Saturday 9 May 1663

Up betimes and to my office, whither sooner than ordinary comes Mr. Hater desiring to speak a word to me alone, which I was from the disorder of his countenance amused at, and so the poor man began telling me that by Providence being the last Lord’s day at a meeting of some Friends upon doing of their duties, they were surprised, and he carried to the Counter, but afterwards released; however, hearing that Sir W. Batten do hear of [it,] he thought it good to give me an account of it, lest it might tend to any prejudice to me. I was extraordinary surprised with it, and troubled for him, knowing that now it is out it is impossible for me to conceal it, or keep him in employment under me without danger to myself. I cast about all I could, and did give him the best advice I could, desiring to know if I should promise that he would not for the time to come commit the same, he told me he desired that I would rather forbear to promise that, for he durst not do it, whatever God in His providence shall do with him, and that for my part he did bless God and thank me for all the love and kindness I have shewed him hitherto. I could not without tears in my eyes discourse with him further, but at last did pitch upon telling the truth of the whole to Mr. Coventry as soon as I could, and to that end did use means to prevent Sir W. Batten (who came to town last night) from going to that end to-day, lest he might doe it to Sir G. Carteret or Mr. Coventry before me; which I did prevail and kept him at the office all the morning.

At noon dined at home with a heavy heart for the poor man, and after dinner went out to my brother’s, and thence to Westminster, where at Mr. Jervas’s, my old barber, I did try two or three borders and perriwiggs, meaning to wear one; and yet I have no stomach [for it,] but that the pains of keeping my hair clean is so great. He trimmed me, and at last I parted, but my mind was almost altered from my first purpose, from the trouble that I foresee will be in wearing them also. Thence by water home and to the office, where busy late, and so home to supper and bed, with my mind much troubled about T. Hater.

31 Annotations

TerryF  •  Link

"carried to the Counter, but afterwards released"

Compters [~Counters]

These were prisons immediately under the supervision and control of the Sheriffs ....
In early times in London records the Compters are designated by the names of the respective Sheriffs who presided over them, and it is probable that in many instances these Compters were in the houses of the Sheriffs, and not in fixed and permanent buildings.....
Later on the practice of using the Sheriffs' houses seems to have been discontinued, and Stow mentions two Counters in his time, one in the Poultry and one in Wood Street. The Wood Street Counter had been removed there from Bread Street in 1555....

From: 'Compters', A Dictionary of London (1918). URL: Date accessed: 09 May 2006.

Linking two themes introduced by in Aqua Scripto - of arbitrary imprisonment in the annotations to Wednesday's Diary entry and yesterday's entry concerning religious conformity..

dirk  •  Link

A letter from Charles Harbord to "My Lord" Sandwich (Montagu)

Written from: Tangier
Date: 9 May 1663

The Moors keep close to Tangier, but have been prevented from doing harm; but there will be no peace, "so long as the Spaniard feeds them with pieces of eight".

Mentions the arrival in the bay of Captain Smith's squadron, a ship of which had touched at Algiers & taken in some Jews, and was sent for England, "for fear of the Plague". Lord Peterborough will leave Tangier "with all manner of love & satisfaction from the Garrison" ...

the Carte Papers, Bodleian Library

jeannine  •  Link

"I did try two or three borders and perriwiggs, meaning to wear one; and yet I have no stomach [for it,] but that the pains of keeping my hair clean is so great."
Yesterday finds the ladies "in a pickle" because they were underdressed for the play in comparison to all of the other fine ladies. It wasn't clear if Sam would buy them new clothing or stop taking them to plays. Today, he's looking into his own fashion issues. It will be interesting to see what (if anything) in the fashion world he buys first, and for whom he buys it.

jeannine  •  Link

Thanks Dirk-great picture-what a sex symbol Sam would be all dressed up in his perriwigg! He'd no doubt be fighting off the ladies.
Also interesting that he mentions that one reason he may like a perriwigg is because it's hard to keep his hair clean, which leaves me wondering 2 things. First, how did he keep his hair clean when he didn't bathe (I am assuming powdering it, perhaps) and second, how would he keep his perriwigg clean (besides handing it off to the maid, just not sure what you do without shampoo)?

