Annotations and comments

Terry Foreman has posted 16,449 annotations/comments since 28 June 2005.


Third Reading

About Sunday 1 January 1659/60

Terry Foreman  •  Link

"The new Common Council of the City do speak very high; and had sent to Monk their sword-bearer, ..."

City of London swords
At ceremonial events it is carried by the Sword Bearer, while the mace is carried by the Serjeant-at-Arms. The City of London has had a Sword of State since before 1373 and the first known sword-bearer of the City was John Blytone, who resigned in 1395.[21]…

About Thursday 19 January 1659/60

Terry Foreman  •  Link

"Does "at his bed side" literally mean that Pepys sat or stood by the bed while Mr Downing was still lying in it? ..."

Probably, yes, or at its foot, and soon -- with Charles II's custom, in the French manner, kneeling in petition on a rail at its foot. We are used to sleeping privately, in early modern France and England, the rising of those who lived in great house, was moe public. See David Quidnunc:…

About Monday 16 January 1659/60

Terry Foreman  •  Link

"In the morning I went up to Mr. Crew’s, and at his bedside he gave me direction...."

At this time the mornin rising was used by royals, nobles and other persons of quality, who lived in grand houses to receive visitors (usually by appointment). Persons of eminence conted audience from a bed. Lord Crew's morning audience would have been modest, by comparison with that of Charles II in a few months:…

About Friday 13 January 1659/60

Terry Foreman  •  Link

City of London swordbearer...

City of London swords
The City of London swords are five two-handed ceremonial swords owned by the City of London, namely the Mourning (or Black) Sword, the Pearl Sword, the State (or Sunday) Sword, the Old Bailey Sword and the Mansion House Justice Room Sword. A sixth sword, the Travelling Sword of State, replaces the Sword of State for visits outside the City. They are part of the plate collection of Mansion House, the official residence of the Lord Mayor of London.…

About Thursday 12 January 1659/60

Terry Foreman  •  Link

"Thence home, and finding my letters this day not gone by the carrier...

It isn't clear how letters from Pepys's home in Ax Yard went to the carrier; he tells of sending and receiving mail at Will's, and Harper's -- where he also ate and drank.. There were surely other places in Westminster to post mail -- e.g. the nearby Palace of Westminster, the Palace of whitehall and the Exchequer.

A post office would come after the Restoration of King Charles II:
Charles II, 1660: An Act for Erecting and Establishing a Post Office.…

Second Reading

About Monday 9 January 1659/60

Terry Foreman  •  Link

In the reconstituted Rump Parliament, Vane was appointed to the new council of state. He also served as commissioner for the appointment of army officers, managed foreign affairs, and examined the state of the government's finances, which were found to be in dismal condition.[172] Through his work General John Lambert was sent to quell Booth's Rebellion, a royalist uprising in August 1659.[173] Lambert's support of non-mainstream religious views like Quakerism, however, ensured his political downfall.[174] After he and other officers were stripped of their command by Parliament in October, they rallied their troops and marched on Parliament, forcibly dissolving it.[175] A committee of safety was formed, composed of the army grandees, and including Vane and Sir Bulstrode Whitelocke. He agreed to serve in part because he feared the republican cause was destined to fail without army support.[176] This committee served only until December, but Vane played a vital role in trying to stop Vice Admiral Lawson from blockading London with some twenty-two ships. He negotiated with Lawson and when he couldn't stop the planned blockade, he informed the Committee of Safety.[177] When the advance of General George Monck's army from Scotland led to the melting away of Lambert's military support, General Charles Fleetwood was forced to turn over the keys to Parliament House to the Speaker which led to the restoration of the full Long Parliament. For taking part in the committee of safety, Vane was expelled (over vocal objections from allies like Heselrige) from the Commons, and ordered into house arrest at Raby Castle.[178][179] He went to Raby in February 1660, but stayed there only briefly and eventually returned to his house at Hampstead.[180]…

About Saturday 7 January 1659/60

Terry Foreman  •  Link

"I went along with them to Dr. Whores (sending my wife to Mrs. Jem’s to a sack-posset), where I heard some symphony...." --

The word symphony is derived from the Greek word συμφωνία (symphonia), meaning "agreement or concord of sound", "concert of vocal or instrumental music", from σύμφωνος (symphōnos), "harmonious".[1] The word referred to a variety of different concepts before ultimately settling on its current meaning designating a musical form.

