Also see places within Cambridge.
The overlays that highlight 17th century London features are approximate and derived from Wenceslaus Hollar’s maps:
Open location in Google Maps: 52.207969, 0.122390
vicente • Link
Tours of cambridge by shanks pony and a peep at "... Magdalene's most famous student, diarist Samuel Pepys (1608-74)[dates wrong?] actually first came up to Trinity Hall; he transferred college almost straight away. Parallel to a career in civil administration (he reached the post of Secretary to the Admiralty in 1672) he wrote a daily diary over a nine year period, a unique insight into Restoration London. Dying childless, the 3,000 volumes of his private library were bequeathed to Cambridge, housed in Magdalene in 1724. Magdalene later saw Charles..."
Cambridge and the Fair.
Daniel Defoe(1722) gives a great description of this Fair, about four pages, in his "Journey through the Eastern Counties" (can be obtained through Gutenberg).
To attend this fair, and the prodigious conflux of people which
come to it, there are sometimes no less than fifty hackney coaches
which come from London, and ply night and morning to carry the
people to and from Cambridge; for there the gross of the people
lodge; nay, which is still more strange, there are wherries brought
from London on waggons to ply upon the little river Cam, and to row
people up and down from the town, and from the fair as occasion
It is not to be wondered at, if the town of Cambridge cannot
receive, or entertain the numbers of people that come to this fair;
not Cambridge only, but all the towns round are full; nay, the very
barns and stables are turned into inns, and made as fit as they can
to lodge the meaner sort of people:
I should have mentioned that here is a court of justice always
open, and held every day in a shed built on purpose in the fair;
this is for keeping the peace, and deciding controversies in
matters deriving from the business of the fair. The magistrates of
the town of Cambridge are judges in this court, as being in their
jurisdiction, or they holding it by special privilege: here they
determine matters in a summary way, as is practised in those we
call Pye Powder Courts in other places, or as a Court of
Conscience; and they have a final authority without appeal.
Tuesday 15 September 1668
"Up mighty betimes, my wife and people, ..., by three o’clock, and I about five; and they before, and I after them, to the coach in Bishopsgate Street, which was not ready to set out."
Elizabeth, Mercer, Deb and Hewer were off to Cambridge; an early start was essential for this 64 miles, 2 day journey.
Interestingly, this is a different inn than the one used for going to Buckden, Cambridgeshire (close to Brampton).
The Bishopsgate was the London terminus of the Roman road, Ermine Street, (sometimes called the Old North Road) which connects London to Cambridge, Lincoln, and York
Following a week of horse racing at Newmarket, Cosmo, the future Grand Duke of Turin, visited Cambridge.
I've standardized names, scanning errors I could figure out, and increased the number of paragraphs:
At 4 o'clock in the morning of 11 May, 1669/May 1st according to the English mode of reckoning, the king, with the Duke of York, Prince Robert [RUPERT], and the other attendants of his court, departed from Newmarket for London, in very windy and boisterous weather;
and his highness having heard mass, gave audience to my Lords Blandford, Thomond, Bernard Howard, and others, who had come to pay their respects to him; and at 7 set off in his carriage, with all his suite, for Cambridge, which is 11 miles from Newmarket.
The whole of the country for the first 5 miles was a level plain, and for the most part pasture land; it then changed into a well-cultivated corn country, divided into fields, surrounded with hedges, and encircled with willows, which, from the humidity of the soil, grow there in great abundance, and so it continued all the way to Cambridge, where his highness, on his arrival, went to the Rose Inn.
Here preparations had been made by the courier, and we found the streets, through which it was necessary to pass, filled with the populace, and with crowds of scholars, who had collected together to see him and welcome his arrival.
Scarcely had his highness alighted from his carriage, when the mayor, Nathaniel Crab, with the aldermen, perpetual officers, who to the number of 24, compose the magistracy, came to compliment and to greet him.
