Wednesday 26 May 1669

To White Hall, where all the morning. Dined with Mr. Chevins, with Alderman Backewell, and Spragg. The Court full of the news from Captain Hubbert, of “The Milford,” touching his being affronted in the Streights, shot at, and having eight men killed him by a French man-of-war, calling him “English dog,” and commanding him to strike, which he refused, and, as knowing himself much too weak for him, made away from him. The Queen, as being supposed with child, fell ill, so as to call for Madam Nun, Mr. Chevins’s sister, and one of her women, from dinner from us; this being the last day of their doubtfulness touching her being with child; and they were therein well confirmed by her Majesty’s being well again before night.

One Sir Edmund Bury Godfry, a woodmonger and justice of Peace in Westminster, having two days since arrested Sir Alexander Frazier for about 30l. in firing, the bailiffs were apprehended, committed to the porter’s lodge, and there, by the King’s command, the last night severely whipped; from which the justice himself very hardly escaped, to such an unusual degree was the King moved therein. But he lies now in the lodge, justifying his act, as grounded upon the opinion of several of the judges, and, among others, my Lord Chief-Justice; which makes the King very angry with the Chief-Justice, as they say; and the justice do lie and justify his act, and says he will suffer in the cause for the people, and do refuse to receive almost any nutriment. The effects of it may be bad to the Court.

Expected a meeting of Tangier this afternoon, but failed. So home, met by my wife at Unthanke’s.


26 May 2012, 10:06 p.m. - Terry Foreman

Instructions [by the King] for ... John, Lord Robartes ... whom We have appointed Lieutenant-General ... of Ireland Written from: Whitehall Date: 26 May 1669 Read in Committee [of the Privy Council] 26 May. http://www.rsl.ox.ac.uk/dept/scwmss/projects/carte/carte50.html

26 May 2012, 11:04 p.m. - jeannine

From Davidson’s “Catherine of Braganza” p. 241-2 “For the fourth time, in the early spring…..Catherine was raised to the seventh heaven of hope, only to descend to the abyss of regret and disappointment. On May 19th, she was dining in her own apartments at Whitehall, in her white pinner and apron, with the King, and Pepys, who had come to see Charles on business, and was admitted to the Queen’s lodging, thought that she seemed handsomer so than in her smart attire.. On the 26th of the month, Catherine was taken suddenly ill, and Madame Nun, Chiffinch’s sister, and another of her women, had to be sent for in haste, from dinner with Pepys, which confirmed the world in its hopes of the Queen’s condition. This Chiffinch, or “Chivens’ as Pepys calls him, was one of the King’s confidential servants. On June 1 Arlington wrote to Temple that the Queen was very well, and that everyone was rejoicing in the hopes that they dared to believe well founded. But on June 7 Charles had to write to Madame [his sister in Paris], to whom he had a month before confided his expectations. “My wife after all hopes has miscarried, again, without visible incident. The physicians are divided whether it were false conception, or a good one”. The physicians present were Dr. Cox and Dr. Williams, but they were instructed by Buckingham, at least so Burnet says, to deny that there had ever been any miscarriage, and to spread a report abroad that it was an impossibility for the Queen ever to have children. It is odd, after Charles’s declaration that there had been no visible incident, to read in Clayton’s letter to Sir Robert Paston that Catherine’s illness was produced by fright, caused by an ‘unfortunate accident with one of the King’s tame foxes, which, stealing after the King unknown into the bedchamber, lay there all night and in the morning, very early, leaped upon the bed, and run over the Queen’s face and into the bed.” This was quite enough to account for anything, and Catherine suffered from Charles’s inconvenient attachment to his pets, which he carried on to an excess. His King Charles spaniels not only followed him on all his walks, but brought up their families in his rooms, and even his bed. The consequence, on this occasion, of his passion for pets was somewhat fatal. Buckingham and Lauderdale seized at once on the miscarriage to raise the divorce question once more….”

27 May 2012, 1:23 p.m. - languagehat

Can anyone explain this business with the woodmonger, the bailiffs, and the judges? Why is the king wroth?

27 May 2012, 1:52 p.m. - Terry Foreman

"Can anyone explain this business with the woodmonger, the bailiffs, and the judges?" Sounds like the intro to a joke. L&M note Godfrey was released afte4r six days, having refused to petition for his liberty. He was the same Goderey who later achieved fame as the "Protestant magistrate" whose death in violent and mysterious circumstances in 1678 detonated the explosion of anti-Catholic panic in the Popish Plot. [Read this for a notion of the plot: http://www.pepysdiary.com/indepth/2007/08/16/the_plot_against_pe/ ] L&M say Godfrey's careful display of public virtue is perhaps typical of the man.

