Wednesday 30 January 1660/61

(Fast day). The first time that this day hath been yet observed: and Mr. Mills made a most excellent sermon, upon “Lord forgive us our former iniquities;” speaking excellently of the justice of God in punishing men for the sins of their ancestors.

Home, and John Goods comes, and after dinner I did pay him 30l. for my Lady, and after that Sir W. Pen and I into Moorfields and had a brave talk, it being a most pleasant day, and besides much discourse did please ourselves to see young Davis and Whitton, two of our clerks, going by us in the field, who we observe to take much pleasure together, and I did most often see them at play together.

Back to the Old James in Bishopsgate Street, where Sir W. Batten and Sir Wm. Rider met him about business of the Trinity House. So I went home, and there understand that my mother is come home well from Brampton, and had a letter from my brother John, a very ingenious one, and he therein begs to have leave to come to town at the Coronacion.

Then to my Lady Batten’s; where my wife and she are lately come back again from being abroad, and seeing of Cromwell, Ireton, and Bradshaw hanged and buried at Tyburn. Then I home.

Jan. 30th was kept as a very solemn day of fasting and prayer. This morning the carcases of Cromwell, Ireton, and Bradshaw (which the day before had been brought from the Red Lion Inn, Holborn), were drawn upon a sledge to Tyburn, and then taken out of their coffins, and in their shrouds hanged by the neck, until the going down of the sun. They were then cut down, their heads taken off, and their bodies buried in a grave made under the gallows. The coffin in which was the body of Cromwell was a very rich thing, very full of gilded hinges and nails.

— Rugge’s Diurnal.

36 Annotations

Emilio   Link to this

Cromwell, Ireton, and Bradshaw

As dirk mentioned yesterday, the heads of these three, minus their 'loathsome trunks', will be displayed on pikes above Westminster Hall for years to come.

Evelyn has another interesting account of the events today:

30 Was the first Solemn Fast & day of humiliation to deplore the sinns which so long had provoked God against this Afflicted Church & people: orderd by Parliament to be annualy celebrated, to expiate the Gilt of the Execrable Murder of the late King Char: I . . . This day ( the stupendious, & inscrutable Judgements of God) were the Carkasses of that arch-rebell Cromewell, Bradshaw the Judge who condemn’d his Majestie & Ireton, sonn in law to the Usurper, draged out of their superbe Tombs (in Westminster amongst the Kings), to Tyburne, & hanged on the Gallows there from 9 in the morning til 6 at night, & and then buried under that fatal & ignominious Monument, in a deepe pitt: Thousands of people (who had seene them in all their pride & pompous insults) being spectators: looke back at November 22: 1658, & be astonish’d - And God, & honor the King, but meddle not with them who are given to change.

From two years earlier:

22 [Nov 1658.] To Lond, to visite my Bro: & the next day saw the superb Funerall of the Protectors:
[22] He was carried from Somerset-house in a velvet bed of state drawn by six horses houss’d with the same: The Pall held-up by his new Lords: Oliver lying in Effigie in royal robes, & Crown’d with a Crown, scepter, & Mund, like a King: The Pendants, & Guidons were carried by the Officers of the Army, The Imperial banners, Atchivements &c by the Heraulds in their Coates, a rich caparizon’d Horse all embroidred over with gold: a Knight of honour arm’d Cap a p? & after all his Guards, Souldiers & innumerable Mourners: In this equipage they proceeded to Westminster met fantasiaV1 &c: but it was the joyfullest funeral that ever I saw, for there was none but Cried, but dogs, which the souldiers hooted away with a barbarous noise; drinking, & taking Tabacco in the streetes as they went:…

Quite a contrast indeed. If even the royalist Evelyn had such a solemn experience at Cromwell’s funeral, I can see why so many (even our Sam) keep pictures of the Lord Protector even after the changes of the last couple years. [Small spoiler] Years from now, Sam will even mention a curious story that Cromwell’s head might not even be the one on display, but a previous king’s that he had had moved to his own tomb.

dirk   Link to this

"punishing men for the sins of their ancestors"

If you come to think of it, it's quite a curious notion that you should be punished for something you haven't done. If my Biblical knowledge is worth anything, there's a passage somewhere in the Old Testament which states that the father's sins will be visited on their children up to the seventh generation!

dirk   Link to this

"a letter from my brother John, a very ingenious one"

ingenious - Clearly the word must have a meaning different from today's usage. What would be the modern equivalent?