dirk  •  Link


A contemporary description of the perriwig:
"This is a counterfeit hair which men wear instead of their own; a thing much used in our days by the generality of men; contrary to our forefathers who got estates, loved their wives, and wore their own hair; but, in these days (1688) there is no such things!" (Holme)

Follows descriptions & pics of some common types of 17th c. wigs, such as:
- the long Perriwig, with a Pole-lock
- the travelling wig or campaign-wig
- the Grafted Wig
- the Border of Hair
- the Bull-head
- the Curls on Wires
[search for "perawicke"]


"The 18th century saw the emergence of elaborate wigs, mile-high coiffures and highly decorated curls. White powdered wigs with long ringlets were the order of the day often tied back with a black bow for men or decorated with feathers, bows and garlands for women. Big hair was definitely the ‘in’ thing and many styles were modelled over a cage frame or horsehair pads – the bigger the better. Some immensely tall coiffures took hours to create and were heavily starched and powdered. However, the length of time spent creating these elaborate styles did mean that weeks went by between styling and the mixture of horsehair and heavy powder created perfect nesting material for vermin!"


"Wigs were made of horsehair, yak hair and human hair, the latter being the most expensive. -- Wigs were very expensive. A man could outfit himself with a hat, coat, breeches, shirt, hose, and shoes for about what a wig would cost him. A wig also required constant care from a hairdresser for cleaning, curling, and powdering."


And as a curiosity:
"Women in the Restoration wore harmless, but bizarre, genital wigs, called merkins or muggets to disguise the fact that their pubic hair had fallen out as a result of venereal disease."

dirk  •  Link

By the way, the word "per(r)iwig" (or perawicke) is a popular corruption of "perruck", from M.Fr. "perruque" -- as ar most other words for this object in various European languages:
Perücke (German)
pruik (Dutch)
peluca (Spanish)
parrucca (Italian)

TerryF  •  Link

Of Men & Their Elegance

"The Baroque man was grand and used many subterfuges to convey maximum height; he was perched on high-heeled shoes, wore a narrow, fitted, knee-length coat, and on his head was a tall, full wig of natural hair, which only the very wealthy could afford. As much a symbol of class as clothing, the introduction of this 'periwig' was gradual and long lived. Reacting against sterner days, the beribboned and bowed dress style caused quite a stir. In a passage from The Life and Times of Anthony Wood dated 1663, the author described it as 'a strange effeminate age when men strive to imitate women in their apparel, viz. long periwigs, patches in their faces, painting, short wide breeches like petticoats, muffs, and their clothes highly scented, bedecked with ribbons of all colours.' " Further narrative with images:

in Aqua Scripto  •  Link

Ah! them there dot comers of the casa blanca set, it be hard to keep up with that pilgrim in her palm dress.
She having a king's ransome to spend, not even poor olde Caterina could have the latest from Sun{nny] Pari.

Bob  •  Link

It is only 6 years until Sir Wm Penn's son will be taken as W. Hater was.

How swiftly things changed in the 17th century. We go from Quakerism being a criminal offense (and a socially obnoxious practice) to the majority religion in Pennsylvania in what, 25 years?

Robert Gertz  •  Link

Sam's acted rather nobly today, especially given his nervousness regarding Parliament's recent burst of paranoia. Even in the Diary, his private thoughts were sympathy for poor Hater rather than blame and immediate distancing. Hopefully a good and practical man like Coventry will come through.

Would be interesting to see how Sam kept Batten tied up at the office all morning. Apparently there was little danger of Batten's reaching Carteret or Coventry in the afternoon?

Likewise interesting that this happened a week ago though Batten has apparently only just heard of it, causing Hater to confess to Sam...


"Sir, how can I ever repay thee for thy kindness?"

"For God's sakes, Hater you can begin by dumping the thees and thys!"