27 May 2012, 2:01 p.m. - Terry Foreman

"Why is the king wroth?" My guess is that when his physician is arrested and the King is still in a state of "doubtfulness [ = fearfulness ] touching her being with child" -- mortality in pregnancy asnd childbirth having been high -- he was upset.

27 May 2012, 3:20 p.m. - john

Justice must not also be done but be seen to be done. #6-)

27 May 2012, 6:06 p.m. - Robert Gertz

Hmmn...Is the King's Physician/friend above the law on one hand, on the other Charles perhaps suspecting Godfrey is deliberately provoking the issue, since surely if legal authority can go after Frazier for firewood poaching, they can go after bigger Court fish for much bigger things? One thing I have noted is Sam seems no longer much interested or likely able due to eye concerns and time constraints to give us a more general sketch of the state of the nation...As to whether the King's Friends are causing mayhem outside the Navy as well. This incident may well reflect there is a lot of unhappiness with the greed, corruption, and mismanagement and a few public officials are chaffing at watching the Court's actions.

27 May 2012, 6:08 p.m. - Robert Gertz

Of coure it would be touching if as Terry considered, Charlie's concern is having his doctor on hand for Cathy's sake.

27 May 2012, 6:27 p.m. - Terry Foreman

"Madame Nun" of the Queen's household (L&M say in the Companion), is probably Elizabeth Nunn, laundress. Pepys refers to her as William Chiffinch's sister (i.e. sister-in-law): his wife was Barbara Nunn.

27 May 2012, 6:29 p.m. - Terry Foreman

"This incident may well reflect there is a lot of unhappiness with the greed, corruption, and mismanagement and a few public officials are chaffing at watching the Court’s actions." ...and Pepys among them!

27 May 2012, 6:51 p.m. - nix

"In 1669 Godfrey was briefly imprisoned for a few days because he had the King's physician, Sir Alexander Fraizer, arrested for owing him money. Pepys Diary of 24 May 1669 mentions that he went on hunger strike, claiming that the Judges had found for him, but the King had overridden them. He was held at the Porter's Lodge of Whitehall Palace." http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edmund_Berry_Godfrey Years ago I read a fascinating account of Godfrey's murder by the mystery master John Dickson Carr. http://www.amazon.com/Murder-Sir-Edmund-Godfrey/dp/1558820140

27 May 2012, 11:07 p.m. - Glyn

Language Hat: I read that to mean that Sir Alexander Frazier owes Sir Edmund Bury Godfry the sum of 30 pounds for wood, which is a lot of wood, presumably for building? Godfry is also a judge, so sends around court officials to arrest Frazier. Somehow Godfry was intruding on the authority of the king, so the officials were arrested and punished, and Godfry also nearly was. Now I'll ask you a question in return. Does "in firing" somehow mean "in fine" which I think means "to bring to an end" or "to cut a story short"? And when did "monger" stop being used to describe someone who sells things? I've heard of a costermonger and a fishmonger, but nothing more modern than that, such as a computermonger for instance. Certainly I've never heard of a woodmonger.

27 May 2012, 11:15 p.m. - Glyn

There's a lot of rebuilding taking place in London because of the Great Fire, so this may be related to that.

27 May 2012, 11:41 p.m. - djc

firing I take it to mean firewood. My 3e Shorter OED has Firing. Fuel 1555; and the 5e Firing Materials for a fire, Fuel L15

28 May 2012, 6:35 a.m. - Mary K

Firing. £30 does sound a lot for firing. However, this could represent a debt built up over a long period to someone (in this case Godfrey) who had notable commercial interests in the supply of firing within London. All households would have needed to buy some wood for firing and many would have relied entirely on that for fuel, rather than buying coal that had been transported from the north. Coal was a notoriously dirty fuel. As for mongers, the only modern usage that comes to mind is 'scandalmonger.' Cheesemongers seem to have disappeared some years ago.

28 May 2012, 7:46 a.m. - GrahamT

I still think of shops selling nails, nuts, bolts and other metal products as Ironmongers, but I'm probably just showing my age.

29 May 2012, 1:26 a.m. - Paul Chapin

The most common use today of "monger" in American English, I believe, is in an extended or metaphorical sense, as in warmonger, fearmonger, rumormonger. Mary's 'scandalmonger' is in this class, but I don't remember ever encountering that particular word.

29 May 2012, 10:48 a.m. - Australian Susan

I like GrahamT remember ironmongers. And yes, probably just showing our decrepitude [sighs]. They sold nails by the pound and wore brown overalls and usually had bristly moustaches.

