Catechism is the series of questions and answers which confirmation candidates were expected to learn and recite before being confirmed. This was a new edition to the 1662 BCP and was being used as a test of conformity on the laity (as the 39 Articles were for the clergy since the inclusion of these in the Elizabethan prayer book). Presumably the sermon was on the great worth of this inclusion in the BCP and how it was to be used. JE had gone quite a distance to hear this Mr Plume: he must have thought either the preacher or the subject matter worth it.

MissAnn  •  Link

Thank you Jeannine - what a buddy!

Glad to see Sam's nett worth is increasing exponentially, wish mine was.

Patricia and TerryF are so correct in pointing out that Sam had a lie-in - as he wasn't observed at Church on Sunday morn - will that be held against him in the future? I think, from schoolgirl memory, that church non-attendance was a notifiable offence during this period, maybe that is to come, does anyone else know? Once again religion is the tamer of the masses.

Bryan M  •  Link

MissAnn, Dirk’s quote from the Rev. Josselin’s diary (“a very thin audience, as if daring Magistracy, that begins to punish absentees from public worship”) may refer to non-attendance. Anyone know how seriously it was taken?

Even taking into account Sam’s jealous paranoia, it does look like Pembleton was either innocent of amorous intent and extremely ingenuous, or guilty and extremely stupid.

Miss Ann fr Home  •  Link

Thanks Bryan M - previous annotation done whilst trying to work, couldn't wait to get home, wanted a diversion from a very stressful day so had a peek.

Rev Josselin, even though not a wordy man with his entries is always on the ball. Just goes to show my memory isn't that bad afterall, maybe I was listening at school afterall (not very cool for a tall leggy blonde in the '70s - now an aging greying blonde who is getting shorter every year).

Robert Gertz  •  Link

"So I went to hear Plume." Evelyn notes quietly to the coffeehouse set about him.

"Plume? The one they say whose sermons on conscience annoyed the King?" one fellow eyes him. "The fellow Barkeley promised to give a thrashing should they ever meet?" another chimes in.

"You've heard the stories about his wife? A high level agent of the royal secret service...I got it from a confidential source at Court." one whispers.

"Everyone's heard that one, it was a deliberate leak. Why do you think I went?" Evelyn smiles. "She seemed a lovely, quiet lass, though I did catch her eyeing the crowd and glancing at him throughout the sermon. Assuming she probably knows the King's top covert men by sight, I imagine she's quite a protection to him."

"Can't be true." the second speaker shakes head. "What rogue, even at Court would expose a covert operative of the government just to intimidate a moral whistle-blower? That'd be high treason...He could hang."

"Not if the leak were sanctioned by someone high enough." Evelyn offers.

Robert Gertz  •  Link

The Wights...

"So John Pepys...You,sir are very welcome." Uncle Wight nods to his younger nephew, raising a glass of wine to him, which John reciprocates, the two men having retired to Wight's closet to discuss confidential matters. "And I want to know, John...That I regard you as I would my own son. Yes." Sets down glass. "So, sir. What do you have for me?"

"Sandwich took a 700L loan with my brother just the other day. He's definitely hurting for cash. And his mistress in Chelsea is draining him."

"Ah..." Wight nods, smacking lips. "So my information is true. Our last famed Cromwellian has taken on trappings and attachments beyond his means and is finding himself in serious difficulties. A moral lesson to us, nephew. Excellent. Clarendon will be very pleased."

"Sam says the King hasn't paid him even for the Portugal trip to bring the Queen and the Wardrobe is bringing him little if anything."

"Yes, a pity. And I fear if my Lord looks to either source to replenish his coffers he'll find them quite dry...And the King quite apologetic but unable to assist. Though naturally, as the nation's moral guardian, perturbed and concerned by the rumors about Chelsea."

"So the King means to bring him down, eh?"

"My dear John. Would the King turn on the more competent of the two men who made his return possible? Still, there are those highly placed who might prefer to see the last ex-Cromwellian capable of rallying opposition morally compromised, neutered, and dependent on the King's generosity. A generosity that, sadly, may be a trifle sporadic."

"Brother Sam might want to keep his distance then...If my Lord's headed for a fall." John notes.