Emilio   Link to this

Some quite different readings from L&M today, & a clarification

'Sir W. Pen and I into Moorfields and had a brave talk': this is actually a "rare walk", which makes more sense in connection with the fine day.

'I did most often see them at play together': "see them at PLAYS together", which does rather change Sam's meaning. Perhaps they were among the ones who spotted Sam a week ago.

'Sir W. Batten and Sir Wm. Rider met him': "He" is Penn, who according to the L&M footnote "with Rider was an elder brother of Trinity House; Batten was Deputy-Master".

Glyn   Link to this

Ingenious, I imagine, in being written in very good Latin rather than English - isn't he at College? As for sins of the fathers, isn't that the whole basis for the Christian belief in "Original Sin" i.e. even new-born babies aren't totally innocent.

The Bishop   Link to this

So were there three or four corpses hanged? Only one of the accounts has mentioned Thomas Pride.

Emilio   Link to this

Just three

L&M had a footnote earlier that Thomas Pride's body "seems to have escaped the fate of the others", citing M. Noble, Lives of the English Regicides (1798). They didn't have any further details, so I didn't retype it.

For the record, the exhumations began on the 26th, and the three bodies were moved to the Red Lion Inn on the 28th, which is the first day Sam mentions them.

language hat   Link to this

ingenious:
A difficult word, used often in "wrong" senses (pertaining to "ingenuous"); the OED divides the meanings up as follows (I give only a few quotes):

I Senses proper to this word.

†1 Having high intellectual capacity; able, talented, possessed of genius. Obs. in general sense.
1594 Shaks. Rich. III, iii. i. 155 Oh ‘tis a perillous Boy, Bold, quicke, ingenious, forward, capable.
†b Of an action, composition, etc.: Showing cleverness, talent, or genius. Obs. in general sense: see 3 b.

†2 Intelligent, discerning, sensible. Obs.
1661 Fuller Worthies (1840) III. 201 Especially if some ingenious gentlemen would encourage the industrious gardeners by letting ground on reasonable rates unto them.

3 Having an aptitude for invention or construction; clever at contriving or making things; skilful. This (with 3 b) is the current use. Now usually somewhat light or sometimes even depreciative, expressing aptitude for curious device rather than solid inventiveness or skill.
1668-9 Marvell Corr. Wks. 1872-5 II. 245 Every one will be as ingenious as he can to his own profit.
b Of things, actions, etc.: Showing cleverness of invention or construction; skilfully or curiously contrived or made.

II Used by confusion for ingenuous or L. ingenuus.

†4 Having or showing a noble disposition, high-minded; honest, candid, open, frank, ingenuous.
c.1680 Beveridge Serm. (1729) I. 527 Our Lord having heard this ingenious confession.

†5 Well born or bred. Obs.
1638 F. Junius Paint. of Ancients 286 Neither will any man who hath but a drop of ingenious bloud in his breast, trifle away both his art and time.

†6 Of employment, education, etc.: Befitting a well-born person; ‘liberal’. Obs.
1596 Shaks. Tam. Shr. i. i. 9 A course of Learning, and ingenious studies.

john lauer   Link to this

"[Jack and Tom] take much pleasure together, and I did most often see them at play together" -- I (almost) hesitate to inquire why this is noteworthy, or what is implied. Just buddies?

mary   Link to this

... a very ingenious one...

If this letter was, as surmised, written in Latin, then Pepys' comment possibly indicates that not only was it written in good Latin, but also that it took a suitable (perhaps wittily chosen) classical author for the model of its style.

Roger Arbor   Link to this

Cromwell et al... still, IMHO, 'right', where the Royalists 'wrong'. Reminds me of a saying learnt at school about the Civil War and its aftermath: "Parliamentarians, repulsive but right... Royalists, attractive but wrong". Is it a spoiler to say that, by the time of James II, it'll all end in tears?

Xjy   Link to this

sins of the fathers
Nothing known of genetic inheritance or psychological formation, just observation that similar traits run in families, very brutally stated.