They were introduced by Sir Castighoni; and the mayor, who alone was desired to be covered, addressed his highness in a speech, in the English language, with which the latter, through the medium of Sir Waller, who acted as interpreter, testified his satisfaction.
As soon as the magistrates were gone, there immediately appeared, in grand procession, preceded by the mace-bearers, the college of the doctors, consisting of 14 heads of the university, dressed in doctors' robes of scarlet cloth, edged with ermines' skin, which was spread round the neck like that of the large cape of the cardinals' robes, and of some young noblemen who wore gowns of a different color, with sleeves hanging down to the ground, and gold buttons and lace; for it is the custom to distinguish noblemen by a more costly habit than the other students.
His highness received them graciously, and having heard doctor Edmund Bolders, vice-chancellor for the Earl of Manchester, the chancellor of the university, who entreated him to condescend to honor the academy (public schools) with his presence, replied to his address.
Going out shortly afterwards, his highness found the scholars arranged in order, in two rows, from the door of the house to the entrance into the court of the academy, dressed in gowns of different colors, according to their several colleges; his highness passed through them in his way to the academy, where he was received on the outside of the door by the chancellor, accompanied by the heads of the university, in the same dress in which they had to welcome him; the vice-chancellor made, in the name of the university, a short and elegant Latin speech, to congratulate him on his arrival, and expressive of their general satisfaction.
His highness went away escorted by the vice-chancellor and heads of houses, and accompanied more especially by a retinue of the noble scholars, to see the library, in which is a great abundance of books of every description, ancient and modern, kept there for the public use of the professors and scholars.
Thence his highness was conducted into the great hall of the university (senate house) where being seated in the place of honor, at a large table, covered with a carpet, round which were placed at due distances the heads of the university; a short oration was recited by the professor of humanity, in praise of his highness, which, although it was in Latin, yet being pronounced with a peculiar accent, was not less difficult to be understood, than that which followed in the English language.
The professor having finished his discourse, that his highness might see the ceremony observed in giving the laurel as well as that of the degree of master of arts, as of doctor in the superior sciences, the vice-chancellor, in the proper robes of his office, being seated in the middle, close to the table, with his face towards the hall, began the ceremony, admitting several scholars without examination (by virtue of the king's gracious rescript and dispensation, made in compliment to his highness) to the degree of master of arts, and to that of doctor, several others, who had already the dignity of master:
— the individual was presented by the professor of that faculty in which he desired to be promoted, to the vice-chancellor, before whom he knelt, with his hands joined together, while the latter repeated the following words: "In Dei nomine, amen: Admitto te ad incipiendum in artibus, vel in philosophia vel in medicina, in nomine Patris, et Filii, et Spiritus Sancti, amen."
— After this, one of the secretaries of the university, who was present, called to him those who were promoted, saying to them with an audible voice, "Tange librum, determina qusestionem in aure Doctoris ac praesta juramenta;" and having immediately done what was prescribed to them, each wrote his name in a printed book, which contained the oath of the king’s supremacy, and of fidelity or allegiance; they then received the laurel, one after another, and were invested with the gown belonging to their respective degrees.
The vice-chancellor, in order to shew his respect for his highness's attendants, wished to place in the number of the Battedratici of the university.
Doctor Dornie, physician to his highness, and public reader of medicine at Pisa: this intention had been hinted to him at Newmarket, by the deputies of the university, in consequence of which he had prepared himself to return thanks in a scholar-like manner.
He was invested with the red gown, which is worn by the public professors of the university, and conducted into the presence of the vice-chancellor; who, having first called upon the name of God, admitted him, by saying, "Recipimus te in numerum nostrum, eo modo quo et apud tuos Bononienses et Pisanos, in nomine Patris, &c."
The accustomed oath was dispensed with, in consequence of his being a Catholic, and also the premeditated return of thanks, because it had been omitted in the case of all the others who had been promoted to degrees, and also to avoid lengthening the ceremony, and making it tedious to his highness, who, as soon as he was set at liberty, returned and dined with his suite.
