Clement • Link
English East India Company
1600-1708 with successor entities
Granted right to acquire new territories by Charles II in 1661:
in Aqua Scripto • Link
In 1607 East India Co made five hundred percent, The fee for participating was 50L and 66L for a shopkeeperand 'such terms that thought fit ' Century of Revolution Christopher Hill. p.30
The Navigation act of 1660 benefited the House. Legal interes was fixed at 6% in 1661 [reaction of the 1651]. The Navigation of 1660 also benefitted the EIC.
gleaned from p 180
The STRIPED FLAG of the EAST INDIA COMPANY, and its CONNEXION with the AMERICAN "STARS and STRIPES"
By Sir Charles Fawcett
In the seventeenth century the flag had, as stated by Perrin (loc. cit. p. 130), generally from nine to thirteen alternate red and white stripes, the odd numbers being red; and it was to this that its nick-name of "John Company's gridiron" is due. The top stripes were, however, broken by a canton at the upper corner next the staff, containing the red cross of St George on a white field (see Perrin's Plate IX, No. 6).... That they were only red and white is shown by a document of 1668. In that year Bombay was transferred by King Charles II to the East India Company, and in September commissioners were sent down from Surat to take over the island. A new flag was required for the Fort and they asked that some white, red and blue cloth should be sent for making it, if the King's colours (the Union Jack) were to be kept there; "if not, white and red will be sufficient"(2). That there were stripes on the flag is indicated by Peter Mundy's drawing of it in a sketch of Swally Marine in 1656(3) and by Dr Fryer's reference to it in 1673 as "the East-India striped Ancient"(4). There is also evidence that it had a cross on it, because in 1616 this was objected to by the Japanese as an emblem of Christianity, which had been banned in 1614. In 1671, when the Company was sending the Return to Japan in an effort to restart trade with that country, it decided not to alter its usual flag; but in 1673, when the ship entered the port of Nagasaki, she departed from this instruction on local advice and instead flew a striped white and red flag without a cross; when subsequently she put out one with a cross, the Japanese officials demanded an explanation(5). But all this is inconclusive as to its exact appearance... a ship would sometimes wear, in addition to the Company's usual flag, the red ensign with a canton having a red St George's cross on a white field (6), which was then commonly worn by merchantmen and their use of which was expressly authorized by a proclamation issued by Charles II on 18 September 1674 (Perrin, loc. cit. pp. 68-9, 130).
In November 1676 Samuel Pepys drew the attention of the Company to the fact that its flag continued to be flown by its ships in contravention of this proclamation, which prescribed for "merchants' ships" the use of only two flags, viz. the red ensign just mentioned and "the Flag and Jack white with a red cross (commonly called Saint George's Cross) passing right through the same"(7). On 6 December of that year the Court of Committees, as the Company's directors were then called, asked the Shipping Committee to confer -with the commanders of the three ships that were then about to sail for the Coromandel Coast and the Bay of Bengal 'touching the colours enjoined by Royal proclamation to be worn by all merchant ships mentioned, and how far it may be useful or inconvenient to the Company's affairs to have any alteration made in the ensign hitherto worn by their ships, and report". Evidently as a result of this the Court of Committees on 19 December instructed each of the commanders to note that between St Helena and England in his homeward voyage, as also when going out, he was in obedience to the King's proclamation "to wear only the usual English flag and ensign, and no other, viz, a white flag with a red cross, and a red ensign with a white cross in the upper corner"(8). The description of the red ensign's canton as "a white cross" was an obvious error which was corrected by substituting the words 'a red cross in a white field" in subsequent similar instructions to commanders.(9) These continued up to September 1688, after which the order in question does not appear in them.(10)
Pedro • Link
East India Company,John Evelyn invests.
After liquidation earlier that year (1657), following serious mismanagement, the East India Company regained its charter as a joint-stock enterprise. John Evelyn said "with new oaths, new orders and mixt committee and I think reformed...it is likely to prove one of the most profitable and secure and hopeful trades in Europe."
(Summary from John Evelyn, Living for Ingenuity by Gillian Darley)
Chart showing the number of references in each month of the diary’s entries.