Saturday 2 February 1666/67

Up, and to the office. This day I hear that Prince Rupert is to be trepanned. God give good issue to it. Sir W. Pen looks upon me, and I on him, and speak about business together at the table well enough, but no friendship or intimacy since our late difference about his closet, nor do I desire to have any. At noon dined well, and my brother and I to write over once more with my own hand my catalogue of books, while he reads to me. After something of that done, and dined, I to the office, where all the afternoon till night busy. At night, having done all my office matters, I home, and my brother and I to go on with my catalogue, and so to supper. Mrs. Turner come to me this night again to condole her condition and the ill usage she receives from my Lord Bruncker, which I could never have expected from him, and shall be a good caution to me while I live. She gone, I to supper, and then to read a little, and to bed. This night comes home my new silver snuffe-dish, which I do give myself for my closet, which is all I purpose to bestow in plate of myself, or shall need, many a day, if I can keep what I have. So to bed. I am very well pleased this night with reading a poem I brought home with me last night from Westminster Hall, of Dryden’s upon the present war; a very good poem.

33 Annotations

First Reading

Terry Foreman  •  Link

Brodrick to Ormond
Written from: [London]
Date: 2 February 1667

Particulars of measures in progress for the rebuilding of the City of London; and, more particularly, of the abandonment of a proposal [by Wren] for the making of "a quay, eighty feet broad, from the Tower to the Temple." ...

Adds some items of foreign intelligence; and also the notice of an intention to transmit to his Grace "Mrs Phillips'Poems and some other books of divertisement [Katharine Phillips, *Poems. By the most deservedly Admired Mrs. Katherine Philips, the matchless Orinda. To which is added, Monsieur Corneille's Pompey & Horace, Tragedies. With several other* Translations out of French. London: Printed by J.M for Henry Herringman, 1667.], about which the presses are slow." ...…

Terry Foreman  •  Link

"Particulars of measures in progress for the rebuilding of the City of London; and, more particularly, of the abandonment of a proposal [by Wren] for the making of “a quay, eighty feet broad, from the Tower to the Temple.”"

Not to be revisited until the 19th century.…

Fern  •  Link

Has there ever been a musical show based on the Diary? It has all the elements of a smash hit, even a show-stopping number: It Is Decreed.

Bradford  •  Link

Yes there was, Fern, and I think it was called "And So to Bed"---can some industrious annotator rifle it up from history?

cape henry  •  Link

Mrs. Turner come to me this night again to condole her condition..." This poor woman continues to expect help from some quarter - Pepys is probably not the only recipient of her visits and pleas. It is most assuredly a horrid situation. And not surprisingly, Pepys finds his own lessons in the matter and keeps his own counsel.As the Saline One might argue: A man's got to keep wot he's got.

cape henry  •  Link

On another front: Is Pepys' brother now residing with him and dependent?

cum salis grano  •  Link

I dothe thinke he be a looking for a living or to be an assistant to a situated clergy, thus he dothe be without funds for the basic 2000 calories, thus earns his daily bread by being helpful, otherwise he will have to join the other under employed clergy roaming the strand looking for a few left over crumbs..

Mary  •  Link

Annus Mirabilis.
Yes, too long to quote but well worth reading, not least for the final third of the poem, which paints a vivid picture of the Great Fire.

Mary  •  Link

my new silver snuff-dish.

Although the taking of snuff (dry, powdered tobacco) did start to gain popularity during the reign of Charles II (so much more elegant than pipe-smoking) this snuff-dish has nothing to do with that.

It is a dish designed to hold the snuff from a candle. Some such dishes came complete with a stand for the snuffers themselves. Pepys is not a closet tobacco-fiend.

tonyt  •  Link

Thames Embankment. There is only a small overlap between Wren's proposal and what was actually built in the 19th century , just the section between Blackfriars Bridge and Temple. Nowadays this Embankment has become a 'race track' for motor vehicles and the more recent South Bank riverside development is far more pleasant for walkers.

Robin Peters  •  Link

Thank you for information re Snuffe-dish Mary. I was just about to ask the question.

Robert Gertz  •  Link

A full score of 1951's "And So to Bed" by Vivian Ellis is hard to get but you can obtain a Vivian Ellis collection with snippets from the musical including a charming bit "Barthomew Fair" where Sam's joy in promenading around London is celebrated. There's also an adaptation of "Beauty Retire" and some other nice songs, including "The Vows", and of course the title theme "And So To Bed". Not exactly "My Fair Lady" as hits go but it did fairly well in London. Keith Michell, more famous as Henry VIII in "The Six Wives of Henry VIII" played Charles II and Leslie Henson was our boy.…

classicist  •  Link

For those without the patience to plough through the 304 stanzas of Dryden's poem, here's a bit Pepys must have liked, about the heroic refitting of the fleet:

'With Cord and Canvass from rich Hamburgh sent,
His Navies molted wings he imps once more:
Tall Norway Fir, their Masts in Battel spent,
And English Oak sprung leaks and planks restore.