After dinner, his highness, desirous to gratify the vice-chancellor, who entreated him to honor the academy with his presence a second time, went thither with his attendants, followed by the vice-chancellor and the heads of the university.
In the principal hall, into which his highness was introduced, a short Latin oration was made by one of the professors, which, being pronounced in the same manner as that which was spoken in the morning, was little understood, and afterwards his highness was present at different questions, which were propounded for disputation, and very spiritedly and strenuously opposed by the professors and masters of arts:
"De methodo philosophandi in experimentis fundata, et contra systema Copernicanum."
When all was over, a respectful and learned speech of thanks was made by the principal orator, to assure his highness of the acknowledgment of the whole university.
They then visited King's College
Then they visited St. John's
Then they visited Trinity Hall
The evening coming on, his highness was introduced into the theatre, a room rather small than spacious, where was represented by the scholars a Latin comedy, which pleased more by the elegance of the dresses, the ease and gracefulness of the actors, than by their elocution, which it was very difficult to understand, without being accustomed to the accent. The story of the comedy was as follows:
— A merchant of Nola, whose wife and daughter had been trade slaves, sent his son to Constantinople to redeem them; but he falling in love by the way with a certain young lady, instead of prosecuting his journey, returned to his father, bringing the girl along with him, and pretending that she was his sister, and that his mother was dead.
Many years afterwards, another merchant arrived at Nola, on his return from Constantinople, with letters from the wife. The truth having thus come out, the father accomplished their redemption by other means; and when the mother returned to her own country, the son prostrated himself at her feet, and asked pardon for his offence, which she not only granted, but, actuated by maternal tenderness, obtained it also from his father.
The comedy concludes, in the midst of rejoicings, with a ball, which was managed with great elegance.
At his departure his highness was escorted by Dr. Pearson, master of the college, who always accompanied his highness, and also by those collegians who are distinguished by the names of fellows and scholars, the former having a situation in college as long as they live, and the latter for 7 years, during which time they finish their studies in one or other of the faculties.
His highness, on returning to the inn, retired to his rooms, and supped alone.
- Cambridge is situated upon the river Cam, which is navigable for small boats of burden, and from which it takes its name. The river towards the West forms various small islands, and towards the East divides the town into two parts, which are united by a bridge.
Although it is not a city, but a town, it is nevertheless the most celebrated of all the other towns of the county, to which it gives name, both for its population and buildings, and is almost looked upon as the capital.
It is not walled round at the present day; and there are scarcely any remains of those ancient walls which surrounded it at the time that it flourished before its devastation in the year of Christ 700.
The neighboring country, which spreads over a level plain, is intersected by stagnant and marshy waters, which derogates from the pleasantness and salubrity of the air.
The ancient buildings are not much to be admired, either for the beauty of their architecture, or of their materials, the greater part of them being of wood, with an outward facing of brick; the more modern ones are better.
The inhabitants are estimated at upwards of 12,000, amongst whom are more than 2,500 scholars, who are distributed into 16 colleges, and live there, devoting themselves to their studies.
With respect to the administration of civil justice, it is superintended by the mayor, as head of the magistracy, and by the vice-chancellor, who unite their powers in cases of necessity; but the revision of all civil sentences and the trial of criminal causes, is reserved for the assizes, or assembly of judicature, composed of the judges of the Parliament and the deputies of the county, who assemble there every three months.
The university therefore is of greater importance and notoriety than anything else at Cambridge. It was founded in the year 630, by St. Gibert, first Christian king of the Eastern part of England (of the East Angles) who after the example of France, to which he had been banished, wishing to introduce literature into his kingdom, fixed upon Cambridge, and there instituted several schools, for the direction of which, he sent for from abroad the most illustrious professors of those times, both in arts and sciences; and fixing the principal seat of learning near the bridge, he devoted many hostels and houses to the use of the youth who flocked to his university, for which, besides the privileges granted to it by himself, he obtained from Pope Honorius I many immunities and exemptions, which were confirmed by his successor, Pope Sergius I; and by the help of these it preserved its dignity till the year 1010, then, in consequence of the intestine wars formented by the barons of the kingdom, and the devastation occasioned by the incursions of foreigners, it lost its splendor.