We can of course hope Sir Will B. will show a little humanity and forget the matter...


"The Way to Grow Rich..." Book II, Chapter Twenty...

"So, a troublesome subordinate threatens to cut you out of the rewards of your post which you so richly deserve."

"You bet your booties, Hugh." Batten nods.

"Your would-be rival is clever, bright, ambitious. Damned hard-working. Just the sort to become a stone in thine shoe, a bramble in thy thicket."

"Tell me about it..." Hmmn...Wish he'd've laid off the thines and thys. Not the safest mode of expression these days...

"Yet ye have found nothing to trip you fellow up with. And he daily wins new regard of all, including thine own superiors. While thy upward course has begun to dangerously plateau...The fellow even on occasion showing ye up."


"The solution, friend, is clear... If ye cannot hit thy rival with muck, seek ye a close and more vulnerable target. Someone with whom our saucy fellow is involved who might be open to charge or disgrace. A foolish wife, an incautious subordinate...A headstrong friend..."

Have at "thy rival"'s subordinate, eh? His, eh, "Quaking" subordinate, perhaps?

Heh, heh...Hugh, thou and thy book art truly the best investment I've made since turning coat in the civil war.

Ken welsh  •  Link

I have missed out on Sam's diary for over 12 months. On gaining access again I find he no longer seems to go for his "morning draught" which used to be a regular habit. Can anyone enlighten me as to what happened to stop this quaint practice?

A. Hamilton  •  Link

Sam's sympathy for Hater

is truly touching. Interesting how this incident comes up so close on the heels of his reflections on keeping "faith to the tradition of the Church in which he is born" that hint at his being a religious pluralist. Also revealing that Sam says he cannot keep Hater employed now without danger to himself. Nasty time.

David Goldfarb  •  Link

There's mention of a morning draught as recently as April 30, so I don't think Sam's stopped having them, he's just stopped recording them.

Mary  •  Link

Sam's morning draught.

Tends only to be mentioned now when being taken in company with a third party.
e.g. April 30th 1663: "Up; and after drinking my morning draught with my father and W. Stankes....."

andy  •  Link

Robert "If ye cannot hit thy rival with muck, seek ye a close and more vulnerable target."

I'm reminded about a feature in this weeks' Independent:

comments on the book by Greene quoted below:

I think Sam's afraid of strategy 18: "Expose and attack your opponent's soft flank: the Turning Strategy. When you attack people directly you stiffen their resistance and make your task that much harder. There is a better way: distract your opponent's attention to the front, then attack them from the side where they least expect it. Bait people into going out on a limb, exposing their weakness then rake them with fire from the side".

("The 33 Strategies of War" by Robert Greene)

Charlie is using his religous edicts to manipulate his civil servants, so that they are racked with fear, not of what they have done themselves, but of what their colleagues (whom they do not trust) might have done.

Australian Susan  •  Link

Wigs and hair

I imagine that Sam thinks keeping a wig will be easier than real hair, as he can simply shave his head constantly and send the wig to be cleaned on its own - presumably he'll need two.

J A Gioia  •  Link

the disorder of his countenance

a very moving account of a man of conscience threatened by the govt. for his beliefs. sam shows great sympathy, especially after hater says he will not refrain from friends' meetings, and it troubles him the rest of the day.

apt symbolism too in the wig shopping afterwards; something false needed to cover his head (and his thoughts?) which he has no stomach for wearing, but feels he needs anyway to keep clean.

Mary  •  Link

"the pains of keeping my hair clean..."

Presumably these pains do not include washing. Sam displays such anxiety on the occasions when his feet get wet that I cannot imagine he would contemplate immersing his precious head in a bowl of water. Almost certain to be fatal!