29 May 2012, 11:45 p.m. - Ric Jerrom

Here in Bath we still have two ironmongers and two cheesemongers; the only fishmongers visit the farmers' market on Saturdays. It seems to me that "...mongers" are specialists in their field so that the presence of a fish counter in a supermarket does not qualify the supermarket as a fishmonger. "Costermongers" were more recently known (in England) as "barrow-boys", selling fruit (originally costards = apples) from barrows in the streets and markets. The Leveson Enquiry is currently doing an interesting job of unmasking the rumour- and scandalmongers of our tabloid press...some aspects of "celebrity culture" haven't changed that much since Sam's day...

30 May 2012, 1:12 a.m. - Tom Carr

We also have cheesemongers here in New England. The cheesemonger in Great Barrington, Massachusetts is where I go for my favourite Wensleydale cheese!

10 Feb 2017, 9:50 p.m. - Terry Foreman

"news from Captain Hubbert, of “The Milford,” touching his being affronted in the Streights, shot at, and having eight men killed him by a French man-of- war, calling him “English dog,” and commanding him to strike, which he refused, and, as knowing himself much too weak for him, made away from him." Evidence about this incident is in BM, Sloane 3510,ff.58+; there is no mention of any casualties. It occurred on 13 April while the Milford (Capt. John Hubbard) was bound for Tangier from Malaga. There was a rumour that the French captain was ordered to be hanged: CSPD 1668-9, p. 407. The English and French soon afterwards agreed that neirg side should salute the other in Mediterranean waters. (Per L&M footnote)

29 Dec 2020, 12:54 a.m. - Terry Foreman

"The Queen, as being supposed with child, fell ill, so as to call for Madam Nun, Mr. Chevins’s sister, and one of her women, from dinner from us; this being the last day of their doubtfulness touching her being with child; and they were therein well confirmed by her Majesty’s being well again before night." L&M: The King described these symptoms in detail in a letter to his sister Henrietta of 24 May: C.H. Hartmann, The King my brother, pp. 257-8. She miscarried, however, in June.

29 Dec 2020, 1:11 a.m. - Terry Foreman

"the bailiffs were apprehended, committed to the porter’s lodge, and there, by the King’s command, the last night severely whipped; from which the justice himself very hardly escaped, to such an unusual degree was the King moved therein." "Why is the king wroth?" L&M: Frazier, as a royal physician, could be arrested only by authority of the Lord Chamberlain. Godfrey claimed that he was forced to take action by the number of irrecoverable debts owing to him by the poor. See Bulstrode Papers, i. 101, 103; etc.

24 May 2022, 1:24 a.m. - San Diego Sarah

Cosmo, the future Grand Duke of Turin, visited London in the Spring of 1669. This is his entry for today. I've standardized the spelling of names I know, corrected scanning errors I could figure out, and increased the number of paragraphs. Sometimes I got confused making the N.S./O.S. date conversions, so I apologize if they are wrong: On the following day [26 May/5 June, 1669], a sumptuous dinner was given by the Duke of Buckingham, the king's principal Master of the Horse, to which his highness had been previously invited, in conformity to the arrangement made with his majesty and the duke; for the indispensable incognito of his highness did not admit of any public demonstrations of attention. His highness went there early; and while he was chatting in a room adjoining the saloon with some noblemen, the King and Duke of York unexpectedly made their appearance, and were received with all due honor and observance, which they acknowledged in the most condescending manner: at the same time they could not forbear noticing his highness with marked civility and attention; and that there might be no restraint upon those who were conversing, they both joined the party, and continued talking till dinner was announced. 350 In seating themselves at table, although no distinction of place was observed, yet his majesty retained on one side of him the Duke of York and on the other side his highness; the Duke of Monmouth, the Earl of Northumberland, Lord Arlington, the Chevalier Castiglioni, Colonel Gascoyne, and other gentlemen, whom his majesty honored by admitting them to the entertainment, sitting round the table. The table was served in a splendid style, suitable t^' the Tank of the'^t^ls'ilid the munificence of the host. Toasts were not forgotten, being considered an indispensable appendage to English entertainment. His highness began by proposing the king and the royal family, which was 3 times followed up with loud cheers by all present. His highness, to do honor to the toast, would have given it standing; but this his majesty would not allow, absolutely compelling him to keep his seat. In return for the triple compliment, the king pledged his highness and the Serene House of Tuscany in an equal number of rounds, and at the same time accompanied this act of kindness by taking hold of his highness's hand, which he would have kissed; but the prince anticipating him, with the greatest promptitude and address kissed that of his majesty.

