Thursday 9 February 1664/65

Up and to my office, where all the morning very busy. At noon home to dinner, and then to my office again, where Sir William Petty come, among other things to tell me that Mr. Barlow is dead; for which, God knows my heart, I could be as sorry as is possible for one to be for a stranger, by whose death he gets 100l. per annum, he being a worthy, honest man; but after having considered that when I come to consider the providence of God by this means unexpectedly to give me 100l. a year more in my estate, I have cause to bless God, and do it from the bottom of my heart. So home late at night, after twelve o’clock, and so to bed.

42 Annotations

First Reading

Robert Gertz  •  Link

Writing this one with a nasty little grin, aren't you, Samuel? What did you spend the time till twelve picking out a really large sympathy wreath? ("Hewer, make sure it says 'Deepest...mphff...Condolences'")

Well, only honest...And at least he wasn't a working partner and next-door neighbor.

Glyn  •  Link

Sounds like something a Jane Austen character might say.

dirk  •  Link

John Evelyn at his best today -
diary entry for 9 Feb.:

"Din'd at my Lo. Treasurer's, the Earle of Southampton, in Blomesbury, where he was building a noble square or piazza, a little towne; his owne house stands too low, some noble roomes, a pretty cedar chapell, a naked garden to the north, but good aire (*). I had much discourse with his lordship, whom I found to be a person of extraordinary parts, but a 'valetudinarie'.

"I went to St. James's Parke, where I saw various animals, and examined the throate of the 'Onocratylus', or pelican, a fowle betweene a stork and a swan; a melacholy water-fowl brought from Astracan by the Russian Ambassador, it was diverting to see how he would toss up and turn a flat fish, plaice or flounder, to get it right into its gullet at its lower beak, w[hi]ch being filmy, stretches to a prodigious wideness when it devours a great fish. Here was also a small water-fowl not biggrt than a more-hen, that went almost quite erect like the penguin of America; it would eate as much fish as is whole body weigh'd; I never saw so unsatiable a devourer, yet the body did not appear to swell the bigger. The Solan geese here are also great devourers, and are said soon to exhaust all the fish in a pond. Here was a curious sort of poultry not much exceeding the size of a tame pidgeon, with legs so short as their crops seem'd to touch the earth; a milk-white raven; a stork which was a rariry at this season, seeing he was loose and could flie loftily; two Balearian cranes, one of which having had one of his legs broken and cut off above the knee, had a wooden or boxen leg and thigh, with a joynt so accurately made that the creature could walke and use it as well as if it had ben natural; it was made by a souldier. The parke was at this time stored with numerous flocks of several sorts of ordinary and extraordinary wild fowle, breeding about the Decoy, which for being neere so greate a citty, and among such a concourse of souldiers and people, is a singular and diverting thing. There were also deere of several countries, white; spotted like leopards; antelopes, an elk, red deere, roebucks, staggs, Guinea goates, Arabian sheepe, &c. There were withy-potts or nests for the wild fowle to lay their eggs in, a little above the surface of the water."

(*) = now Russell Square

dirk  •  Link

Diary of the Rev. Ralph Josselin

Thursday 9 February 1665

"Met at priory to seek god on behalf of church, state, family. Especially Mr Eldred who is throwing himself on god to be cut for the stone. Mr Sparrow . Mr Stockden , myself, spoke and prayed. Mr Shirly prayed. god good in the day, we had a large collection for poor friends, god in mercy hear and savour our spirits with his truths."

I'm sure Sam would have sympathized wit Mr Eldred. He wouldn't have forgotten his own "cutting for the stone"...…

Michael Robinson  •  Link

Re Evelyn: “I went to St. James’s Parke, where I ... examined the throate of the ‘Onocratylus’, or pelican, ... brought from Astracan by the Russian Ambassador,"

Three hundred and thirty years later ...
House of Lords, Wednesday, 20th December 1995.
Lord Stodart of Leaston asked Her Majesty's Government:

Whether the arrival of two pelicans from Prague was the result of a request made to the Government of the Czech Republic; and whether there are more to come to join Vaclav and Rusalka with a view to restoring the number of pelicans in St. James's Park.

The Parliamentary Under-Secretary of State, Department of National Heritage (Lord Inglewood): My Lords, the two pelicans, Vaclav and Rusalka, joined the white pelican and the eastern white pelican at St. James's Park in September. They were brought from Prague Zoo. There are no plans to acquire any more.