"Ah, John. This is why I am pleased to regard you as I would my very own son. No, it's never wise to put all ones eggs in one basket in such times as we live in, dear boy. And I hear your successful brother has begun to make himself independent of his patron. A wise move on his part." Wight smiles, moping brow a bit.

"Now, dear boy. I shall ask you, while you stay with dear Samuel and his pretty wife, to continue to seek out any stray bits of news you can as to my Lord's situation. I can assure you my friends at Court will be pleased...And..." lifts small bag of something heavy to table which John, at a nod from dear Uncle, pockets quietly.. "Generous."

Bradford  •  Link

I bid for Pembleton's ingenuous cluelessness. Surely he has seen enough of Mr. Pepys's behavior that otherwise, if guilty, he would shun coming under suspicion.

Nix  •  Link

"750£ clear Creditor"

I read it to mean "net worth" -- assets minus liabilities. I suspect he includes only financial assets, such as coin, currency, and accounts receivable, but not personal goods (household goods, furnishings, and such), balanced against his liabilities (the settlement payments on his uncle's estate, his outstanding promissory notes, etc.). I'd be interested to know how he treats the inherited real estate, which is usually described by its annual rental value rather than by a full cash value.

Aqua  •  Link

Another Cavalier answer in the Background, said he told His Highness to dump all that Cromwell mob, all except those that could prove that they sent useful information to his Highness, those like Downing. All of those that gave monies to the Puritan Party and allies, all should have been removed. Only Loyal subjects should have those cushy jobs at all the sinecure positions like the Wardrobe, and Navy. All servants of the Cromwell movement should have lost their positions through out the Commonwealth, sorry Kingdom, then we, all us educated that were educated properly, could enjoy prosperity, no more poor preachers, and impoverished lauded ones.

Aqua  •  Link

How serious was non Attendance? Verry, in most politicall vestries, it was used to increase incomes, fortunately Church run Law courts were not functional fully, otherwise it would have introduce another Inquisition.
It was a good source of income, and a good way of getting rid of your rivals in Trade and Politics. Parliament was locked in a weak struggle with the Bishops and Charles, whose own religious bent be askew with both power Groups, but as laws were being used to get traction, it failed to get blud shed.
A good read be the late Christopher Hill [Former Balliol OXon Brainwasher ] series of books on the Period, publisher W.W. Norton books, His view point fails to convince many, none the less it is a interesting view.
Understanding this period of British [England,Wales,Scotland,Eire]should be mandatory for any one, wanting to change Government's major ways, or democratize them, or understand the other attempts to control large mobs of peoples.

TerryF  •  Link

"The Uniformity Act of 1662 under Charles II, which was preceded by similarly named acts in 1549, 1552 and 1559, sought to restore the dominance of the Church of England by establishing a set form of worship, which included compiling a new version of the Book of Common Prayer (Keir 240). The use of this book was mandatory at all religious services. Additionally, this Act made church attendance mandatory every Sunday, under the penalty of a fine of 12 pence."…

jeannine  •  Link

"this Act made church attendance mandatory every Sunday".. if these Acts said anything about actually staying awake and/or paying attention to the service (and not the ladies or Mr. Pembleton) then our hero is in a heap of trouble.....

TerryF  •  Link

I question the applicability of the claim that "*this Act* made church attendance mandatory every Sunday"
since the source cited for this claim is Thomas, Heather. Life and Times of Queen Elizabeth I. 1998. Accessed Feb. 16, 2005.

The author of this article has conflated several Acts of Uniformity.

TerryF  •  Link

So, jeannine, Our Hero is off the hook!

Besides, I doubt he was the only member of the congragation who snoozedzzzzzzz

ellen  •  Link

Thanks, Aqua, I understood every word!

alanB  •  Link

Someone has to say it.

What time is it Will?
'tooth hurty'
Ok, I'll stay and look after you.

Glyn  •  Link

"and there saw Pembleton come in and look up ... and seeing not my wife there, went out again"

Pepys'is jumping to conclusions here. Just because Pembleton leaves may have absolutely nothing to do with Elizabeth not being there. But it's an easy assumption for Pepys to make, given that he regularly visits churches to look at pretty women.

