Friday 18 December 1663

Up, and after being ready and done several businesses with people, I took water (taking a dram of the bottle at the waterside) with a gally, the first that ever I had yet, and down to Woolwich, calling at Ham Creeke, where I met Mr. Deane, and had a great deal of talke with him about business, and so to the Ropeyarde and Docke, discoursing several things, and so back again and did the like at Deptford, and I find that it is absolutely necessary for me to do thus once a weeke at least all the yeare round, which will do me great good, and so home with great ease and content, especially out of the content which I met with in a book I bought yesterday, being a discourse of the state of Rome under the present Pope, Alexander the 7th, it being a very excellent piece. After eating something at home, then to my office, where till night about business to dispatch. Among other people came Mr. Primate, the leather seller, in Fleete Streete, to see me, he says, coming this way; and he tells me that he is upon a proposal to the King, whereby, by a law already in being, he will supply the King, without wrong to any man, or charge to the people in general, so much as it is now, above 200,000l. per annum, and God knows what, and that the King do like the proposal, and hath directed that the Duke of Monmouth, with their consent, be made privy, and go along with him and his fellow proposer in the business, God knows what it is; for I neither can guess nor believe there is any such thing in his head. At night made an end of the discourse I read this morning, and so home to supper and to bed.

28 Annotations

First Reading

Eric Walla  •  Link

A gaily? Any idea what this is?

Terry F  •  Link

Instead of "gaily" L&M read "gally" (a large open rowing boat)

Terry F  •  Link

"a book I bought yesterday, being a discourse of the state of Rome under the present Pope, Alexander the 7th"

L&M identify this from the Pepys Library holdings as Angelo Corraro [pseudonym of Charles de Ferrare du Tot, , d. 1694]
*Rome exactly describ'd, as to the present state of it, under Pope Alexandre the Seventh : in two curious discourses* [written originally in Italian, and translated into English by J(ohn) B(ulteel). London : Printed by T. Mabb, for Mich. Young ..., and J. Starkey ..., and J. Playfere ...,] licensed 30 September & 9 November 1663; dated 1664.…

Michael Robinson  •  Link

a book I bought yesterday ...

The full imprint includes:-
J. Starkey at the Miter near Temple Bar,

"Rome exactly describ'd ... : 1664" ESTC has the following note on authorship etc.

Includes "A relation of the state of the court of Rome", which is a translation of "Relazione della corte romana fatta l'anno 1661", previously attributed to Angelo Corraro, but now judged to be by Charles Ferrare du Tot. The translation is by John Bulteel. (Cf. Diz. biog. degli Italiani, v. 29, p. 483.) Also includes "A new relation of Rome", a translation, by Giovanni Torriano, of "Relatione di Roma del Almaden".

Bradford  •  Link

The Companion says, of this intriguingly named fellow, only:

"Primate, [Josiah]. Projector and leatherseller, of Fleet St."---a "projector" being an old term for a "promoter"; perhaps "entrepreneurial speculator" might be the mod equivalent. (Defoe's famous "An Essay upon Projects" was published in 1697.)

Michael Robinson  •  Link

"gally" (a large open rowing boat)

Pepys notes going dwnstream by "barge" several times earlier this year. The following are called "barge" but fit the description of "large open rowing boat."

Model of a "Navy Board style" barge or Shallop, circa 1691…

The Mary', Yacht, Arriving with Princess Mary at Gravesend in a Fresh Breeze, 12 February 1689 (BHC0328) includes official barges in the scene:-…

Anyone any idea how a gally differed from a barge, unless the Navy Office Barge had a partially covered cabin at the rear? Today's trip was "the first that I ever had yet."

The Dutch certainly had galley's at this period, vessel on right in:-
A Galley and a Man-of-War (BHC0830)…

Patricia  •  Link

"(taking a dram of the bottle at the waterside)" Do I read this correctly to mean that Sam had to fortify himself with a wee nip of something bracing before braving the trip in the gally?

Terry F  •  Link

L&M give "gally, galley" as alternates for a large open rowing boat that plied the Thames. Michael, is it possible that "galley" referred to more than one kind of vessel?

cumgranosalis  •  Link

OED:1. a. A low flat-built sea-going vessel with one deck, propelled by sails and oars, formerly in common use in the Mediterranean. Cf. GALLIASS. The rowers were mostly slaves or condemned criminals. Hence phr. to condemn, or send, to the galleys, and simply the galleys, to indicate the punishment of a galley-slave. half, quarter galley (see quot. 1794).