Lord Stodart of Leaston: My Lords, I thank my noble friend for such a positive reply. Is he aware of the fact that over the past 30 years or so, when this subject has been discussed, questions have been asked about the possibility of reproduction among the pelicans in St. James's Park? On each occasion the Minister answering the Question has been obliged to say that because of his ignorance of the sex of the pelicans he has been unable to provide any information. On this occasion, the two pelicans have been supplied with Christian names. Does that give my noble friend the possibility of adding a plume to his cap by refuting the claim that has always been made that the only thing that knows the sex of a pelican is another pelican?

Lord Inglewood: My Lords, I am sure that your Lordships are grateful to my noble friend for having the interests of the pelicans in St. James's Park so close to his heart over so many years. As my noble friend commented, the two newly acquired pelicans are called Vaclav and Rusalka. Vaclav is the same name as Wenceslas, a male name, and Rusalka is a female name. When the pelicans left Prague Zoo, the experts there identified the sex of each of the pelicans. In order to ensure that they are no longer in the predicament of not knowing the identity or the sex of the pelicans, the Government have ringed each of them so that the knowledge can be retained.

Lord Campbell of Croy: My Lords, the Minister who replied to a similar question on this subject in 1988 indicated that the park pelicans had not laid an egg for 300 years. Is that because conditions in the park are not propitious for the propagation of pelicans? If so, is it kind to import those pelicans and so deny them a normal life with a mate, including the patter of little webbed feet.

Lord Inglewood: My Lords, an egg was laid by the pelicans in St. James's Park but it was infertile. I am advised by ornithological experts that the reality is that pelicans tend not to produce fertile eggs unless they are part of a larger flock of a minimum of about 10 birds. I understand that London Zoo plans to try to establish such a flock. As for the nature of the community in which pelicans live, it is similar to that experienced in monasteries and nunneries.

Lord Strabolgi: My Lords, is it true that there have been pelicans in St. James's Park since the reign of Charles II and if there are no pelicans there, according to historical myth, dreadful things will happen? Can the noble Lord elucidate on that at all?

Lord Inglewood: My Lords, the first pelicans in St. James's Park were presented to King Charles II by the Russian ambassador in the early 1660s. In February 1665, John Evelyn noted that he had seen a pelican which was,

"a fowle between a stork and a swan".

I have no detailed knowledge of the myth to which the noble Lord refers.

Lord Gisborough: My Lords, in view of the importance of the pelicans and the amount of traffic in St. James's Park, will the Minister consider putting up some pelican crossings?

Lord Inglewood: My Lords, that is a matter for the Department of Transport.

Lord Annan: My Lords, will a third pelican be added so that, as in the days of the last war, they can be referred to as Chiefs of Staff?

Lord Inglewood: My Lords, I am sure that it is possible to add a pelican. But if more than four pelicans are in St. James's Park they have a tendency to behave very badly towards the other water fowl on the lake; in particular, they eat up the young ones. That goes against the wish of the Royal Parks Agency.

Lord Donoughue: My Lords, I am sure that we all welcome more beautiful birds, especially at this time of the year. However, can the Minister reassure the House that those birds are in fact legal and not illegal immigrants? Can the noble Lord further assure the House that, if they ask for political asylum, they will not have their benefits reduced? Finally, I should like to wish the House a very happy Christmas.

Lord Inglewood: My Lords, I can confirm that the pelicans were legally imported to this country; indeed, I understand that they went through their period of quarantine on Duck Island, together with the pelican to which I referred which went to London Zoo. I can assure the House that the pelicans are being properly looked after. Each pelican eats four pounds of whiting a day at a cost of £78.50p per week for all the pelicans. In addition, they receive supplements of vitamin tablets.

Lord Stoddart of Leaston: My Lords, I merely rise to thank my noble friend the Minister for giving the House more detailed information on the Question than we have ever had before.

Lord Inglewood: My Lords, I endeavour to provide whatever information your Lordships may seek of me.


Paul Chapin  •  Link

Michael, thank you. I think that's the best laugh I've had since Dave Barry retired.

Margaret  •  Link

If I understand this right, when Sam got his job, he had to pay Thomas Barlow 100 pounds a year in compensation. This sounds sort of like a pension scheme, but under the table. Would Sam let himself be pensioned off the same way at some later date?