24 May 2022, 1:25 a.m. - San Diego Sarah

PART 2 The king, repeating his toast, wished to shew the same courtesy to his highness; but he, withdrawing his hand with the most delicate respect, would not permit it, which his majesty perceiving, immediately kissed him on the face. 351 The toasts given by his majesty and his highness having been thus mutually acknowledged and replied to, a concluding one was proposed, and drank with unbounded applause by the guests — to the intimate union and alliance of the Royal House of England and the Most Serene House of Tuscany. The tables being now removed, his majesty arose, and attended by the duke and his highness, and followed by the rest of the company, adjourned into the first apartment, where he chatted for a time with his accustomed affability, and then returned to the palace incognito as he had come. His highness returned home a short time afterwards, where he found the lord mayor and aldermen, and others, representing the body of the senate or common council of London, waiting to address his highness in the name of the corporation. They had been received in form in one of the lower rooms by Colonel Gascoyne, who, to make the delay less tedious, had accommodated himself to the national taste, by ordering liquor, and amusing them with drinking toasts, till it were announced that his highness was ready to give them audience. 352 In proceeding to his highness's apartment, a man went before in a long black gown, carrying in his hand a mace with silver gilt crown; after him followed another bearing a sword as the ensign of justice, and a round cap of red velvet, trimmed round the outside with a grey-colored fur, either as a mark of respect to his highness, or for the sake of shewing that the corporation in that spot, as being out of the ancient liberties of London and on this side of Temple Bar, had no power or jurisdiction. After them came the lord mayor, with 12 aldermen, and as many common councilmen, who followed in regular order. The aldermen, as well as the mayor, had each of them a beautiful dress of scarlet, lined with fur, that of the mayor being distinguished by a jewel of great value which hung from his neck, while the rest wore a golden collar. The common councilmen were dressed in full black cloth gowns, richly decorated. Having ascended the staircase with this official pomp and solemnity, they were received at the door of the saloon by the Chevalier Castiglioni, and at that of the inner room by his highness, who, having welcomed them, insisted upon my lord mayor being covered, while one of the aldermen addressed him in English, expressing the respect and devotion of the corporation to his highness, and entreating him to honor them by his presence at a public dinner at the Mansion House.

24 May 2022, 1:27 a.m. - San Diego Sarah

PART 3 353 Colonel Gascoyne gave his highness’s answer, in English, to the mayor and deputation: that he was deeply sensible of this proof of their zeal and attachment, but must be excused from accepting their invitation on the score of his incognito; on account of his approaching departure from this court; and from a wish to observe the same line of conduct that had been practised by him in other towns through which he had passed. After this reply, they took their leave, with a repetition of the same professions of respect. His highness accompanied the lord mayor a few steps out of the room; and, on entering the room again bowed politely, as he passed, to the aldermen. When the aldermen retired from his highness's presence, they waited outside the door till my lord mayor had seated himself in his carriage; and as soon as it set off, they all entered their carriages, and returned home with the same order and ceremony as they came. Then comes a DESCRIPTION OF THE OFFICE OF LORD MAYOR OF LONDON, see https://www.pepysdiary.com/encyclopedia/1522/?c=555840#c555838 @@@ A great example of what happens when you are your retinue turn up at someone's house without sending your boy over first to make sure they will be at home. In Cosmo's travelogue, “incognito” is generally shortened to "incog." and I think the meaning was "unofficial, informal", as opposed to "having one's true identity concealed" which is today's definition. From: TRAVELS OF COSMO THE THIRD, GRAND DUKE OF TUSCANY, THROUGH ENGLAND, DURING THE REIGN OF KING CHARLES THE SECOND (1669) TRANSLATED FROM THE ITALIAN MANUSCRIPT https://archive.org/stream/travelsofcosmoth00magarich/travelsofcosmoth00magarich_djvu.txt His highness, Cosmo, must be considered only as a traveler. Under his direction, the narrator of the records was Count Lorenzo Magalotti, afterwards Secretary to the Academy del Cimento, and one of the most learned and eminent characters of the court of Ferdinand II.

24 May 2022, 1:38 a.m. - San Diego Sarah

"The king, repeating his toast, wished to shew the same courtesy to his highness; but he, withdrawing his hand with the most delicate respect, would not permit it, which his majesty perceiving, immediately kissed him on the face." Poor Cosmo. For years I bet this was the only story told about him in English society: "You should have seen his face! Charles planted a smacker on the stody Italian's lips, and he nearly had a heart attack. No humor, those Tuscans. None. and Charles carried on like it was nothing. Straight face, every bit of sincerity he could muster. He didn't miss a beat. Nearly peed on myself containing it ... come to think of it, I did have to pee in the fireplace. Buckingham was next to me, and he nearly had a heart attack stiffling his mirth as well."