Ruben   Link to this

Jeremiah 31,32
"..."I will watch over them to build and to plant", declares the Lord.
"In those days they will not say again, "The fathers have eaten sour grapes, And the children teeth are set on edge"
"But every one will die for his own iniquity..." etc, etc.
It means that at the end of time no one will be blamed for crimes that others commited.
But in the meantime the idea was intended to threat people: if you commit a crime, you will pay and your children too.

Stan   Link to this

(Fast day). The first time that this day hath been yet observed...
after dinner I did pay him 30L.
So did Sam not observe the fast then?

Paul L   Link to this

"Royalists, attractive but wrong"

I think this is from the utterly brilliant 1066 And All That

M.Stolzenbach   Link to this

Stan asks about Pepys eating dinner upon a fast day.

Eating less, or eating fish instead of meat, might be looked upon as satisfying the requirement.

There seems to be an error in the quote from Evelyn's diary, either his own, or an error in transcription or scanning. It says "And God, & honor the King" where one would expect the Scriptural quote from I Peter 2:17: "Fear God, honor the King."

mary   Link to this

1066 and all that.

The Roundheads were right but repulsive, the Royalists wrong but wromantic, as I recall. Sellar and Yeatman.

David A. Smith   Link to this

"wrong but wromantic"
Mary, you're correct, to which Sellar and Yeatman add, "Charles I was a Cavalier King and therefore had a small pointed beard, long flowing curls, and a large, flat, flowing hat and *gay attire*. The Roundheads, on the other hand, were clean-shaven and wore tall, conical hats, and *sombre garments*. Under these circumstances a Civil War was inevitable."

David A. Smith   Link to this

"1066 and Sam Pepys"
While I have the volume open, here are Sellar and Yeatman on Sam (pp 72-73):
"Among the famous characters of this period were Samuel Pepys, who is memorable for keeping a Dairy and going to bed a great deal, and his wife Evelyn, who kept another memorable Dairy, but did not go to bed in it."
And no, I didn't make any typing mistakes in the preceding ....

dirk   Link to this

"sins of the fathers"

Ruben, may I counter with Exodus 20:5

""...I the LORD thy God am a jealous God, visiting the iniquity of the fathers upon the children unto the third and fourth generation of them that hate me" (sorry, not the seventh generation - my memory was wrong there).

Calvin commented on this (no, I'm not a Calvinist - this is merely for the argument's sake):
"...if it be not agreeable to our judgment that God should repay every one according to his deserts, and yet that He at the same time requires the sins of their fathers of the children, we should remember that His judgments are a great depth; and, therefore, if anything in His dealings is incomprehensible to us, we must bow to it with sobriety and reverence."
[Commentary on Pentateuch]
From:
http://www.faithtacoma.org/sermons/Hosea/hosea5...

Ruben   Link to this

"sins of the fathers"

Dirk:
this hereditary sins are found in many places throughout the Bible: in Exodus, Numbers, Deuteronomy, Kings, etc. You have to see the Bible as a changing proyect. In Prophets time, mores changed and so were the interpretation of the old words.
That is the reason I cited Jeremiah and not the Exodus, that was, then as now very old stuff.
To confirm what I just said see a later Prophet: EZEKIEL 18:
“Then the word of the Lord came to me saying, “What do you mean by using this proverb concerning the land of Israel saying, The fathers eat the sour grapes, but the children’s teeth are set on edge”?
“As I live,” declares the Lord God, “you are surely not going to use this proverb in Israel any more.”…
…”he has a son who has observed all his father’s sins which he commited, and observing does not do likewise….he will not die for his father’s iniquity, he will surely live.”
And later (27):”Again, when a wicked man turns away from his wickedness which he has committed and practices justice, he will save his life.”
(32)”For I have no pleasure in the death of anyone who dies” declares the Lord God.

I am sure everyone knew very well the Bible in Pepys times.
Repenting and turning into a royalist may came as an appropiate solution for many who commited political sins.

Ruben   Link to this

"Lord forgive us our former iniquities;" wrote SP.
This is exactly what you will ask after reading the Prophets.