Paul Chapin  •  Link

It wasn't under the table. It was more like a settlement of a legal claim, by agreement between Pepys and Barlow. Barlow had some prior claim on the office of Clerk of the Acts at the Restoration, because of his previous tenure in that office. But Barlow was old and tired, and agreed to accept 100L per annum from Pepys in exchange for relinquishing his claim to the office. Sam has faithfully upheld his end of the bargain, when he might have gotten away with stiffing Mr. Barlow, so I think the cynical reactions to his comments are out of place. It sounds like a genuine expression of sentiment to me; Sam knows that his fortune has just improved, but he still feels some sorrow at Barlow's passing.

Sam didn't need to be pensioned off. He rose to a higher post (after the diary), and his protege Will Hewer became his successor as Clerk of the Acts.

R.I.P. Mr. Barlow. But for Sam's diary, he would be utterly lost to history.

Margaret  •  Link

Thanks, Michael.

Margaret  •  Link

Thanks, Paul--that makes it clear.

Ralph Berry  •  Link

Thanks also to Paul. That does make it heaps clearer. It is interesting to contrast the tone of Sam's comments here with his remarks on the 7 February regarding W Batten. A much more conciliatory attitude.

Michael Robinson  •  Link

"... Mr. Barlow ... by whose death he gets 100l. per annum, ..."

Further to Paul Chapin's annotation:-

"Then to White Hall, where I was told by Mr. Hutchinson at the Admiralty, that Mr. Barlow, my predecessor, Clerk of the Acts, is yet alive, and coming up to town to look after his place, which made my heart sad a little. At night told my Lord thereof, and he bade me get possession of my Patent; and he would do all that could be done to keep him out. ..."…

"There came to my house before I went out Mr. Barlow, an old consumptive man, and fair conditioned, with whom I did discourse a great while, and after much talk I did grant him what he asked, viz., 50l. per annum, if my salary be not increased, and (100l. per annum, in case it be to 350l.), at which he was very well pleased to be paid as I received my money and not otherwise."…

"This morning Mr. Barlow comes to me, and he and I went forth to a scrivener in Fenchurch Street, whom we found sick of the gout in bed, and signed and sealed our agreement before him. He urged to have these words (in consideration whereof) to be interlined, which I granted, though against my will."…

alanB  •  Link

Re Pelican. I must thank Michael for this good laugh. I honestly did not know if this was a spoof by Mr Gertz or a Monty Python sketch. It just goes to prove that life can be stranger than fiction.

Pedro  •  Link

"when he might have gotten away with stiffing Mr. Barlow, so I think the cynical reactions to his comments are out of place."

Oh dear! Paul I think sometimes it is hard to avoid cynicism if you have knowledge of events after the close of the Diary. Perhaps we should say that Sam, at this point in time, is on the level and watch closely events of this nature in the future.

jeannine  •  Link

Today Charles writes to his newly pregnant sister Minette. He mixes words of war and the birth of her child, which he hopes will be a son. He also gives a dig to the Duchess of York who had the nerve to recently give birth to a daughter instead of a son! From Ruth Norrington’s’My Derest Minette”

9 February 1665

I must, in the first place, aske your pardon for having mist so many posts, the truth of it is, which betweene businesse and the little mascarades we have had, and besides the little businesse I had to write, with the helpe of the cold wether, I did not think it worth your trouble and my owne to freeze my fingers for nothing, haveing sayd all to Ruvingy that was upon my harte. I am very glad to find by yours that you are well satisfied with what he brings, it lies wholy on your part now to answer the advances I have made, and if all be not as you wish, the faute is not on my side, I was this morning at the parlament house, to passe the Bill for the five and twenty hundered thousand pounds, and the commissioners are going into there several countryes, for the raysing of it according to the Act. We are useing al possible diligence in the setting out of the fleete for the spring. My Lrd Sandwich sett sail two dayes since, with 18 good ships to seeke out a squadron of the Dutch fleete, wch heare was seene upon the north coast of England, and if he had the good fortune to meet with them, I hope he will give a good accounte of them. I am very glad to here that your indisposition of health is turned into a greate belly. I hope you will have better lucke with it then the Duchesse heere had, who was brought to bed, monday last, of a girle. One part I shall wish for you to have, which is that you may have as easy a labour, for she dispatched her businesse in little more than an houer. I am afraide your shape is not so advantageously made for that convenience as hers is, however a boy will recompense two grunts more, and so good night, for feare I fall into naturale philosophy, before I thinke to. I am Yours. C.R.