1642 FULLER Holy & Prof. St. IV. xii. 297 This course hath emptied more full, then filled empty purses, and many thereby have brought a Galeon to a Gally.
1653 H. COGAN tr. Pinto's Trav. xlix. 193 His Fleet..was composed of five Foists, four Galliots, and one Gally Royal.
1682 News fr. France 10 No Sea-man nor Trades-man shall offer to go out of the Kingdom without leave, under the pain of being sent to the Gallies
b. Used with allusion to Molière Scapin

II. xi, Que diable allait-il faire dans cette galère? Cf. GALÈRE.

Roman / Greek [Anton and Cleo luv boat]

3. A large open row-boat, e.g. one appropriated to the captain of a man-of-war, one formerly used on the Thames by custom-house officers, and by the press-gang (Adm. Smyth); also, a large pleasure-boat.
1718 LADY M. W. MONTAGU Let. to Abbé Conti 19 May, I..went across the canal in my galley.

4. The cooking-room or kitchen on a ship. Cf. CABOOSE. Also, a ship's cooking-range. 1750

5. Printing. a. [F. galée.] An oblong tray of brass, wood, or zinc, to which the type is transferred from the composing-stick.
1691 LUTTRELL Brief Rel. (1857) II. 294 Several persons are going to build privateers..after the *gally fashion with oares.

1695 Ibid. III. 508 Some tenders built galley fashion.

galley this and that

1655 T. WHITE Obedience Govt. 124 A knot of slaves and *Galley-birds.

1867 SMYTH Sailor's Word-bk., *Galley-growlers, idle grumblers and skulkers, from whom discontent and mutiny generally derive their origin.

1644 EVELYN Diary (1827) I. 129 It is made a *gally matter to carry a knife whose point is not broken off.

1867 SMYTH Sailor's Word-bk., *Galley-stoker, a lazy skulker.
[ad. OF. galie, galee, med.L. galea, galeia, late Gr............Pr. galeya, galea, Sp. galea (obs.), Pg. galé, It. galea, galia.
The ultimate etymology is unknown. Cf. the synonymous F. galère, Pr., Sp., Pg. galera, It. galeara; also med.L. galeida (Du Cange), MHG. galîde, galeide, MDu. galeide,

Michael Robinson  •  Link

gaily / gally (? galley) - barge

Have taken a look at Pepy's prior use of "barge" in the diary. The only one which includes a reference to he structure of the vessel is:-

Pepys' Diary: Thursday 30 May 1661
"and like my Lord's contrivance of the door to come out round and not square as they used to do"…

The Royal other State and Livery Company barges of the period, and later, were certainly enclosed in part. When he took parties of women by barge Pepys noted no special weather or clothing precautions or need for self fortification.

Perhaps in Pepy's usage a barge had a covered cabin at the rear and a gally was the same, or similar, hull but completely open -- hence the justification for "taking a dram of the bottle."

Michael Robinson  •  Link

possible that "galley" referred to more than one kind of vessel?

Certainly there is also the sea going galley -- which the Spanish, French and Dutch all had at the period. I am far from a Naval specialist but, subject to correction, I believe that the English did not have such vessels in the mid/late C 17th., though some of the smaller war-ships could be and sometimes were propelled inshore by oars through the lowest line of gunports.

Robert Gertz  •  Link

Thanks for the link, Terry. The fun book seems to be the 1681 one about Pope Alexander VI (the previous Alex and father of Lucretia and Cesare Borgia) and Cromwell supposedly disputing precedence in Hell…

Ruben  •  Link

taking a dram of the bottle at the waterside
In his times, citizens were very careful about what they drank. So I presume, it was not water, but something else in that bottle. Interesting to know if it was some kind of portable bottle he took from home, considering the long journey he intended to do that day or else.

Digression: "DRAM" as I knew it before reading today's entry was "dynamic random access memory"!

Pedro  •  Link

"I took water (taking a dram of the bottle at the waterside) with a gaily, the first that ever I had yet,"

It is not against the vows to take a wee dram, just for Dutch courage.

Robert Gertz  •  Link

Pepysian Xmas Carol, cont...

"Good Heaven!' said Pepys, clasping his hands together, as he looked about him. "I spent my summers in this place. I was a boy here. Bess, that's my Uncle John Pepys." he pointed at a tall, distinguished-looking man striding by them.

The Spirit gazed upon him mildly. Its gentle touch, though it had been light and instantaneous, appeared still present to Sam's sense of feeling. He was conscious of a thousand odours floating in the air, each one connected with a thousand thoughts, and hopes, and joys, and cares long, long, forgotten.

'Your lip is trembling,' said the Ghost. 'And what is that upon your cheek?'

Pepys muttered, with an unusual catching in his voice, that it was a pimple; and begged the Ghost to lead him where he would.