In late Greek and medieval theory, the word was used for consonance, as opposed to διαφωνία (diaphōnia), which was the word for "dissonance".[2] In the Middle Ages and later, the Latin form symphonia was used to describe various instruments, especially those capable of producing more than one sound simultaneously.[2] Isidore of Seville was the first to use the word symphonia as the name of a two-headed drum[citation needed], and from c. 1155 to 1377 the French form symphonie was the name of the organistrum or hurdy-gurdy. In late medieval England, symphony was used in both of these senses, whereas by the 16th century it was equated with the dulcimer. In German, Symphonie was a generic term for spinets and virginals from the late 16th century to the 18th century.[3]…

About Friday 1 June 1660

Terry Foreman  •  Link

Notable criminal prosecutions

One of the first to be executed in the colony was Dorothy Talbye, who was apparently delusional. She was hanged in 1638 for murdering her daughter, as the common law of Massachusetts made no distinction at the time between insanity (or mental illness) and criminal behavior.[75] Midwife Margaret Jones was convicted of being a witch and hanged in 1648 after the condition of patients allegedly worsened in her care.[76]

The colonial leadership was the most active in New England in the persecution of Quakers. In 1660, English Quaker Mary Dyer was hanged in Boston for repeatedly defying a law banning Quakers from the colony.[77] Dyer was one of the four executed Quakers known as the Boston martyrs. Executions ceased in 1661 when King Charles II explicitly forbade Massachusetts from executing anyone for professing Quakerism.[78].
1 June -- Quaker Mary Dyer was hanged on Boston Common in 1660…

About Friday 1 June 1660

Terry Foreman  •  Link

Massachusetts Bay Colony

The Massachusetts Bay Colony (1630–1691), more formally The Colony of Massachusetts Bay, was an English settlement on the east coast of America around the Massachusetts Bay, the northernmost of the several colonies later reorganized as the Province of Massachusetts Bay. The lands of the settlement were in southern New England, with initial settlements on two natural harbors and surrounding land about 15.4 miles (24.8 km) apart—the areas around Salem and Boston, north of the previously established Plymouth Colony. The territory nominally administered by the Massachusetts Bay Colony covered much of central New England, including portions of Massachusetts, Maine, New Hampshire, and Connecticut.

The Massachusetts Bay Colony was founded by the owners of the Massachusetts Bay Company, including investors in the failed Dorchester Company, which had established a short-lived settlement on Cape Ann in 1623. The colony began in 1628 and was the company's second attempt at colonization. It was successful, with about 20,000 people migrating to New England in the 1630s. The population was strongly Puritan and was governed largely by a small group of leaders strongly influenced by Puritan teachings. It was the first slave-holding colony in New England, and its governors were elected by an electorate limited to freemen who had been formally admitted to the local church. As a consequence, the colonial leadership showed little tolerance for other religious views, including Anglican, Quaker,[1] and Baptist theologies.

The colonists initially had good relationships with the local Indians, but frictions developed which led to the Pequot War (1636–38) and then to King Philip's War (1675–78), after which most of the Indians in southern New England made peace treaties with the colonists (apart from the Pequot tribe, whose survivors were largely absorbed into the Narragansett and Mohegan tribes following the Pequot War).…

About Tuesday 17 November 1663

Terry Foreman  •  Link

"and here T. Trice before them do own all matters in difference between us is clear as to this business, and that he will in six days give me it under the hand of his attorney that there is no judgment against the bond that may give me any future trouble, and also a copy of their letters of his Administration to Godfrey"

L&M: For this copy, see Sotheby's Cat., 30 November 1970, No. 223 (2). Thomas Trice was administrator of the estate of Richard Godfrey of Broughton with whom arobert Pepys had made the bond 2hich had occasioned the dispute: Whitear, p. 154.

About Monday 2 November 1663

Terry Foreman  •  Link

"my wife and I took Mrs. Hunt at almost 9 at night by coach and carried Mrs. Hunt home, and did give her a box of sugar and a haunch of venison given me by my Lady the other day."

L&M TRANSCRIBE THIS OTHERWISE: "my wife and I took Mrs. Hunt at almost 9 at night by coach and carried Mrs. Hunt home, and did give her a box of sugar and a haunch of venison given me by Mapleden the other day.:

L&M: Gervase Maplesden was a landowner and timber-merchant of Shorne, Kent. The gift may have been connected with disputes about his contracts: CSPD 1661-2, p. 426; ib., 1663-4, p. 257. Payments to him were authorized by the Navy Treasury on 11 October and 11 November: PRO, Adm. 20/4, p. 285.