Margaret  •  Link

"Today Charles writes to his newly pregnant sister Minette"

I had assumed that Minette had no children, since she was married to the notoriously homosexual "Monsieur" (the brother of the French king). However, Jeannine's posting made me check--apparently she had two surviving daughters.

Thanks, Jeannine.

Pedro  •  Link

“Din’d at my Lo. Treasurer’s, the Earle of Southampton, in Blomesbury, where he was building a noble square or piazza, a little towne; his owne house stands too low, some noble roomes, a pretty cedar chapell, a naked garden to the north, but good aire (*).

Dirk, the asterisk says (*) = now Russell Square,
but it may be Bloomsbury Square as can be seen from Wikipedia…

Bloomsbury Square is a garden square in Bloomsbury, Camden, London.

The square was developed by 4th Earl of Southampton, in the late 17th century, and was initially known as Southampton Square. It was one of the earliest London squares. The Earl's own house, then known as Southampton House and later as Bedford House after the square and the rest of the Bloomsbury Estate passed by marriage from the Earls of Southampton to the Dukes of Bedford, occupied the whole of the north side of the square. The other sides were lined with typical terraced houses of the time, which were initially occupied by members of the aristocracy and gentry.…

Interesting that they are both in the Borough of Campden where there was a great fire last night.…

A. De Araujo  •  Link

Margaret, "Monsieur" married again after Minette's death and fathered more children; as a matter of fact the royal families of France,Brazil and other countries are his descendents.

Terry Foreman  •  Link

"however a boy will recompense two grunts more"

I couldn't have said it better myself, Yr Highness.

(Ladies and Gents, great annotes all around!)

Carl in Boston  •  Link

The House of Pelicans:
People of Style, Taste, and Fashion, such as I see around me. Such excellent discourse on the nature of pelicans. It is said that the French know how to live, but I must now add that the English know how to speak in most excellent fashion. I have clipped out the discourse and sent it to all my friends in other realms, so they might see how the lustre of such illustrious company rubs off, and makes us all look simply splendid. Kudos to Mister Michael Robinson. What a treat.

Michael Robinson  •  Link

Re Evelyn: " Blomesbury, where he was building a noble square or piazza, a little towne;..."

Further to Pedro:

"Bloomsbury Square ... The licence to build the square was granted to the Earl of Southampton in 1661; the early views show E., W., and S., ranges of regular terraces with steep roves with dormers, forming a kind of forecourt to the Earl’s own mansion, Southampton House, on the N. side of the square. E and S. sides have been rebuilt ..."

"Russell Square ... It was begun in 1800 and is larger than any earlier London square, including even Grosvenor Square. It was laid out by Repton with a horseshoe of paths, in the new landscape style, and is still Bloomsbury’s leafiest spot.”

Bridget Cherry & Nickolaus Pevsner 'Buildings of England. London 4: North' London: 1998 (rpr. corrected 1999) p 321, 325-6

Australian Susan  •  Link

Loved the H of L quotation - thank you!

With reference to what sparked this: Evelyn's entry for today - he seems so animated by the birds and his descriptions detailed and displaying obvious fascination. Evelyn doesn't very often do this which is why his Diary is often a difficult and uninteresting read, despite really good subject matter. One point: he refers to Solan geese - we generally call these gannets now.
We have lots of pelicans in Brisbane. There is a posh seafood restaurant on the river and they feed trimmings and innards to the pelicans after lunch - the birds know this and gather in large numbers, getting pushy and bold: it's quite a sight. Gulls hang about on the extreme edges, hopefully.
I do wonder why someone administering Barlow's estate didn't write to Sam about this matter - it's a legal affair after all - surely he'd need something in writing, not just hearsay?

Pedro  •  Link

Evelyn…“and his descriptions detailed and displaying obvious fascination.”

For me AS, at the risk annoying Sam supporters, shows the difference between Sam and Evelyn.

Evelyn already has the social status, and has a genuine enquiring mind, whereas Sam has an enquiring mind driven by the desire to join this social status.