Aqua  •  Link

Ellen, I hope not too bushey tailed.

Robert Gertz  •  Link

So perhaps in truth, Pembleton is a spirit brother...

Heaven...Centuries of reconcilation later...

(A corner of Eternity bearing the form of their old London...Heaven being largely the familiar and beloved.)

Pembleton and Pepys at the back of the imitation St. Olave's, contentedly eyeing every pretty girl passing:

"Pale and acarved and with a kerchief, the girl from St. O-lave's is walking...And when she's walking, each time she's walking, we go....


Oh...And she's looking so lovely..."

Uh-oh...Ummn...Pembleton kindly tries a nudge, but Sam feels himself in excellent voice...

"Oh...And she's..." Uh...

"Really? Do go on, gentlemen." Bess, accompanied by a grim Mrs. Pembleton, back from a chat, hands on hips, glares.


Thought this was supposed to be Heaven...Sam grumbles mentally as he's dragged home.

"Oh, no...It's Heaven for me...Now I always get to nip these things in the bud." Bess smiles, reading his thought...

"'Course if it's such hell for you...You know you can request a transfer." a slightly anxious stare.

"No." Shake of head, sly grin. "I suppose I must bear it as my due...And it wouldn't be any fun anywhere without you."

Aqua  •  Link

That was pure purgatory, RG ,so carthartic.

Australian Susan  •  Link

It was the 1559 Act which first made attendance compulsory on payment of a fine of 6d (the 1662 Act doubled that!). Many Catholic Elizabethans simply paid up the sixpences until that got too dangerous (after Eliz. was excommunicated by the Pope - 1570 - making her assassination an act of obligation on Catholics and thus rendering them all objects of suspicion. Great paranoia resulted.)
With the passing of the 1662 Act, the Government was first of all concerned to get the clergy to conform and all use the new BCP. so at this stage attendance or not by thelaity was not seen as such a cause for concern (and never what it was a hundred years before - because of the danger to the monarch at that time.)
Wish Sam had been at the installtion of the ArchB of Cant - his account would have been so much livelier than JE's (compare the two writing on the Coronation). Note only 8 Bishops were in the procession - the ranks were thin indeed.

Todd Bernhardt  •  Link

"and made up my accounts; which to my great content arise to 750£ clear Creditor, the most I have had yet"

Aqua, from this phrase it looks to me as if your theory of Sam's reckoning of his net worth (that he doesn't include the money owed to him by Sandwich) is correct...

Aqua  •  Link

Todd: Our concept of money has radicaly changed, from sumthing tangible to sumert ephemeral or more imaginary, I see people paying for their cup of ersartz with a Tablet of wax [on Tab vs on carta papyrus];
There is no sensual contact with an hour's worth of labour and the object of desire. Money has become a mythe like Christmas, Marriage and the pursuit of happiness.

Todd Bernhardt  •  Link

Until the tax man cometh, anyway (or the computers all fail)...

Aqua  •  Link

'or the computers all fail' reality, and no cuppa of char to apprecate the beauty of pencil and paper to count change as I have witnessed when stores close on a bright sunny day and cannot serve coffee as they cannot make change or except thy plastique, due a Transformer going poof at the end of the street..

Australian Susan  •  Link

Before last Christmas, I went into a shop I don't usually go into to purchase a gift. I proferred the girl at the counter a note - she stared at it and then said, "I'm sorry, this is a no-cash till - could you queue over there." Pointing to till with long queue. I returned gift to shelf and left store......

Second Reading

arby  •  Link

A recent Economist, Aug 13, had an article about the death of cash in Europe, especially in the northern countries, except Germany. Germany, southern and eastern Europe have not followed the trend, and the Italians especially remain wedded to cash, even for large purchases. What the tax man doesn't know, etc. In eastern Europe and Germany it's an historical aversion to being tracked, memories of Stazi and the like.
It now costs more money to handle cash than plastic, despite the bank fees added to plastic transactions. Some northern stores have "No Cash" policies.

