Annotations and comments

Terry Foreman has posted 16,358 annotations/comments since 28 June 2005.

19 Jul 2005, 11:23 p.m. - Terry Foreman

"The army" of 1660 in the Diary are Gen. George Monck's regiments, which were the germ of the British Army. "After the death of Oliver Cromwell, the Protectorate died a slow death, and with it died the New Model army. For a time in 1659 it looked as if the New Model army forces loyal to different Generals might wage war on each other. But in the end the New Model Army regiments which had been garrisoning Scotland under the command of General George Monck were able to march on London, to oversee the Crowning of Charles II, without significant opposition from the regiments under other Generals.... With the exception of Monck's own regiment which became the Coldstream Guards, the New Model Army disbanded after the Restoration of 1660." "The Restoration of Charles II saw the Model Army kept as a standing force, and the King raised further regiments loyal to the Crown. On 26 January 1661 Charles II issued the warrant that is acknowledged as the official beginning of the British Army."

19 Jul 2005, 6:57 p.m. - Terry Foreman

"got a-top of my house, seeing the design of my work....the rain coming into my house, the top being open." I thought I understood what the raising of the roof entailed, but now confess to having trouble envisioning this. Is Sam able to see (visualize) "the design of [his] work" and make like Gene Kelly rejoicing in the film "Singing in the Rain" while looking down through the same opening through which the rain is coming?

19 Jul 2005, 7:41 a.m. - Terry Foreman

"in good earnest, my head is so full of business that I cannot understand it as otherwise I should do"-- reply to my preceeding: He IS the only one of the Sandwich crew left to manage the office and the docks &c. at Deptford; and there is the state of his house: overwhelming responsibilities.

19 Jul 2005, 5:28 a.m. - Terry Foreman

Another day about Sam's pre|occupations; about Beth, nought

19 Jul 2005, 5:22 a.m. - Terry Foreman

Court of Requests, 1485-1642: a Court for the 'Poor' The Court of Requests was an offshoot of the king's council, intended to provide easy access by poor men and women to royal justice and equity. It was established in 1483, when the chancery official responsible for sorting petitions from the poor became clerk of the council of requests. A cheap and simple procedure attracted many suitors (not all of them poor, but particularly including women), but also the enmity of some common lawyers. The records of the court cease in 1642. Its privy seal was removed during the Civil War. Although the court was never formally abolished, much of its caseload eventually passed to local small claims courts. Types of case heard included title to property, annuities, matters of villeinage, watercourses, highways, wilful escape, forgery, perjury, forfeitures to the king by recognisance and dower, jointure and marriage contracts. Courts of Requests [...]The practice is by summons. If the party do not appear, the commissioners proceed summarily, examining the witnesses of both parties on oath, and according to their own judgment, pronounce a verdict. These courts are extremely useful, though there is something arbitrary in their constitution. If the party summoned do not appear, the commissioners have power to apprehend and commit. The time and expense of obtaining summary redress in this court are very inconsiderable, which renders it of great service to trade.

19 Jul 2005, 4:56 a.m. - Terry Foreman

Prisons "The extent of crime (or what was considered crime) in London may be gauged by the number of prisons: ten. Newgate is pictured here; another well-known one was the Clink, immortalized in English slang. "In most cases prisoners had to pay for their own food and lodgings; those who were in prison for debt were given an allowance from the money collected each week for the poor."

19 Jul 2005, 4:38 a.m. - Terry Foreman

Six Clerks' Office On the west side of Chancery Lane, south of Carey Street, outside the City boundary (O. and M. 1677), opposite the Rolls. First mention: 1520 (L. and P. H. VIII. V.p. 22). Confirmation to the Six Clerks of Chancery and their successors of the house in Chancery Lane in their occupation formerly called "Harflu Inn," 31 H. VIII. (L. and P. H. VIII. XIV. (1), p.403). Other references : Tenement of the Six Clerks called Harflete Inne," 35 H. VIII. 1543 (ib. XVIII. (1), p.530). Stow says it belonged formerly to the Prior of Necton Parke, a house of Canons in Lincolnshire, called Hereflete Inne and was a Brewhouse, but "now faire builded for the Sixe Clearkes of the Chancerie" (S. 396). In Lockie, 1810, and Elmes, 1831, it is described as at No.62, a few doors from Holborn, further north than formerly. The site of the original office is now covered by the Law Institute. From: 'Six Clerks' Office', A Dictionary of London (1918). URL: Date accessed: 19 July 2005.

18 Jul 2005, 10:43 p.m. - Terry Foreman

Ash Wednesday "Ash Wednesday is the beginning of Lent for Western Christian churches. It's a day of penitence to clean the soul before the Lent fast. "Roman Catholic, Anglican, and some other churches hold special services at which worshippers are marked with ashes as a symbol of death, and sorrow for sin.[...]The service draws on the ancient Biblical traditions of covering one's head with ashes, wearing sackcloth, and fasting. "The mark of ashes: In Ash Wednesday services churchgoers are marked on the forehead with a cross of ashes as a sign of penitence and mortality.[...] The use of ashes, made by burning palm crosses from the previous Palm Sunday, is very symbolic."

