Sunday 10 April 1664

(Lord’s day). Lay long in bed, and then up and my wife dressed herself, it being Easter day, but I not being so well as to go out, she, though much against her will, staid at home with me; for she had put on her new best gowns, which indeed is very fine now with the lace; and this morning her taylor brought home her other new laced silks gowns with a smaller lace, and new petticoats, I bought the other day both very pretty.

We spent the day in pleasant talks and company one with another, reading in Dr. Fuller’s book what he says of the family of the Cliffords and Kingsmills, and at night being myself better than I was by taking a glyster, which did carry away a great deal of wind, I after supper at night went to bed and slept well.

33 Annotations

First Reading

A. De Araujo  •  Link

"being myself better than I was by taking a glyster"
I knew it!Opiates,that he took yesterday can be very constipating.

Todd Bernhardt  •  Link

"for she had put on her new best gowns"

Interesting that he puts this as plural ... would this usage be akin to "pants"?

jeannine  •  Link

"Reading in Dr. Fuller's book what he says of the family of the Cliffords and Kingsmills"

This reference is in regards to the parentage of Elizabeth's mother Dorothea. An interesting point of debate has to do with the parentage of Elizabeth's mother Dorothea and her relation to the Kingsmills and Clifford families.

Marjorie Astin's biography of Elizabeth "Mrs. Pepys her Book" states that Dorothea was the "daughter of Lavinia and Matthew Penneford of Gort, and widow of Thomas Fleetwood. She was closely connected with the Kingsmills, a family of considerable worth and consequence, who had resided at Basingstoke, Hants, from the twelfth to sixteenth century; they had received a grant from the Royal Mill there, from which they derived their name. In 1601-1602, Francis Kingsmill served in Ireland under Sir George Carew, and acquired lands at Ballybeg Abbey, Co. Cork. He was knighted in Dublin in 1603." In regards to the Clifford families Astin states that "It is through her mother that Mrs. Pepys [Elizabeth] claimed descent from the Cliffords of Cumberland," (Astin, pp. 10-11), yet Astin does not give details of the relationship.

In his book, "Pepys in Love: Elizabeth's Story" Patrick Delaforce presents the more common view that Elizabeth's mother Dorothea was "the youngest child of Sir Francis Kingsmill" which is consistent Tomalin's book [p. 54] and with the much questioned letter that Balty wrote to Sam dated Feb 8 1673/4 where he refers to his mother as "my mother, Daughter, to Sir Francis Kingsmall". If Tomalin and Delaforce based their belief of Dorothea's parentage on Balty's letter then there may be some room for doubt, as his letter is thought by some [Tomalin p. 55] as somewhat "overstated" in its facts.

Delaforce also presents Elizabeth's maternal grandmother, and another Dorothea, as the daughter of Sir Conyers Clifford, of the Cliffords of Cumberland. Now to round out the family circle and add to the confusion, Delaforce links Elizabeth to Lord Sandwich as a remote cousin via the Clifford relation.

Although there appears to be some relation to the Kingsmill's and Clifford's from Elizabeth's mother, it's not clear if Dorothea was actually a daughter of Sir Francis Kingsmill and/or somehow otherwise closely related to that family and/or an actual granddaughter to the Clifford family. In any case, Dorothea's marriage to Elizabeth's father cemented her future and she was cut out of any inheritance in the process. In terms of reading Fuller's background on the family, it must have been an interesting evening for Sam and Elizabeth, but the reality that they would never benefit from any of these relations must have given them a twinge of pain.

Where I am hopelessly "genealogically challenged" in trying to figure out these connections, perhaps it will suffice to say that "somehow" Elizabeth's family may be connected to the Kingsmills and Cliffords and Sam and Elizabeth seem to be enjoying trying to figure it all out.

More background is in the article on Elizabeth at…

Terry F  •  Link

"her new best gowns" - "would this usage be akin to 'pants'?"

Todd, scratching my head about that, I decided pro tem to think of the model of "skirts" (as in, "She lifted up her skirts.").

cape henry  •  Link

Couldn't resist this, but by transposing a couple of innocent vowels one gets "Bellybag Abbey" which would aptly describe the Pepys domicile for the past day or so, especially the wind-ish sections of it. Sorry...

Robert Gertz  •  Link

"...but I not being so well as to go out, she, though much against her will, staid at home with me..."

Greater love hath no woman...

weazel  •  Link

he is really becoming obsessed with her laced gowns, is he not

cumsalisgrano  •  Link

Gowns could be Gowne unless he meant more than one.
gown [ not in OED as gowns]
loose garment for covering the body, some are used for status, , University as in towne or gowne, or with cap and , profession [e.g. innes of court [law]] ,
[ 1564 Brief Exam. ***** iijb, The Gowne that you..would so gladly minister in, seemeth to come eyther from Turkes or Papistes ],

Ministers Aldermen , then protective and of course by women since 1397.

