Annotations and comments

Terry Foreman has posted 16,358 annotations/comments since 28 June 2005.

16 Jul 2005, 9:06 p.m. - Terry Foreman

Calais ..."was founded as a fishing village some time prior to the 10th century. In 997, it was improved by the Count of Flanders and fortified by the Count of Boulogne in 1224. Its strategic position made it a key target for the growing power of the kingdom of England, and the town was besieged and captured by King Edward III of England in 1347, after a siege of eleven months.... He drove out most of the French...and settled the town with people from England, so that it might serve as a gateway to France. In 1360 the Treaty of Br

16 Jul 2005, 8:36 p.m. - Terry Foreman

A 1640 map of Vlissingen (Flushing), the harbor-city of Zeeland (the maps linked by S. Spoelstra alas, can no longer be found.)

16 Jul 2005, 7:23 p.m. - Terry Foreman

Glyn's link shows Tyburn gallows'location most clearly "The link above shows the location of Tyburn gallows, which was the main execution site in London and was at the end of Oxford Street roughly where Marble Arch is now. "If you look at the little drawing you will see that the Gallows was triangular, enabling up to thirty felons to be hanged simultaneously" Glyn on Thu 30 Oct 2003, 5:54 pm Cf. Government and Law > Law > Executions

16 Jul 2005, 4:42 a.m. - Terry Foreman

tobacco 1.Any of various plants of the genus Nicotiana, especially N. tabacum, native to tropical America and widely cultivated for their leaves, which are used primarily for smoking. 2. The leaves of these plants, dried and processed chiefly for use in cigarettes, cigars, or snuff or for smoking in pipes. 3. Products made from these plants. 4. The habit of smoking tobacco: I gave up tobacco. 5. A crop of tobacco. ETYMOLOGY: Spanish tabaco, possibly of Caribbean origin. The American Heritage

16 Jul 2005, 4:07 a.m. - Terry Foreman

"A stringed keyboard instrument resembling a harpsichord but with only one manual, and one set of jacks and strings. The spinet is closely related to the virginal, but it is strung diagonally, and is generally wing-shaped rather than square. It is of Italian origin, but was very popular in England in the late 17th century." [WARNING: This website will pronounce (BARK) it at you SUDDENLY!]

16 Jul 2005, 3:48 a.m. - Terry Foreman

Term for pre-18th century silver inkstand. An inkstand, most frequently with lid (single or double) and footed.

15 Jul 2005, 9:19 p.m. - Terry Foreman

Canon [i.e. standard] law in Roman Catholic context "Canon law is the body of laws and regulations made by or adopted by ecclesiastical authority, for the government of the Christian organization and its members."

15 Jul 2005, 8:45 p.m. - Terry Foreman

Umbles \Um"bles\, n. pl. [See Nombles.] The entrails and coarser parts of a deer; hence, sometimes, entrails, in general. [Written also humbles.] --Johnson. Humbles \Hum"bles\, n. pl. [See Nombles.] Entrails of a deer. [Written also umbles.] --Johnson.

15 Jul 2005, 8:06 p.m. - Terry Foreman

The Idle 'Prentice Executed at Tyburn. (Industry and Idleness, XI). William Hogarth (1697-1764).

15 Jul 2005, 8:01 p.m. - Terry Foreman

Tyburn Tree and Public Execution in Early Modern England On the figure of Tyburn Tree this site hangs a collection of links to 17-18c resources on a topic that runs its twisted course down to public lynchings and internet beheadings. [Link updated from on 26 May 2009. P.G.]

15 Jul 2005, 7:54 p.m. - Terry Foreman

Tyburn Tree and Public Execution in Early Modern England On the figure of Tyburn Tree this site hangs a collection of links to 17-18c resources on a topic that runs its course down to the current century. [Links updated from on 26 May 2009. P.G.]

15 Jul 2005, 5:26 a.m. - Terry Foreman

The "pageant in Cornhill": an elevated moving display ad "in" the Street? a signature visual landmark, since Sam finds it "taken down [to be] pretty strange"? (Recalling reactions to changes in the same in Times Square in NYC. A change of ownership, or the "pageant" wasn't cost-effective? Sam showing he's not an entrepreneur?) Or...?

15 Jul 2005, 2:07 a.m. - Terry Foreman

"This night I began to put on my waistcoat also.” Was this a common means of dealing with the night air and a nagging pain, or the result of Sam’s successful experiment? Friday 18 October 1661: “This night lying alone, and the weather cold, and having this last 7 or 8 days been troubled with a tumor . . . which is now abated by a poultice…, I first put on my waistcoat to lie in all night this year, and do not intend to put it off again till spring.”

14 Jul 2005, 6:28 a.m. - Terry Foreman

Did Sam forget to latch his cod-piece securely, when up by 5 o'clock yesterday, and bump against furniture when getting his house in order? Oy: Some mischance!

14 Jul 2005, 5:06 a.m. - Terry Foreman

"Robert Annis was workman to the King's plumber, and the alleged offence had taken place in December 1661: CSPD 1661-2, p. 190; cf. PRO, Adm. 20/3, p. 63. Pepys, in common with other Principal Officers, was a J.P. for the counties in which the royal dockyards were situated. An act of 1664 (renewed in 1666) simplified the procedure for prosecutions in cases of embezzlement, the Navy Board (or any two of them) being given some of the powers of the magistrates.... But filching persisted: for some of the evidence, see Cat., i. 186-7." L&M, 13 July, 1662, n. 2.

14 Jul 2005, 4:47 a.m. - Terry Foreman

"Having by some mischance hurt my cods. I had my old pain...."

13 Jul 2005, 3:33 p.m. - Terry Foreman

O, good! Since it is a "wiki," a source about the weekend's vintage can be fixed by one of you or more, adding qualifications -- taking class, etc., into account. A "wiki" can be edited online by anyone from anywhere. (I've provided minor errata and addenda to it -- yesterday a date of a concert I attended for the article on "Bob Dylan".) Here's the source again, editing instructions provided: Nice citation, Jerry Atkinson! Similarly, Connecticut law required retail establishments of size to be closed on Sunday; Jewish merchants earned permission to close on Saturday instead = a grocery was always open, at least until the 1970's.

13 Jul 2005, 3:12 a.m. - Terry Foreman

Dirk, my main point is that Sam couldn't have imagined a weekend -- even to diregard so he could work overtime -- because there won't be one for 200 years, when the English labour movement gives rise to the five-day work week. (Sorry: I copied and pasted that rather awkwardly.)

13 Jul 2005, 2:51 a.m. - Terry Foreman

Dirk, perhaps you will agree that the answer to Nix's question doesn't depend on the meaning of "English week"? Perhaps others will agree with you. I've failed to find evidence to contradict the claim of that the term "English week" is used for the five-days work week and the credit for inventing the weekend goes to a 19c labour movement in England. (Cf. )

13 Jul 2005, 12:12 a.m. - Terry Foreman

"When was the weekend invented?" "Only the labour and workers rights movements in the late nineteenth and early twentieth century saw a five day work week introduced as Saturday became a day of rest and relaxation. This movement began in England. In several languages, the word for weekend is an adaptation of weekend or the term "English week" is used for the five-days work week. The workweek, literally, refers to the period of time that an individual spends at paid occupational labor. ..."