San Diego Sarah  •  Link

Sam took a day off essentially. Of course, he didn't have to prepare for a Monday afternoon meeting with the Duke of York, since he's gone to Bath. But there are still some soldiers to dispatch to Ireland.

Sam might have noted Will's toothache as the reason for not going to Church in the morning, just in case he needed a reminder for an alibi later on, and in the heat of things forgot what had happened.

I can see how magistrates would have known who attended - or didn't attend - a church in an Essex village, but in London where you could listen to lots of good preachers in walking distance of your home, I don't think there could be general enforcement -- someone would have to be specifically monitored for evidence.

Elizabeth's apparent non-attendance doesn't seem to worry Pepys, or cause comment from the Navy community who would have noticed. Perhaps she attends a French-speaking church, and Pepys didn't think it worth mentioning. No ... Pemberton would be watching for her there instead. Rules out that theory.

Sasha Clarkson  •  Link

"There were 111 churches in the City in the 16th century; 80 were destroyed in the Great Fire of 1666 and 51 subsequently rebuilt under the direction of Sir Christopher Wren." So, plenty to choose from. As Sarah says, policing compulsory church attendance would be difficult.…

Enforcement would have different aims in London than in the provinces. In London, the aim would be suppress Presbyterian and more radical puritans, like Pepys' clerk Hayter. This could be done by preventing their meetings/services. In country areas away from London, like Lancashire, recusancy was more likely to be associated with Roman Catholicism. Different groups feared different things for different reasons.

Given the number of available churches, it seems that Pembleton has it bad: whether it's lust, love, obsession - or the need/hope for money ...

Louise Hudson  •  Link

In the annotations it talks about Phil Gyford becoming more sensitive about copyright. Like most digital enthusiasts he evidently didn't start out thinking about it.

What does "L&M" mean?
L&M is an abbreviation of Latham & Matthews, the editors of the most complete published version of the diaries. While the text used on the Pepys Diary website is from the 1890s, and is occasionally inaccurate and incomplete (but free of copyright), Latham & Matthews' edition from the 1970s is complete, accurate and extremely well annotated (but under copyright). It is often referred to here to resolve confusions in the 1890s text, or provide further information. You can find links to the L&M volumes for purchase on the Further Reading page of the Encyclopedia.

StanB  •  Link

Dined alone with my wife
Oxymoron Sam ?

Gerald Berg  •  Link

Oxymoron Sam? I was thinking not. Alone, today just means something very different. Today's alone being historically unique? Probably have to do a social history course to parse it fully.

john  •  Link

Methinks The Dancing Master is seeking more work and is advertising himself to a captive audience.

Terry Foreman  •  Link

""Dined alone with my wife" Oxymoron Sam ?"

I agree with GeraldBerg that it's not an oxymoron and it has social-historical resonance. As the host Pepys writes this often when HE has no guest. Apparently "to dine" at that time had a bit of the transitive: one dined someone The midday meal routinely included at least one guest.

"Dine" give dinner to; entertain at dinner: wined and dined the visiting senators.…

Louise Hudson  •  Link

Hasn't anyone here ever used the phrase, "My [spouse] and I dined alone last night? It makes perfect sense to me and I've heard that sort of thing said many times with no one suggesting it's an oxymoron. If two people are in the habit of dining with guests, it seems perfectly correct to say they sometimes dine alone [together].

Chris Squire UK  •  Link

Re: ‘ . . it is out of my power to preserve myself from jealousy — and so sot impatient all the sermon.’

Not a typo:

‘sot, v., old French . .
. . 2. intr. To play the sot.
1633 S. Marmion Antiquary (1875) ii. i. 217 You have been sotting on't all night with wine.
1711 E. Ward Vulgus Britannicus (ed. 3) iii. 99 Where day by day they us'd to sot, At All-fours, Cribidge, or at Put . . ‘

‘sot, n.1 and adj.
1. A foolish or stupid person; a fool, blockhead, dolt. Obs.
. . 1641 Milton Animadversions 55 The one is ever..a sot, an ideot for any use that mankind can make of him.
1712 R. Steele Spectator No. 492. ⁋1 The Men are such unthinking Sots, that they do not prefer her who restrains all her Passions and Affections [etc.] . . ‘

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