[a. OF. goune, gone, gonne fem., a Com. Rom. word = Pr. gona, OSp. gona, It. gonna:____is common as the name of a coarse garment, sometimes described as made of skins.
The origin of the Rom. word is obscure. Some scholars regard it as of Celtic origin, comparing the Welsh _under) + root ou- to clothe (cf. L. ex-u-_re, sub--cula). But Loth (Rev. Celt. XX. 353) raises phonological objections, and believes the Welsh word to be adopted from Eng. (as are the Irish gúnn, Gael. gùn, Manx goon). In any case the Celtic origin of the Rom. word does not seem to accord with the geographical probabilities. Albanian has gunë cloak, but it is uncertain whether this is native or adopted from Gr.]

1. A loose flowing upper garment worn as an article of ordinary attire. a. By men. (See also senses 3 and 4.)

b. By women. In mod. use, a garment fitting close to the upper part of the body with flowing skirts; = FROCK 4.

In the 18th c. it was the ordinary word; subsequently it was to a great extent superseded in colloquial use by dress, but has latterly been somewhat more common, esp. in fashionable use, as applied to a dress with some pretension to elegance, and in Comb. as dinner-, tea-gown. In the U.S. it has always been the current word.

1663 PEPYS Diary 10 Nov., The Queene..hath bespoke herself a new gowne.

1716 LADY M. W. MONTAGU Let. to C'tess Mar 8 Sept., I have not yet been at Court, being forced to stay for my gown.
3. Used as the name of the flowing outer garment worn by the ancients, esp. the Roman toga. Hence after Roman usage: 'The dress of peace' (J.).

1658 DRYDEN Cromw. xx, He Mars deposed, and arms to gowns made filtche from OED

Gus Spier  •  Link

Ballybeg Abbey ... I'm philologist to the Irish, but I seem to remember that Bally- is the prefix that means "Place". If anybody with pretensions to the Gaelic would care to take a guess at the meaning of "-Beg", we might have a more descriptive place name to cherish.



cumsalisgrano  •  Link

petticoat, n. [also used metonymicaly ][< PETTY adj. + COAT n. (cf. COAT n. 1, COAT n. 2).]
1. a. A man's tight-fitting undercoat, usually padded and worn under a doublet and over a shirt; (also) a padded jerkin worn under armour for protection. Now hist.

1642 in W. Stevenson Presbyterie Bk. Kirkcaldie (1900) 228 Standing befoir the fyre with his coatt off and his petticoat.
1673 in Sc. Hist. Rev. (1961) 40 60 Ane old hairstuff peticoat.

2. A woman's or girl's garment.

a. A woman's undercoat or under-tunic, analogous to the male petticoat (see 1a), often padded and worn showing beneath an open gown. Now hist.

Later developing into the decorated underskirt at 2b, to which sense some of the following quots. may belong

b. A skirt, as distinguished from a bodice, worn either externally or showing beneath a dress as part of the costume (often trimmed or ornamented); an outer skirt; a decorative underskirt. Freq. in pl.: a woman's or girl's upper skirts and underskirts collectively. Now arch. or hist.

The usual sense between the 17th and 19th centuries.
1586 SIR P. SIDNEY Arcadia (1590) III. ii. f. 248, Sixe maides, all in one liuerie of skarlette petticotes, which were tuckt vp almoste to their knees.
1650 J. HOWELL tr. A. Giraffi Hist. Revol. Naples (1664) I. 78 He commanded also that all women..shold tuck their petticoats somwhat high.

1662 S. PEPYS Diary 18 May (1970) III. 85 She was in her new suit of black Sarcenet and yellow petticoat, very pretty.

c. A light loose undergarment (originally of calico, flannel, silk, etc.; now frequently of synthetic material) hanging from the shoulders or waist, and worn by a woman or girl under a dress or skirt for warmth, etc. (Now the usual sense.)
In early quots. not easily separable from senses 2a, 2b.

1662 S. PEPYS Diary 21 May (1970) III. 87 Saw the finest smocks and linen petticoats of my Lady Castlemaynes.
d. A similar or analogous garment worn in Africa, Asia, etc., or in the ancient world. Now rare.

1661 J. EVELYN Tyrannus 10 Those who sacrific'd to Ceres put on the pettycoat with much confidence.

1698 J. FRYER New Acct. E.-India & Persia 156 Over their Lower Parts a Pitticoat or Lungy, their Feet and Legs without Stockins.

a1704 T. BROWN Walk round London in Wks. (1708) III. iii. 41 Our good Grandmother Eve might have sav'd her self a great deal of trouble in tacking together Primitive Green Petticoat and Wastcoat.

e. The skirt of a woman's riding-habit. Obs.