All hands employ'd, the Royal work grows warm,
Like labouring Bees on a long Summers day,
Some sound the Trumpet for the rest to swarm,
And some on bells of tasted Lillies play . . .

. . .Each day brings fresh supplies of Arms and Men,
And Ships which all last Winter were abrode:
And such as fitted since the Fight had been,
Or new from Stocks were fall'n into the Road . . .

.. .Then, we upon our Globes last verge shall go,
And view the Ocean leaning on the sky:
From thence our rolling Neighbours we shall know,
And on the Lunar world securely pry.'

(569-576; 597-600; 657-660)

Nix  •  Link

A much calmer day after yesterday's . . . exertions.

"And So To Bed" originated as a comedy (non-muscial), by J.B. Fagan that ran for 189 performances on Broadway in 1927-28. According to an on-line synopsis, it sounds more like it was written by Robert Gertz:

"The show is a musical adaption of a play by J.B. Fagan about an English Elizabethan diarist, Samuel Pepys, who calls on Mistress Knight but is forced to hide in a closet because of a visit to the fascinating lady by Charles II. The show takes place in the seventeenth century."……

The musical adaptation, with book, music and lyrics by (Mr.) Vivian Ellis, starred Leslie Henson as Samuel, Betty Paul as "his long-suffering wife", Jessie Royce Landis as the Mistress Knight, and Keith Michell as the King. The musical director was Mantovani, remembered now mainly for elevator music. After an 8 week provincial tour, it ran for 323 performances in London (the New Theatre in St. Martin's Lane).…'s+theatre%22&source=bl&ots=dqlADr2tyh&sig=O_pyNQ7q0IuQaOfKOUXDXgi9FgU&hl=en&ei=W55pS7O3CozisQO017nDDA&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=2&ved=0CAoQ6AEwAQ#v=onepage&q=%2B%22and%20so%20to%20bed%22%20%2Bmusical%20%2B%22queen's%20theatre%22&f=false

It is not listed in the IBDB, so it apparently never played on Broadway.

cape henry  •  Link

"Keith Michell" --a direct descendant of Michael no doubt.

Nix  •  Link

No, Keith Michell be of royal (or randy) blood -- besides Charles, he has played Henry VIII in "Six Wives" and "The Prince and the Pauper".…

Gillian Bagwell  •  Link

Actress Nell Gwynn, always one of Sam's favorites on stage and off, turned 17 on February 2, 1667. Her career was in full swing, with the parts she played in the weeks from December to February including Lady Wealthy in James Howard’s “The English Monsieur,” Celia in Beaumont and Fletcher’s “The Humorous Lieutenant,” Constantia in Buckingham's adaptation of Beaumont and Fletcher’s “The Chances,” and Flora in Richard Rhodes’ “Flora’s Vagueries.”

Her birthdate is known from a horoscope prepared for her during her life, though for some reason her place of birth wasn't given - maybe because she didn't know. It was likely London, though it might also have been Oxford, and there have also been claims for Herefordshire.

February 2 is Candlemas, a day rich in tradition, as reflected by the excerpts below from Wikipedia. (…)

"Down with the rosemary, and so
Down with the bays and mistletoe;
Down with the holly, ivy, all,
Wherewith ye dress'd the Christmas Hall"
— Robert Herrick (1591–1674), "Ceremony upon Candlemas Eve"

As the poem by Robert Herrick records, the eve of Candlemas was the day on which Christmas decorations of greenery were removed from people's homes; for traces of berries, holly and so forth will bring death among the congregation before another year is out.

Another tradition holds that anyone who hears funeral bells tolling on Candlemas will soon hear of the death of a close friend or relative; each toll of the bell represents a day that will pass before the unfortunate news is learned.

Traditionally the Western term "Candlemas" (or Candle Mass) referred to the practice whereby a priest on 2 February blessed beeswax candles for use throughout the year, some of which were distributed to the faithful for use in the home.

Candlemas occurs 40 days after Christmas, and its religious signifance relates to The Feast of the Presentation of Jesus at the Temple, among the most ancient feasts of the Christian Church, which commemorates an event described in the Gospel of Luke 2:22–40.

According to the gospel, Mary and Joseph took the baby Jesus to the Temple in Jerusalem forty days after his birth to complete Mary's ritual purification after childbirth, and to perform the redemption of the firstborn, in obedience to the Law of Moses (Leviticus 12, Exodus 13:12-15, etc.).