25 May 2022, 1:56 a.m. - Nicolas

There are whoremongers too. See Ephesians 5:5, Authorised Version (KJV).

25 May 2022, 2:19 a.m. - Nicolas

In America a hawkish politician is frequently referred to as a warmonger. And when I was in Scotland some years ago I saw a shop with a sign out front: “Drinkmonger”, which is a liquor store.

27 May 2022, 9:13 a.m. - Stephane Chenard

Of course we had been inform'd of the Milford his misadventures against the French, and we do suspect from the sources at our disposall that they grew somewhat with the retelling. The Milford, by coincidence, was the frigate which his Majestie had sent to fetch prince Cosmo of Tuscany after he was marooned in Scilly. Then it was detailed to the Straights, to support Thos. Allin's fleet in the Tangiers area. On the 23rd of April, Capt. Hubbard wrote from Cadiz of being, on the 13th, "met with a new three-decked French man-of-war of 75 or 80 guns, and being covetous of news, I ran alongside and hailed him, but could have no other answer but out of the mouths of several men speaking English, 'Dog, strike your topsail'. As I could never understand that language in any if his Majesty's ships, finding the Milford not able to dispute that punctilio with him, though very inclinable to it, I passed by, telling him in his own words that I scorned to strike a topsail for any French dog in the sea; which so disturbed him, that he immediately bore up after me, fired, and gave chase for 1½ hours, when he tacked about. Four other ships coming up, one of which was French, on the 15th I anchored in Tangier Road, and have the Governor notice of what had passed". The basics of the storie are there, and the French dogg did fire, but no mention of eight men kill'd. That would seem to require the ships to engage within musket-range, and a firefight that should've made it into the captain's letter (which was to Matt. Wren, and is duly preserv'd in the State Papers). Of course they could've been just ordinary seamen, and so valued at slightly less than bacon, but still. Hubbard wrote next to the Navy Commissioners on April 30, to report having crack'd his foremast, but with no further mention of the incident. He was still in Cadiz then, and whether the Milford has yet returned to an English port for his men to spread their version, we know not, and the Gazette does not say.

31 May 2022, 5:15 p.m. - San Diego Sarah

By the end of Cosmo's visit, Count Lorenzo Magalotti was revealing his thoughts on the English and their manners very clearly: "From this abundance of all things arises in the English nation that contemptuous disposition which it entertains towards other countries, thinking them unprovided with the advantages which it finds in its own; and, on this account, the common people treat foreigners with little respect, and even with haughtiness, and are scarcely induced to relax by any act of civility whatever that is shewn to them on the part of the latter." -- page 485 and "The common people of London, giving way to their natural inclination, are proud, arrogant, and uncivil to foreigners, against whom, and especially the French, they entertain a great prejudice, and cherish a profound hatred, treating such as come among them with contempt and insult. 397 "The nobility, though also proud, have not so usually the defects of the lower orders, displaying a certain degree of politeness and courtesy towards strangers; and this is still more the case with those gentlemen who have been out of the kingdom, and travelled, they having taken a lesson in politeness from the manners of other nations. "Almost all of them speak French and Italian, and readily apply themselves to learn the latter language from the goodwill which they entertain towards our nation; and, although by their civil treatment of foreign gentlemen, whom they endeavor to imitate, they moderate a little that stiffness or uncouthness which is peculiar to them, yet they fail in acquiring such good manners as to put them on a level with the easy gentility of the Italians, not being able to get the better of a certain natural melancholy, which has the appearance of eternally clouding their minds with unpleasant thoughts. "The English in general are, by nature, proud, phlegmatic in execution, and patient in their behavior, so that they never hurry those who work for them by an indiscreet impatience, but suffer them to go on at their own pleasure and according to their ability; this proceeds from their melancholy temperament, for which those who live in the North of England are more remarkable than those in the South; the former being saturnine, and the latter somewhat more lively. 398 "They consider a long time before they come to a determination; but having once decided, their resolution is irrevocable, and they maintain their opinion with the greatest obstinacy." Oh dear ... and they tried to please Cosmo, apart from today's rather disgraceful lapse. On consideration, Charles seems to have reacted to Cosmo's controlling efforts to touch him, and called him on it in a violation of all good manners. But a King is always right, especially if he has been drinking.