This it recovered, however, under King Henry I, by means of Gislebert, a monk, who not only opened new schools for the arts, but also for the superior sciences, and particularly for theology; and in after-ages the buildings, the professorships, and the number of the teachers. from time to time were augmented by the munificence of different benefactors; so that the university has now 8 public royal professors, who enjoy the honorary title without any labor, having also to attend the senate-house at the ceremony of conferring the doctoral laurels, for to this also the Cambridge doctors are admitted.
The royal professors of Theology, are Dr. Gunning, who has a stipend of 450/.s per annum; and Dr. Pearson, who has 200: Dr. Clark, the Professor of Law, has 80/.s per annum; Dr. Glisson, of Medicine, 120/.; Dr. Cudworth, 40/.s; Master Crichton, of Greek, 40/.s; Master Barrow, of Mathematics, 100/.s; and Dr. Withrington, of Humanity.
Besides these, each separate college has public lecturers in every faculty, art, and branch of education, whose salaries are for the most part uncertain, being helped out by the prebends, which are usually conferred upon them, and by the masterships of the aforementioned 16 colleges.
The first and most ancient is the College, or House of St. Peter, called by the English St. Peter's College, which was built and endowed in the year 1284, by Hugh Balsham. Bishop of Ely, and by John Hotham, Simon Langham, John Fordham, Bishop of Ely, John Warkworth, who were all masters of the college; and by John Whitgift, Archbishop of Canterbury, and by Andrew Beam, Dean of Ely; it was so much enlarged and enriched, both in point of buildings, books, and revenue, that it now supports a president, who is Dr. Beaumont, 16 fellows, 21 scholars, bible clerks, with many other officers and servants, in all estimated at 136.
The second is Clare College, or University Hall, commonly called Clare Hall, which was founded in the year 1326, by Richard Badon, chancellor, and the scholars lived in it at the cdmnic^fi' elpettse of the university, till, with the previous consent of William Thaxted, master, and of Richard Lyng, chancellor, the Countess Elizabeth Clare, widow, and formerly wife of John de Burgh, Earl of Ulster, in virtue of the faculty obtained from Edward III, rebuilt it in the year 1340, and relinquishing the first name, called it Clare Hall, appropriating to it fresh revenues, which, in after-times, were augmented by Thomas Hoyle, by Edmund Natarosso, both masters of the college, and, above all, by Thomas Cecil, Earl of Exeter, by John Trueman, by Dr. Scott, Dean of Rochester, and by the Countess Dorothea, wife of William Buller, a very celebrated physician; so that there is now sufficient for the annual maintenance of 140 fellows, scholars, officers, and servants, who are subordinate to Dr. Lingam, master.
,j yije hall or college of Pembroke, called by the English Pembroke Hall, was originally founded in 1343 by Maria de St. Paul, daughter of Guy Chatillon, Count of St. Paul, and third wife of Adhemar Valencia, Earl of Pembroke and Westford, Lord of Montagu, and Governor of Scotland, with whom it is reported that she lived only one day.
Having devoted herself entirely to religion and founded the Abbey of Douay, she gave away the greatest part of her property to the churches, monasteries, and to the poor, applying a large proportion of it, with the permission of Edward III, to the foundation of this college, which took its name from her, being called The Hall of Mary of Valencia.
King Henry VI, seconding the generosity of the foundress, doubled its revenues, by which means there are now educated there 145 members, divided into fellows, scholars, officers, servants, and students, all of whom are dependant upon Dr. Mapletoft, the master.