Upon bringing Jesus into the temple, they encountered Simeon the Righteous. The Gospel records that Simeon had been promised that "he should not see death before he had seen the Messiah of the Lord." (Luke 2:26) Simeon prayed the prayer that would become known as the Nunc Dimittis, or Canticle of Simeon, which prophesied the redemption of the world by Jesus:

"Lord, now you are letting your servant go in peace, just as you said. 30 I have seen with my own eyes the one you have sent to save people. 31 You have made this way for all peoples to be saved. 32 He is a light which will shine for those who do not know God. He is the one who will bring praise to your people Israel." (Luke 2:29-32).

In Scotland, until a change in the law in 1991, and in much of northern England until the 18th century, Candlemas was one of the traditional quarter days when quarterly rents were due for payment, as well as the day or term for various other business transactions, including the hiring of servants.

In the United Kingdom, good weather at Candlemas is taken to indicate severe winter weather later: "If Candlemas Day is clear and bright, / winter will have another bite. / If Candlemas Day brings cloud and rain, / winter is gone and will not come again."[9]. It is also alleged to be the date that bears emerge from hibernation to inspect the weather as well as wolves, who if they choose to return to their lairs on this day is interpreted as meaning severe weather will continue for another forty days at least.[citation needed] The same is true in Italy, where it is called Candelora.

It seems this belief is the likely source of the American tradition of Groundhog Day.

The earliest American reference to Groundhog Day can be found at the Pennsylvania Dutch Folklore Center at Franklin and Marshall College:

4 February 1841 — from Morgantown, Berks County (Pennsylvania) storekeeper James Morris' diary …"Last Tuesday, the 2nd, was Candlemas day, the day on which, according to the Germans, the Groundhog peeps out of his winter quarters and if he sees his shadow he pops back for another six weeks nap, but if the day be cloudy he remains out, as the weather is to be moderate." [1]

Fern  •  Link

Many thanks to annotators for all the musical info.

Robert Gertz  •  Link

Can't help wishing Ellis had included his beautiful "This is Our Lovely Day" from his "Bless the Bride" in the Pepys musical...Great melancholy song for Bess.

Oh, well...If we ever get a revival, perhaps we can get a few changes made. A couple of spicer tunes, maybe a Plague chorus, bring in Uncle Wight. I keep suggesting a Pepys dramatization to friends at the Shakespeare Tavern here in Atlanta...Pepys' line about "Midsummer Night's Dream" always appeals to them... perhaps they'd consider doing a musical revival one day.

Nix  •  Link

Universities in Scotland still denominate their academic sessions as Martinmas Term (autumn), Candlemas Term (winter), and Whitsun Term (spring).

Terry Foreman  •  Link

"Years of wonders and prodigies" were common 17c fare

E.g., "[The pamphlet] Mirabilis Annus, or The Year of Prodigies and Wonders was published anonymously in 1661. The opening illustration (fig. 1) is representative of the kind of prodigy the pamphlet reports. Blazing stars, inverted steeples, and flying swords are typical fare. The pamphlet also reports many incidents of armies fighting in the sky between 1660 and 1661....Mirabilis Annus Secundus; or, The second Year of Prodigies (1662) added more airy combats in Sussex (July 1 662) and Upingham in Rutland (October 1662).

Mirabilis Annus informs us that such apparitions most often portend "wars and commotions" and "usually for signifie some remarkable changes and revolutions.'' These "bode much misery and calamity
to the prophane and wicked part of the World," but "very much good to the Sober and Religious part of the World." As an instance of 'the prophane," the
pamphleteer cites Belshazzar. But Belshazzar is a thinly disguised Charles II:

God by a prodigie doth sharply reprove the debauchery of this King and his Concubines, with the rest of his Associates, and thereby also declares the sudden period and determination of his Kingdom."

'To Warn Proud Cities": a Topical Reference in Milton's "Airy Knights" Simile {Paradise Lost n.53 1-8) JOHN LEONARD…

Also see *An age of wonders: prodigies, politics, and providence in England, 1657-1727* By William E. Burns

Second Reading

Terry Foreman  •  Link

"Sir W. Pen looks upon me, and I on him, and speak about business together at the table well enough, but no friendship or intimacy since our late difference about his closet"

L&M: See…

San Diego Sarah  •  Link

"This day I hear that Prince Rupert is to be trepanned. God give good issue to it."

This seems to be an expression of genuine concern; probably Pepys remembered his own painful operation from which he could have died, and sympathized.