18 Jul 2005, 10:23 p.m. - Terry Foreman

Lent in the Anglican tradition, 1661 Project Canterbury has put online an authoritative and relevant ebook: THE SEVERAL STATUTES In force for the observation of L E N T...And F I S H-dayes, at all other times Of the Y E A R. With full and ready notes in the margent, Shewing the effect in brief. Published by a well-wisher to peace, for the information of all persons subject to the violation of the said Laws. L O N D O N, Printed by Robert White, and are to be sold by him at his house in Warick Lane in Warick Court. 1661.

18 Jul 2005, 7:37 p.m. - Terry Foreman

David Quidnunc's How Restoration society viewed mistresses (as celebrities) posted 17 Jan 2004 is specifically relevant as he posted it under People > Palmer, Barbara. See:

18 Jul 2005, 7:33 a.m. - Terry Foreman

"The Committee of Safety, established by the Parliamentarians in July 1642, was the first of a number of successive committees set up to oversee the English Civil War against King Charles. It was made up of fifteen Members of Parliament. "The last Committee of Safety was set up on October 26, 1659 by the high command of the New Model Army just before the Restoration. It was set up in response to the Rump Parliament which the day before tried to place the commander of the army Charles Fleetwood as chief of a military council under the authority of the speaker."

18 Jul 2005, 7:25 a.m. - Terry Foreman

See Magistrates/Justices of the Peace, to clarify the L&M note, esp. the annotation by David Quidnunc describing what a Magistrate could do [his county a little fiefdom]

18 Jul 2005, 6:23 a.m. - Terry Foreman

The "general acquittance from my Lord" = the major source of income is paid in full? A cleaner reading than my first, Pauline; thanks. What is the physical circuit of this day? "To my office....I dined at home, and so to my Lord's….Home and found much business to be upon my hands, and was late at the office….[home] and so to bed.” What did he at home after he was paid in full by Sandwich? Stash his loot, realize what he yet needed to do at the office, and dash out to it?

18 Jul 2005, 2:48 a.m. - Terry Foreman

Prisons For prisons in London, see Background information > Places > Other London buildings Newgate Prison Tower of London Concerning the meaning of the prison as an expression of social values, a key and controversial text is Michel Foucault (1975). Discipline and Punish: the Birth of the Prison

18 Jul 2005, 2:02 a.m. - Terry Foreman

"Fox, or some other ‘weighty’ friend” Though notably egalitarian, Quakers recognize as “weighty” those whose integrity and spiritual influence lend weight to their opinions.

17 Jul 2005, 11:41 p.m. - Terry Foreman

"Mr. Coventry took his go over for the Queen-Mother." L&M note: "I.e. to France. Sandwich sailed too: hence the 'general acquittance' with Pepys that follows." -- evidently a change in the terms of Sam's contract, elevating his status and, we would say, reducing his span of control on an organizational chart -- relieving him of duties to be delegated -- or so I read it. (But will this run counter to Sam's natural interactive style?) Sandwich's imminent departure explains why yesterday Sam was so eager to present to him the "true state of all his accounts to last Monday."

17 Jul 2005, 10:30 a.m. - Terry Foreman

"and so I lost my labour" Does Sam mean he did't get to show the fruit of his morning's work and the praise he deserves? or...? Apparently Moore's request thate he do Sandwich's accounts didn't reflect a sense of anxiety on the latter's part, since he left after dinner with Mr. Edward Montagu and his brother, and Mr. Coventry at least. Surely there will be a time at which he can report, etc. Has he not done this later in the day previously?

17 Jul 2005, 2:23 a.m. - Terry Foreman

"she is a whore" Yes, Sam may use “whore” loosely, but would that be, ah, inappropiate? OED “whore” 1b “More generally: An unchaste or lewd woman [Lady Castlemaine, I wot, is that]; a fornicatress or adultress [aye]…. Occas….applied opprobriously [tho not by Sam, or by him with regret, as he says]to a concubine or kept mistress,” which she seems to have been and perhaps thought herself when she was at Hampton Court, or apparently at home. [Very complex and interesting person — screwed-up and therefore the more attractive, we might say from some experience.]

16 Jul 2005, 11:24 p.m. - Terry Foreman

"But strange it is how for her beauty I am willing to construe all this to the best and to pity her wherein it is to her hurt, though I know well enough she is a whore." Ah, me, sometimes life imitates theatre -- recalling Sam's viewing John Ford's "Tis Pity She's a Whore” Mon. 9 Sept 1661

16 Jul 2005, 9:46 p.m. - Terry Foreman

Historical-political map of the low countries 1556-1648 Zeeland is in the south, on the sea (duh), just north of Flanders. Middleburg is labeled, but its port, Vlissingen (Flushing) to its south, is not.