The college of Corpus Christi, otherwise of St. Benedict, which the English call Corpus Christi, or Benet College, was built in the year 1344, by Henry of Monmouth, called Wry-neck, who, on the death of his father, Henry, Earl of Lancaster, Lord of Monmouth and Pombiet, was created by Edward III, knight of the garter, Earl of Lincoln and Duke of Lancaster, and it was by him united to the church of St. Benedict, and endowed with very large possessions. These being afterwards encreased by Elizabeth Brotherton, Duchess of Norfolk; by Matthew Parker, Archbishop of Canterbury; by Roger Manners, Earl of Rutland, and others; a fund was established sufficient for the maintenance of 145 members, all dwelling in the college, which is under the orders of Dr. Spencer, master.
Then Cosmo's scribe wrote about Trinity Hall
Then he documented Gonvil and Caius College
Then he remembered things about St. John's
Next, the Count included things about Magdalene College
Next comes Queens' College
The Hall of St. Catherine (Catherine Hall) was built in the year 1473, by the special privilege of King Edward IV, not very far from Queen's College, by Dr. Robert Woodlark, a native of the village of Wakerley in the county of Northampton and placed under the patronage of St. Catherine, virgin and martyr; but from the smallness of its funds, it could with difficulty have supported one monastery and 3 fellows, if William Taylor, Robert Simpson, Hugh Pemberton, John Loach and Sir John Claypoole, had not been prompted, by their love of letters, and Isabella Canterbury, widow, Elizabeth Bernardiston, and Rosamond Payne, by their piety, to assist the foundation with new revenues, which maintain with decency 6 fellows, 8 scholars, and several officers and servants, to the number of 60, all under the orders of Dr. Lightfoot, theologian, who holds the situation of master.
Next, notes on Jesus College
This epic journaling entry ends with notes about Christ's College
TRAVELS OF COSMO THE THIRD, GRAND DUKE OF TUSCANY,
DURING THE REIGN OF KING CHARLES THE SECOND (1669)
TRANSLATED FROM THE ITALIAN MANUSCRIPT
His highness, Cosmo, must be considered only as a traveler. Under his direction, the narrator of the records was Count Lorenzo Magalotti, afterwards Secretary to the Academy del Cimento, and one of the most learned and eminent characters of the court of Ferdinand II.
The Spring 1660 elections in Cambridge. Remember the Pepys referred to here is ROGER Pepys MP. Sam Pepys tells us more about this than the House of Commons website:
Cambridge was an open constituency from 1660 to 1680. The only borough in the county, it chose its Members exclusively from the local gentry. The influence of the university was probably indirect, ...
It was at this time that manipulation of the freeman roll for electoral purposes began, and control of the corporation, consisting of the mayor, 12 aldermen and 24 common councilmen, became essential.
In April 1660 Sir Dudley North and Sir Thomas Willys, whose lukewarm attitude to the Restoration had led to defeat in the county election, were hastily granted the freedom of Cambridge to qualify them to represent the borough in the Convention.
They did not stand again, and in 1661 Sir William Compton, a much respected Cavalier, was returned "with all the ceremonies as could be, and more, a great deal of joy to him would have been showed but his entreaty with the gentlemen prevented. But he was brought back with all the town music, and [the] mayor with his maces, and all the gownmen in great order."
His colleague, Roger Pepys, the recorder, was clearly no friend to the Court, and in 1662 the Puritan corporation was drastically purged. The mayor, 7 aldermen, and 13 of the common council were removed.
When Compton died in the following year, he was replaced by Alington, his step-son, who was equally loyal to the Court.
At the first general election of 1679 Willys and Pepys stood as country candidates. They were opposed by Alington and Sir Thomas Chicheley, high steward of the borough, who had stepped down from the county seat.
Great pressure was applied to ensure his return. The mayor went from house to house ‘to awe the electors’, and some freemen were warned that they would lose university custom and would be debarred from the charitable loans administered by the corporation if they voted the wrong way. Open house was kept at various inns owned by freemen, and the mayor was reported to have made ‘all the neighbour gentlemen free of the town’.
Pepys defied the corporation and lost both election and recordership, to which office Alington was appointed.
Pepys and Willys petitioned, alleging abuses at the election, but no report was made before the first Exclusion Parliament was dissolved.
Alington and Chicheley were again returned in August.