Hic retearius   Link to this

"1066 and All That"

Mary, Paul and David: you have resurrected episodes of roaring, insane, schoolboy hilarity buried lo these 50 years! Sellar and Yeatman, oh blessed be Your Names; how well You understood history, particularly Caesar and his doings in Gaul, and so eased, for a few blessed moments, the pressure on us grubby little urchins!

Harry   Link to this

"1066 and All That"

Sellar taught me English literature for two years. Generally a very down-to-earth, unfunny, man,once ot twice a year he would have the whole class in stitches with an unexpected and hilarious aside.

Conrad Z. Risher   Link to this

//Midrash On
Exodus 20:5, et al. Another interpretation of this is that it is designed to prevent or alleviate defeatism. If you are impoverished because your father was jailed for a crime, for example, you should not bemoan your lot or beseech the Lord for special help, for He has already said it might happen; you must, instead, endeavour to overcome your unfortunate situation in life. This adds the point that just because you are paying for a sin doesn't mean you committed one, which idea has its own value.
// end Midrash

Jylaen   Link to this

I was a child in the USA in the 1960's and my mother was Roman Catholic. She would often refer to my brother and I as 'Roundheads' when we were being naughty. It wasn't until college that I learned what the term meant: she had no idea why she used it.

Glyn   Link to this

where my wife and she are lately come back again from being abroad, and seeing of Cromwell, Ireton, and Bradshaw hanged and buried at Tyburn.

Does this mean that the women had some spare time, and decided that this would be an enjoyable day out???

dirk   Link to this

"where my wife and she are lately come back again from being"

Not unlikely... A spectacle of this kind was bound to draw spectators - men and women alike.

vincent   Link to this

Glyn: Not only was the boss of the house enjoying traipsing around the places of pleasure. There was no one to keep tabs on the mistress, as I'm sure he said leaving to whet his whistle, he may have told 'herself' that he was partaking of vitals at .... especialy now he has a few extra coppers in in his purse.
There are many occasions in the past, she was else where, not waiting for the hungary man demanding a 3 course meal, he has mentioned just getting some moustrap and bread. [ Be nice if some one would tabulate the times he was out at other places imbibing and and indulging in some speciallity of the house.]

dirk   Link to this

Glyn - "Be nice if some one would tabulate..."

There exists a searchable "database of the meals of Samuel Pepys" on the web:
http://www.astext.com/history/mealticket_sp.html

Michael Robinson   Link to this

"(Fast day). The first time that this day hath been yet observed: ..."

A form of common prayer, to be used upon the thirtieth of January, being the anniversary-day appointed by act of Parliament for fasting and humiliation, to implore the mercy of God, that neither the guilt of that sacred, and innocent bloud, nor those other sinns by which God was provoked to deliver up both us, and our King, into the hands of cruel and unreasonable men, may at any time hereafter be visited upon us, or our posterity. Published by His Majestie’s direction.
London : printed by John Bill, printer to the King’s most Excellent Majesty, 1661.

[64] p. ; 4⁰. Wing (2nd ed., 1994), C4113

Terry Foreman   Link to this

“Lord forgive us our former iniquities;”

L&M say this is a loose recollection of Psalm 79.8, which the KJV renders "O remember not against us former iniquities: let thy tender mercies speedily prevent us: for we are brought very low. "

Bill   Link to this

"had a letter from my brother John, a very ingenious one"

INGENIOUS, quick-witted, full of Wit or Invention.
---An Universal Etymological English Dictionary. N. Bailey, 1675.

Tonyel   Link to this

The coffin in which was the body of Cromwell was a very rich thing, very full of gilded hinges and nails.
It seems strange, if the whole purpose of this charade was to humiliate the memory of Cromwell, that they left him (or most of him) in his fancy coffin. Surely, a pine box would have been more fitting for the puritan?

Chris Squire UK   Link to this

Oliver's head ‘ . . was buried In March 1960 in the anti-chapel of Sidney Sussex, Cambridge . . its presence recorded by an inscribed tablet . . ’

http://www.olivercromwell.org/faqs2.htm

Sasha Clarkson   Link to this

Interesting Tonyel - I believe that there was very little pine in England in those days: conifer plantations came in subsequent centuries! :)

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