'You recollect the way?' inquired the Spirit.

'Remember it!' cried Pepys with fervour -- 'Bess, I could walk it blindfold.'

'Strange to have forgotten it for so many years,' observed the Ghost. 'Go on, then.'

'But...' Sam eyed the Spirit...Intently seeking his lost Bess' face within the young/old face of the Ghost... 'Aren't you coming, Bess? There's so much I always wanted to show you here.'

'Another must conduct you for now, Sam'l. But I have seen it, many times through your eyes.'

'You're leaving...?' an anxious catch...

'I'll be here...And with you...But another must help you retrieve this part of the past. Go, he's awaiting you.'

He hesitated, but as smiled gently upon him, he finally, sighing, but feeling a rather curious eagerness, set out along the road, recognising every gate, and post, and tree; until a little market-town appeared in the distance, with its bridge, its church, and winding river. Some cows now were seen trotting towards them, some led by maids, others with maids upon their backs, who called to other girls and boys in passing country gigs and carts, driven by farmers. All these young ones were in great spirits, and shouted to each other, until the broad fields were so full of merry music, that the crisp air laughed to hear it.

'These are but shadows of the things that have been,' said a voice beside him which he recognized at once. 'They have no consciousness of us.'

'Jack? Jack Cade?' Sam turned to look at the hearty, smiling figure of a handsome young man in his twenties..

'You think you don't believe it, Pepys.' a broad grin as the young Jack Cade shook his head at him. 'You solemn old dowser, you look like a bishop. What's with that damned foolish thing on your head?'


jeannine  •  Link

"It is not against the vows to take a wee dram, just for Dutch courage."
That's right Pedro, I take one every day just before reading these annotations! You never know what you'll come across but you have to keep your courage up and venture forth with gusto!

Ruben  •  Link

"I took water (taking a dram of the bottle at the waterside) with a Woolwich, calling at Ham Creeke,...and so to the Ropeyarde and Docke,...and so back again and did the like at Deptford,...and so home with great ease and content, especially out of the content which I met with in a book I bought yesterday,...At night made an end of the discourse I read this morning, and so home to supper and to bed."
I ask myself and would like to know better if Pepys was going around, inspecting the King's shipyards all day long with his new, expensive and probably heavy book and his bottle(whatever it was) and some office papers needed, or he went around with a boy carrying all his paraphernalia?

Michael Robinson  •  Link

"probably heavy book ..."

Ruben, the book is an octavo (8vo.), ie the large printed sheet is folded eight times to make individual leaves of pages, and is probably between 6 1/2 and 9 in. tall; standard catalogues don't give the sheet size and trimming makes individual copies unique in dimensions. With the preliminary and prefatory matter it contains, in all, 208 pages and and an engraved portrait frontispiece of Alexander VII. So, perhaps 2-3 lbs.

Sometimes he does note specificaly taking a particular volume along on a trip; here the question appears open.

cumgranosalis  •  Link

DRAM first used in 1970's
but dram for a wee droppe of hard stuff be ancient: dram be 1/8 of an ounze of
what be good for thee:
OED pieces::
dram: two nouns, adverb, and verb
[phonetic spelling of earlier DRACHM, dragm, also in OF. drame. See also DRACHMA, DIRHEM.]
Add: [III.] [3.] [a.] DRAM, Dram ( ræm) (Computing), dynamic random-access memory, in which information is stored as charge on semiconductor capacitors and periodically refreshed in order to neutralize the effect of leakage.
1981 [1970 's]
d. Chem. (i) d = dextrorotatory. 1894
1. = DRACHM 1, the ancient Greek coin. Obs.
c1440 HYLTON Scala Perf. (W. de W. 1494) I. xlviii, What woman..that hath lost a drame.
1526 Pilgr. Perf. (W. de W. 1531) 242 A certayne coyne..called a dramme.

2. A weight, orig. the ancient Greek DRACHMA; hence, in Apothecaries' weight, a weight of 60 grains = 1/8 of an ounce; in Avoirdupois weight, of 27 1/3 grains = 1/16 of an ounce;DRACHM 2. Also the Arabic DIRHEM, used from Morocco to Persia and Abyssinia.
1601 SHAKES. All's Well II. iii. 233 Yes good faith, eu'ry dramme of it, and I will not bate thee a scruple.

3. a. A fluid dram (= 1/8 fluid ounce) of medicine, etc.; hence b. A small draught of cordial, stimulant, or spirituous liquor. Also fig.
c1590 Play of Sir Thomas More
1592 SHAKES. Rom. & Jul. V. i. 60 Let me haue A dram of poyson.
1642 ROGERS Naaman 38 Surely..hee must put more drammes and drugges to the Physicke.
1682 BUNYAN Holy War (Cassell) 208, I have a cordial of Mr. Forget-Good's making, the which, sir, if you will take a dram may make you bonny and blithe.