On the day of the election, the freedom was granted to 7 non-residents, including Sir Levinus Bennet, 2nd Bt., shortly to be returned for the county.
The sitting Members were re-elected in 1681. Neither of these elections was contested.
For more in James II's reign, see https://www.historyofparliamenton…
OH: Cambridge University and Cambridgeshire also elected MPs. Cambridge University proper doesn't have a Encyclopedia page, and nor does CambridgeSHIRE, so I'll post the lot here for you to sort out.
The University of Cambridge was as devoted to Church and King in this period as Oxford university, but somewhat less prone to elect ‘gremials’, although all the successful candidates except George Monck and James Vernon had been educated there.
Monck’s return in 1660 was due solely to the determination of the electorate to reject the unpopular Cromwellian chief justice, Oliver St.John, who had been installed as chancellor of the university in 1651 in place of the 2nd Earl of Manchester.
Manchester’s cousin, Adm. Edward Montagu, learned with pleasure that ‘as a thriving man’ he himself enjoyed considerable support in the university; but the junior seat in the Convention Parliament went to another kinsman, Thomas Crouch, the most genuine ‘gremial’ of the period, whose horizon appears to have been bounded by the university and its interests.
When Monck chose to sit for Devon on 22 May, 1660 there was some alarm lest St.John should stand again, and William Gore, a lawyer who had just resigned his fellowship at Queens’, was said to have collected considerable support.
Dr Thomas Sclater, an ejected fellow of Trinity who had represented the university in Richard Cromwell’s Parliament, was also mentioned as a possible candidate.
But 4 days later the House of Lords ordered Manchester’s restoration. Edward Montagu had already found himself a seat; but another cousin, William Montagu, was nominated for the vacancy and returned apparently unopposed.
Crouch was re-elected in 1661, but William Montagu preferred to stand for Stamford on his own interest. With the influence of the Presbyterian Royalists on the wane, it is probable that Manchester took no part in the election.
The new Member was the royalist diplomat Sir Richard Fanshawe, whose wife wrote that the electors "... chose him of their unanimous desire, without my husband’s knowledge, until the vice-chancellor sent him a letter. He had the fortune to be the first chosen and the first returned Member of the Commons House of Parliament in England, after the King came home; and this cost him no more than a letter of thanks and two brace of bucks and 20 broad pieces of silver."
On Fanshawe’s death in 1666 the seat was contested by Sir Charles Wheler, sometime fellow of Trinity but now an army officer, and Christopher Wren, nephew of the bishop of Ely, who had recently completed the building of Pembroke College chapel. Although an Oxford man, the architect failed by only 6 votes, an indication of Wheler’s unpopularity.
Although the Duke of Monmouth was chancellor of the university throughout the Popish Plot, ...
Lots more at https://www.historyofparliamenton…
The CambridgeSHIRE election is the election Pepys posts about on Friday 20 April 1660 at https://www.pepysdiary.com/diary/…
NOTE: The House of Commons consistently call the winner Wendy, not WendBy.
Cambridgeshire was a strongly political constituency throughout this period (1660 - 1680), and all but two of the elections are known to have been contested.
In 1660 Sir Dudley North, a Parliamentarian during the Civil Wars, and Sir Thomas Willys, who had held local office throughout the Interregnum, might have been returned unopposed if they would have pledged themselves for an unconditional restoration of Church and King.
But when their refusal was announced to the freeholders, they were defeated ‘against all expectations’, by Thomas Wendy and Isaac Thornton, in spite of their ‘greater quality and estate’.
Wendy was re-elected in 1661 and Thornton probably stood down in favour of the Royalist, Thomas Chicheley.
At the by-election held on Wendy’s death in 1673, the loyalist vote was divided between Sir Thomas Hatton and Sir William Wren, the son of the Laudian bishop of Ely, the country candidate Gerard Russell finishing less than 50 votes behind Hatton.
Lots more, all after the Diary at
Chart showing the number of references in each month of the diary’s entries.