Rupert's opinions of Pepys' victualling performance had been muted as the months went by ... and Pepys feelings had been modified by Rupert's continued popularity with the sailors over Monck (who seems to have been thoroughly discredited in the court of public opinion) and the acknowledgement that the country needed Rupert to be well for the next fighting season, fast approaching.

A review of Pepys and Rupert's "relationship" is at…

I've had one thought since I wrote it: Pepys was an enthusiastic Parliamentarian in his youth. During the three Civil Wars, Rupert was demonized for his fighting ability and leadership skills ... not to mention his dog. So Pepys' comment about no one welcoming Rupert in 1660 might just have been a left-over adolescent prejudice.

San Diego Sarah  •  Link

How nice of Sir Allen Brodrick MP to send the latest poetry book to Ormonde.

The author was Katherine Fowler, born on New Year's day, 1631 in London. At 16 she was married to James Phillips.

Despite an age difference, there was little conflict between them beyond politics: she was a Royalist; he liked Cromwell.

Fortunately James Phillips wanted to live on the coast of Wales, while Katherine spent much of her time in London. He encouraged her literary activities.

Besides bearing two children (a son who lived 40 days, and a daughter who lived to be an adult), Katherine founded The Society of Friendship, wrote about 116 poems, completed 5 verse translations, and translated two plays by Pierre Corneille (1606-1684) from the French.

The first of Katherine Phillips' dramatic translations, a rendering of Pompey, was produced in 1663 (the first play by a woman to be performed on the London stage; and also performed, to great acclaim, in Dublin -- Ormonde might have seen it as he was the Irish Lord Lt. by then).
The other translation, Horace, was not finished in her lifetime. The recently-widowed Sir John Denham completed it, and the play was produced in 1668.

The Society of Friendship (1651-1661) was a semi-literary correspondence circle composed primarily of women, although men were also involved. The membership is in question as they used pseudonyms from Classical literature. Katherine Philips took the name Orinda, to which other members appended "Matchless." It is as "Matchless Orinda" that Philips is most often known, as this became her usual signature.

Poet Henry Vaughan (1622-1695) was probably a member of the Society, and in some degree a personal friend to Philips. It was as a preface to his poems that hers were first published, in 1651.

More important are the female members, especially Anne Owen, known in Phillips' poems as Lucasia, to whom half of her poetry is dedicated. The two seem to have been lovers in an emotional, if not in a physical, sense for about 10 years.

Also significant are Mary Awbrey (Rosania) and Elizabeth Boyle (Celimena). Boyle's relationship with Phillips was cut short by Philips' death in 1664.

[Robert Boyle FRS had at least four relatives -- if not more -- named Elizabeth Boyle; I have no idea if one of them is this Elizabeth Boyle. Anyone know?]

Philips remarked at the time that love between women was pure, uncorrupted by the sexual. The poetry does not overtly suggest physical relationships. In fact, Philips' contemporaries often praised her modest, properly feminine subject matter.

Katherine "the Matchless Orinda" Philips died of smallpox on June 22, 1664, in London at 33. Her death was mourned in verse by the metaphysical poet Abraham Cowley.

The first authorized collection of "the Matchless Orinda's" verse was published in 1667. So it's hot off the presses for Ormonde.

Highlights from…

Batch  •  Link

When the phrase "annus horribilis" came trippingly off the tongue of Queen Elizabeth II in her speech about what a bad year she had had, I thought it an odd phrase for her to use, considering that it was Latin and she famously had enjoyed a limited education.
But now that I know how Dryden's "Annus Mirabilis" had long been part of the English cultural legacy, along with the other "Mirabilus Annus" discussed above, I see that her turning "annus mirabilis" into "annus horribilis" was a (perhaps unexpected) play on words that even the average English person could appreciate.

Sjoerd22  •  Link

Trepanning (boring holes in the skull - in this case to evacuate pus) does not enjoy a very enthusiastic coverage in modern medicinal literature but in this case it appears to have worked!…

San Diego Sarah  •  Link

"[Robert Boyle FRS had at least four relatives -- if not more -- named Elizabeth Boyle; I have no idea if one of them is this Elizabeth Boyle. Anyone know?]"

Okay, I have solved my own puzzle. This Lady Elizabeth Boyle was the daughter of Elizabeth Clifford Boyle, Countess of Cork. She went on to marry Earl Nicholas Thanet according to…

For some reason Lady Elizabeth Boyle's married last name is given as Nicholas, not Thanet. But that is a mystery for another day.

San Diego Sarah  •  Link

I couldn't leave it alone. Lady Elizabeth Boyle married Nicholas Tufton, 3rd Earl of Thanet in 1664.

It mentions his time in the Tower for trying to kill Charles II ... that was during the Interregnum. He seems to have behaved himself as an Earl.

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