1663 S. PEPYS Diary 13 July (1971) IV. 229 white laced waistcoat and a crimson short petty-coate,..mighty pretty; and the King rode hand in hand with her.

1666 S. PEPYS Diary 12 June (1972) VII. 162 The Ladies of Honour dressed in their riding garbs, with coats and doublets.., with perriwigs and with hats; so that, only for a long petticoat dragging under their men's coats, nobody could take them for women.

1691 London Gaz. No. 2657/4, Sarah Potter,..having a striped Gown and Petticoat, and a grey Riding-hood.

5. In pl. Skirts worn by children, including young boys. Chiefly in in petticoats: wearing an infant's petticoats; (of a boy) very young, not old enough for trousers or breeches. Now arch. and hist.

kilroy  •  Link

"though much against her will, staid at home with me"

Elizabeth dressed in Easter best and can't go out because Sam's under the weather; full of wind. Wonder if she's come to accept his jealous nature….

Bergie  •  Link

"In the 18th c. ['gown'] was the ordinary word; subsequently it was to a great extent superseded in colloquial use by dress.... In the U.S. it has always been the current word."

Sorry, no to that last part. In the U.S., "dress" has been the ordinary word since mid-20th c. or earlier. "Gown" is almost entirely restricted to combinations like "evening gown" and "nightgown."

Mary  •  Link

Elizabeth's gowns.

The L&M edition firmly transcribes 'gown' in the singular in both instances here. "Petticoats" remains, predictably, in the plural form, but that's not a problem.

Firenze  •  Link

'Ballybeg' - 'bally' is a townland, 'beg' is the diminutive 'little'.

Michael Robinson  •  Link

Dr. Fuller's book

The Pepys pair are probably perusing:-

Fuller, Thomas, 1608-1661.
The history of the vvorthies of England, [vvho for parts and learning have been eminent in the several counties. Together with an historical narrative of the native commodities and rarities in each county.] Endeavoured by Thomas Fuller, D.D.
London : printed by J. G[rismond]. W. L[eybourne]. and W. G[odbid]. for Thomas Williams, MDCLXII. [1662]
[8], 13 [i.e. 9], 12-30, 33-70, 73-144, 149-300, 317-368, 16, 13-100, 105-144, 149-258, 257 [i.e. 261]-354, 232, [4], 60 p., [1] leaf of plates port.; fo.
Editor's dedication and preface signed: John Fuller. With an engraved frontispiece portrait of the author (plate), signed: D. Loggan sculp. Wing F2440.

There is a copy with this imprint in the Pepys' Library.

" ...his last and great book that is coming out: that is, his History of all the Families in England; and could tell me more of my own, than I knew myself. ..."…

Pepys, I assume, is disappointed to find that whatever Fuller might have told him about the Pepys family, and inspired the purchase of the volume, failed to achieve the immortality of print.

jeannine  •  Link

"Pepys, I assume, is disappointed to find that whatever Fuller might have told him about the Pepys family, and inspired the purchase of the volume, failed to achieve the immortality of print."

So, alas Michael, he decided to immortalize himself through his own 'print'......(lucky for us!)

C.J.Darby  •  Link

To answer Fireenze; Ballybeg in Irish means "little town" Baile being town and Beg is a corruption of beag or small

C.J.Darby  •  Link

Sorry Firenze I meant to answer Gus Spier and did not notice your answer till I ahad posted.

Bradford  •  Link

A pity, Mary: "gowns" suggests Elizabeth put them all on in turn, for an audience of one, in a private show.

language hat  •  Link

"'beg' is the diminutive 'little'."

Just to clarify: beag is the word 'little', not a diminutive (the normal Irish diminutive suffix is -in, as in poteen).

"Beg is a corruption of beag"

Not a corruption, just an alternate spelling -- at that time there was no fixed spelling of either Irish or English.

JWB  •  Link

"...reading in Dr. Fuller's..."

Are they salving their consciences about not taking up Tom's bastard-too well connected to stoop so low?

jeannine  •  Link

"Are they salving their consciences about not taking up Tom's bastard-too well connected to stoop so low?"

JWB -what an interesting thought - perhaps this is a way to ease one's guilt. I wish we knew if Sam had shared the news about Tom's child with Elizabeth???? Perhaps he had, or perhaps he might not want to hear her feelings on the subject for fear she may want to take the child in. Oh the things we'll just never know....

Australian Susan  •  Link

Tom's child

Sam seems to have some doubts as to whether the child was Tom's anyway. His providing for her seems to be a part of his usual careful personality and he is very leery of poor relations battening onto him - cf. Balty!

Pedro  •  Link

Meanwhile on the Gold Coast...