Terry Foreman  •  Link

"the Bill for the five and twenty hundered thousand pounds"

L. Chamberlain to acquaint the King with the passing of the Aid Bill.

The Lord Chamberlain was appointed to wait on the King, to acquaint Him, "That the Houses have passed the Bill for granting to His Majesty a Royal Aid; and, in regard of the great Importance of it, to know when His Majesty will please to appoint a Time for giving His Royal Assent thereunto."…

dirk  •  Link

Russel Square? (Pedro & Michael)

In the 1827 edition of Evelyn's diary, at Google, which I used, it says in a footnote:

"Afterwards it was called Bedford House, being the town residence for many years of the Russell family, but was pulled down in 1800, and on the site and the adjoining fields were erected many handsome houses, now called Russell Square, Bedford Place, Russell Place, &c…

Michael Robinson  •  Link

Russel (sic) Square? (Pedro & Michael)

The footnote lacks precision and I would place more trust in a modern standard source like ‘Buildings of England'.

Southampton (later Bedford House) formed the north side of Bloomsbury Square (now named as part of Great Russell Street) with gardens extending behind to the N.; the grounds of Bedford House ending approximately at what is now the S side of Russell Square. [If you look at a post 1820 London map Bedford Place runs north for a couple of hundred yards from the center of the N. side of Bloomsbury Square to Russell Square.] Following the demolition of the house, the lands to the north of its grounds were developed. The house would have sat at what is now the Great Russell Street end of Bloomsbury Square and the garden run north, approximately between the boundaries of what are now Montague Street and Southampton Row. Following the demolition of the house, the lands to the north of its grounds were developed.

In the absence of the publication of the relevant volumes of VCH or 'Survey of London':-

"Russell Square, which we enter at the western end of Guilford Street, occupies part of what in 1720 was called Southampton Fields, but what in later times became known as Long Fields. At the beginning of the present century, Long Fields lay waste and useless. There were nursery grounds northward; towards the north-west were the grounds of the Toxophilite Society; ..."

Russell Square and Bedford Square', Old and New London: Volume 4 (1878), pp. 564-572. URL:…"Russell Square". Date accessed: 11 February 2008.

tonyt  •  Link

Margaret. If the strict rules of inheritance had been followed from 1665 then the current British monarch would be a descendant of Monsieur and Minette. Since 1996, this would have been Franz, Duke of Bavaria - but it is actually over 200 years since a Stuart descendant has made any claim to the throne.

djc  •  Link

Bloomsbury Square is there today, with a plaque set in the path at its centre with the quote from Evelyn as above.

Pedro  •  Link

Bloomsbury Square.

Gillian Darley in her biography of Evelyn says…

“The Earl of St. Albans had secured a crown lease close to St. James’ Palace and converted it into freeholds. His ambitious speculative development, St. James’ Square, consisted of handsome town houses, with a church and a market nearby.”

“The Earl of Southampton followed, laying out another modest formal scheme further east, which was Southampton Square, later Bloomsbury Square.”

Pedro  •  Link

“my Lo. Treasurer’s, the Earle of Southampton”

Evelyn had first dedicated his book Sylva to the King, and as a second dedication to the Earl of Southampton.

Seem a wise move.

jeannine  •  Link

“Journals of the Earl of Sandwich” edited by R. C. Anderson

9th. Thursday. The wind at west. In the morning in the fairway between Yarmouth sands and Flushing, turning to and again to get Sould Bay. About 2 oclock in the afternoon the Mermaid, ahead of us a league and ½ to the westward of us on our weather bow, ran over the Galloper in 17 foot water. We had 17, 16 and 15 fathom. Tacked and stood for the North Foreland. We could make but a S. by West way at the sunset had run by judgment about 8 leagues and we thought we saw the North Foreland W. & by S. 7 leagues off. [Marginal note: but it was at least 11 leagues off S.W.] Came then to an anchor in 25 fathom sandy ground. The flood ran there to the east north east and the flood is done at S.W. moon, and the Rear Admiral Teddiman says it is a ½ tide and half ¼ tide.
I spoke with Capt. King (of the Mermaid) and he says he thinks it must be the Galloper sand that he went over, but says he never met with like soundings. He had 15, 14 fathom, then 5 fathom, over it 15 fathom again (Standing N.W.). Then, tacking to give me notice, he came over again in 17 foot when it was ¾ flood, so that upon a low water there was not above 7 foot water, which seems strange to us all.