Lengthy sessions of combing will have formed part of his general hair up-keep and this procedure will have helped to remove some dirt, oil and nits from his head. Perhaps strands of hair may also have been wiped between the folds of a cloth lightly dampened with some such lotion as the gilly-flower water favoured by ladies in the previous century.

in Aqua Scripto  •  Link

The Friends were subject to being put in Gaol, the problem was officially their version of Religeous texts but the one idea that most of the leaders did not like [and they have not changed]is the failure to show the sign of respect [Kowtowing], that being doffing ones hair covering [ may be a weapon hidden there] or raising thy right hand in approved manner in the gesture of removing said hat/ cap .
Remember Samuell worked on the sea laws to implement the dipping thy flag in submission to thy betters.
This little idea of insisting of showing ones belly like a puppy to thy alpha leader, is deeply ingrained in the masculine psyche.
Leaders still insist that thy bend [genuflect ] knee to the superior school [Mundum] yard bully.

Glyn  •  Link

Ken Welsh, one reason why we may not hear of Pepys taking a morning draft of beer is that he is regularly getting up at around 7am, and then going directly to the Office (which is only a few minutes away) without the opportunity to visit any tavern. If he is taking a morning draft, it would normally be with his breakfast, which he seldom describes either.

Clicking on Tom Hayter's link to his biography, shows that he went on to prestigious posts in the Navy Office - so it will be interesting to see how he survives this scandal.

Pedro  •  Link

OK I’ve the best hand!

It would be Ace if the King would stop his Knavery against the Queen. In 10 days all hearts would be a Royal Flush.

Bradford  •  Link

Periwig Spoiler Ahead!

"Men had to learn 'wig behaviour'---you tossed the wig aside when bowing, or it all fell over your face. Pepys set one wig alight while sealing a letter, and worried feverishly about the safety of another, bought during the plague."
From Ann Pasternak Slater's review, in the 29 April "Guardian Review," of
"Fashion and Fiction: Dress in Art and Literature in Stuart England" by Aileen Ribeiro:,,176...
I will post this as well in the Background: Fashion section, with another quote, about breeches.

Pedro  •  Link

Form the Carte Papers.

Charles Harbord to Sandwich

Written from: Tangier
Date: 9 May 1663

Shelfmark: MS. Carte 75, fol(s). 114-115

Document type: Holograph

The Moors keep close to Tangier, but have been prevented from doing harm; but there will be no peace, "so long as the Spaniard feeds them with pieces of eight".

Mentions the arrival in the bay of Captain Smith's squadron, a ship of which had touched at Algiers & taken in some Jews, and was sent for England, "for fear of the Plague". Lord Peterborough will leave Tangier "with all manner of love & satisfaction from the Garrison" ...

Louise Hudson  •  Link

Sam, Sam, you don't wear a wig instead of washing your hair! People have been washing their hair regularly for millennia, all over the world. Soap and water does just fine.

Sasha Clarkson  •  Link

If, in the late 17th century, soap had been in general use for personal hygene, I'm sure we would have heard about it in the diary.

In fact, after the fall of the Roman Empire soap vanished from personal use in much of Europe until the 18th/19th century. Such soap as *was* manufactured was used in cloth manufacture, to prepare fabric for dyeing.

Hence, suggesting that Sam wash his hair with soap is like advising that he calm down with a cold beer from the fridge!

I would not be particularly happy with using some early soaps on my skin either, because of potential excess alkalinity!

Here's a fascinating snippet from the OU about the link between soap and explosives:

"In 1853, Gladstone repealed the British tax on soap that had been imposed centuries earlier and the industry flourished. It was made even more profitable by Nobel’s invention of dynamite in the same year: dynamite was made from the explosive nitroglycerine, a chemical derived from glycerine, hitherto a waste product of soapmaking."

Mary K  •  Link

Castile soap is first recorded as being imported into England via Antwerp in the second half of the Sixteenth Century.

During the Seventeenth Century its use gave rise to controversy in England after its Spanish (i.e. Catholic) producers purchased a monopoly on soap from the cash-strapped English government. A tax on the use of Castile soap persisted into the Nineteenth Century.

No doubt this turned Castile soap into a luxury product during Pepys' time, but it would have been available in London.

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