On the 8th April Holmes drops anchor off Takoradi within sight of the Dutch fort at Anta. The English factor complained of Dutch insults to the Royal Company's flag, and at a council of war it was decided to take or destroy the castle.

"... for security of the Royal Company's trade in those parts, and more especially to get my hands on Captain Froome one who was Governor there, being one that had done the Royal Company great injuries, whom I was directed by my instructions particularly to seize wherever I should find him."

On the 10th April...

''...cutting down the outer gate they stormed the castle and gained it by I2 at night with the loss of 1 man and 2 or 3 wounded."

He went ashore and arranged for the defence of the place, dismissing all prisoners except Captain Froome who was brought aboard the Jersey.

(Summary from Man of War by Ollard)

Andrew Hamilton  •  Link

Beg is a corruption of beag or small

Amusing to have an Irish word that sounds like "big" mean "small." You live in a beag house, you say? How big?

A friend named her Labrador Chebeague after the island in Casco Bay, Maine. A new maid, from El Salvador, asked, "What's her name?" "Chebeague." A little later, "What's her name?" "Chebeague." "I know she beeg but what's her name?"

Andrew Hamilton  •  Link

Jeannine, you are about as "genealogically challenged"
as a copy of Burke's Peerage.

Nicol Kingsmill  •  Link

"Kingsmill Records" by Walter Cook Kingsmill in the Society of Genealogists, London state:
Dorothea was the daughter of Sir Francis Kingsmill born around 1607.
First husband Thomas Fleetwood died in 1632
Second husband a French Huguenot, Alexander Marchant, Sieur de St. Michel of Anjou.
Son Balthazar and Elizabth (Pepys)

Judith Hunt  •  Link

With regards to the parentage of Dorothy (Dorothea Kingsmill daughter of Sir Francis.

I have obtained copies of two Wills from the Record Office Chelmsford Essex.

The fist Will is dated 20 July 1612 and was written by Henry HUNT of Gosfield Essex.

Here is an extract from that Will

Then I give unto my loving son in law, Ffrancys (Francis) Kingsmill, for a remembrance of me, one ring of gold at the discretion of my executrix hereafter named, and to my loving daughter Dorothy, wife of the said Sir Francis, five pounds to be paid to her within one year after my decease. And I do also give unto Dorothy Kingsmill, daughter of my daughter Dorothy, now resident in Eire (? possibly in Ireland?) four pounds, to be paid to her at her age of eighteen years or day of marriage whichever shall first happen, if she shall be then living.

The second Will is dated 19 November 1622 and was the last Will and Testament of Jane HUNT, widow of Henry HUNT. Her maiden surname was DE VERE. She was the grand daughter of John the 15th Earl of Oxford. The Will of Jane Hunt is also available to download from the National Archive website.

Here is an extract from her Will

My son John Hunt oweth unto me certain money out of my money. I Will that he give unto my grandchild Dorothie Kingsmill ten pounds due to her by her grandfather.

It would seem by these two Wills that Henry and Jane HUNT had a daughter Dorothy HUNT who married Sir Francis KINGSMILL and that there was a grandchild called Dorothy KINGSMILL.

I would like to know your thoughts on this matter.

jeannine  •  Link

"With regards to the parentage of Dorothy (Dorothea Kingsmill daughter of Sir Francis."

Judith, thank you for your wonderful annoation and you add more intrigue to the parentage question!

From your documents I follow the reasoning behind your conclusions.

According to Patrick Delaforce's book "Pepys In Love" Elizabeth's 'maternal grandmother was Dorothea, daughter of Sir Conyers Clifford, and thus [she] was related to the powerful Cliffords of Cumberland' ( p 18). As there is no exact reference in his book to where this specific piece of information came from I am at a loss to add any real value here.

Second Reading

Mary Ellen  •  Link

Interesting that Sam finds out about Tom's child AFTER Tom is dead and unable to verify the claim. Knowing that the Pepys might have money to leave to an heir, and with no kids of their own, it is possible that the story was created just to get some money.

Bill  •  Link

“she had put on her new best gowns”

A GOWN, a long Garment.
---An universal etymological English dictionary. N. Bailey, 1724.

Sasha Clarkson  •  Link

Assuming that Dorothy was a Kingsmill, she must surely be related to the celebrated English poet, Anne Finch (née Kingsmill), Countess of Winchilsea (1661–1720)?…

Here is an article comparing her poetry with that of Mary Wortley Montagu, wife of Sandwich's grandson Sir Edward Wortley-Montagu………

Poems by the two ladies can be found at the links below:……

Gerald Berg  •  Link

My thought too Mary Ellen esp. considering all the "pox" rumours surrounding Tom's cause of death. Nothing seems reliable here except for the wonderful Mrs. Turner.

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