Michael Robinson  •  Link

some photos of Bloomsbury (Southampton) Sq

djc, that is really nifty and adds yet another dimension; thanks.

Australian Susan  •  Link

Wonderful collection of photos - watched them whilst drinking my morning coffee - very pleasant - thank you. especially the ones of the Elizabeth memorial - lovely light effects.

Pedro  •  Link

“I spoke with Capt. King (of the Mermaid) and he says he thinks it must be the Galloper sand that he went over, but says he never met with like soundings.”

For the position of the Galloper and soundings see the site mentioned by CGS……

Pedro  •  Link

Talking of photos!

A great site for present day photographs of the British Isles is Geograph, where people are able to upload photos for every grid square on the Ordinance Survey Map of Britain.

For example the page for Orford Ness is given below. You can then search for Orford and even see the interior of the Church.…

Second Reading

San Diego Sarah  •  Link

I think this is the first time the annotations on the annotations have out-numbered the annotations to the text. This site is such a joy!

San Diego Sarah  •  Link

Gen Ed Montagu, 2nd Earl of Manchester was Lord Chamberlain to Charles II from 1660 to 1671.

Details gleaned from:…

The Lord Chamberlain, or Lord Chamberlain of the Household, is the most senior officer of the Royal Household of the United Kingdom, supervising the departments which support and provide advice to the Sovereign of the United Kingdom while also acting as the main channel of communication between the Sovereign and the House of Lords. ...

The Lord Chamberlain is always sworn member of the Privy Council, is usually a peer, and before 1782 the post was of Cabinet rank. The position was a political one until 1924. The office dates from the Middle Ages when the King's Chamberlain often acted as the King's spokesman in Council and Parliament.

During the Early Modern period the Lord Chamberlain was one of the three principal officers of the Royal Household, the others being the Lord Steward and the Master of the Horse.

The Lord Chamberlain was responsible for the "chamber" or the household "above stairs": that is, the series of rooms used by the Sovereign to receive increasingly select visitors, terminating in the royal bedchamber (although the bedchamber itself came to operate semi-autonomously under the Groom of the Stool/Stole). His department not only furnished the servants and other personnel (such as physicians and bodyguards, the Yeomen of the Guard and Gentlemen Pensioners) in intimate attendance on the Sovereign but arranged and staffed ceremonies and entertainments for the court. ...

San Diego Sarah  •  Link

"the Bill for the five and twenty hundered thousand pounds"

Is that 520,000l.?

Terry Foreman  •  Link

"[I] hear that the House have given the King 2,500,000l. to be paid for this warr, only for the Navy, in three years’ time; which is a joyfull thing to all the King’s party I see, but was much opposed by Mr. Vaughan and others, that it should be so much."

The Royal Aid, voted by 172 to 102… ; the largest grant ever made to any Stuart government, though sufficient, Pepys thought, for only 2 1/2 years of war: Pepys to Sandwich, 3 December, Shorthand Letters, p. 20. Collection was to be made over three years. Vaughan had moved to reduce the total to £500,000. The proposal to make it 'only for the Navy' (i.e. to appropriate the proceeds to a naval war) was not pursued now, but was incorporated in the Additional Aid of 1665 of 1,250,000 voted on 9/10/1665:… (Per L&M footnote)

mountebank  •  Link

I have no problem reading Sam being sympathetic about the death of Mr Barlow. I think in a year where my view of Sam is changing, the way he handled that matter was to his credit.

But I do have a suspicion that if February 1664/65 Sam were to have done the deal, Barlow would have been feeling very sore at the outcome.

Chris Squire UK  •  Link

Re: ‘ . . it is actually over 200 years since a Stuart descendant has made any claim to the throne.’ (tonyt 11.02.08)

This is nonsense:

‘Sophia of Hanover . . a granddaughter of James VI and I, was declared by the the Act of Settlement of 1701 . . to be ‘the next in Succession in the Protestant Line’ and so heir presumptive to the unified throne of the Kingdom of Great Britain . . (On her death) her claim to the throne passed on to her eldest son, George, who ascended as George I on 1 August 1714 . . ’ (wikipedia)

And from George the Crown has passed by descent to our own dear Queen Elizabeth II. So they are all ‘Stuart descendants’

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