6. attrib. and Comb. (in sense 3) dram-bottle, -cup, -dish, -dose, -glass, -house, -pot, -weight; dram-drinker, one addicted to drinking drams, a tippler; dram-drinking, tippling.

1674 Lond. Gaz. No. 851/4 Two Silver Beakers, and two Silver *Dram Cups.
1752 Scots Mag. Aug. (1753) 393/2 They drank two or three drams at a *dram-house.

1691 Songs Costume (Percy Soc.) 197 And make themselves drunk with their *dram-pots.

1611 FLORIO, Dramma, a *Dram-waight. 1632 RUTHERFORD Lett. (1862) I. 88 Sell not one dram-weight of God's truth.

Timber from Drammen in Norway. Also attrib.
1663 GERBIER Counsel 64 Yellow Fur (called Dram) being very good. 1676 Phil. Trans. XI. 721 You must take the finest streightest grain of your Dram deal.
1858 Skyring's Builders' Prices 62 It is customary to allow four cuts..when cut by the load, and two to the Berwick or dram, ditto.

Sad, melancholy.
1500-20 DUNBAR Poems lii. 23, I pray That never dolour mak him dram.
1. intr. To drink drams; to tipple.

Maurie Beck  •  Link

"a book I bought yesterday, being a discourse of the state of Rome under the present Pope, Alexander the 7th"

I have a question. I know going on holiday to Italy became quite the fashion in 19th century England. However, given that the 17th century was still the height of the Inquisition, was it safe for non-catholics to travel to Rome without getting burned at the stake?

Michael Robinson  •  Link

taking a dram of the bottle at the waterside

On my early C 19th. Thames map the dock opposite the King's Yard at Deptford is marked "Drunken Dock!"

Thinking as a former oarsman this is a long hall in a heavy boat, and back, from the Tower down Limehouse reach -- even if the journey is timed to run with the tide.

A. De Araujo  •  Link

Maurie Beck, Rome is worth a Mass

cumgranosalis  •  Link

Roman Holiday 17 Century style where every young man of substance[with a nite hood and floreigns ], would seek the glittter of Gay Paris , Florence, Roma , and Capri, along with all the tombs.
Read John Evelyns diary of his exile from the the discontened Isle. [1640 ?-1655 ?}

A lead: Most Library's have copy. this leads to 1657 1670 period .[back on solid ground]…

Robert Gertz  •  Link

Rome, Christmas season 1663...

"English?" the gaunt black-robed figure eyes the two gallants. His guards at the ready.

"But jolly well preparing to convert, inspired by all your glorious Roman religious scenery." beams one, waving prominently displayed catechism in hand.

"And purchasing all the inspiring artwork we can to bring the True Faith back to our beknighted homeland." the other smiles, noting attendants bearing crates. "But let us not forget our proper donation to your own holy order, Father." opens purse.

"Ah... Welcome, gentlemen."

Second Reading

Terry Foreman  •  Link

Now online:

Rome exactly describ'd, as to the present state of it, under Pope Alexandre the Seventh in two curious discourses / written originally in Italian, and translated into English.
Ferrare du Tot, Charles de, d. 1694., Correr, Angelo, 1605-1678., Chantry, John, d. 1662?, Bulteel, John, fl. 1683., Torriano, Giovanni.
London: Printed by T. Mabb, for Mich. Young ..., and J. Starkey ..., and J. Playfere ..., 1664.
Early English Books Online edition with next year's (month's) publication date.
Relazione della corte romana fatta l'anno 1661. English
Table of contents:…

Gerald Berg  •  Link

Well Conrad, I think an apology is in order. He did buy something at the book store!

Chris Squire UK  •  Link

‘dram, n.1 . . < drachm, n. . . < Greek δραχμή, an Attic weight and coin, probably originally, ‘as much as one can hold in the hand’ . .
. . 3. . . (b) A small draught of cordial, stimulant, or spirituous liquor.
. . 1597 Shakespeare Romeo & Juliet v. i. 60 Giue me a dram of some such speeding geere.
. . 1682 J. Bunyan Holy War 242, I have a cordial of Mr. Forgetgoods making, the which, Sir, if you will take a dram may make you bonny and blith . . ‘ (OED)
Re: ‘I took water (taking a dram of the bottle at the waterside) with a gally,’; I read this as ‘I took TO THE water with a gally, drinking a dose from the bottle of ?physic I bought with me from home. . ’

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