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San Diego Sarah has posted 8,953 annotations/comments since 6 August 2015.


Third Reading

About George Villiers (2nd Duke of Buckingham)

San Diego Sarah  •  Link


The plot cannot have been large as the tryst at Farnley Wood was the conspirators' only effort to carry out their complicated plans.

But the public were not easily reassured, and for some time there were recurrent alarms that the disbanded army would attempt another rising. 1
1 “Life of Clarendon," 1827 ed., vol. ii. p/280.

Terror invariably leads to cruelty.
All the prisons in the North were so full that it was thought necessary to send 4 or 5 judges to Yorkshire to investigate the matter.

Charles II was soon so "wearied with continual discourse of plots and insinuations, he resolved he would give no more countenance to any such information."
This was a determination which Buckingham must have greeted with great joy, because the one man whom he venerated [GEN. FAIRFAX - SDS] had broken his rule of silence to plead for the cause of the sufferers.

If you want to read Fairfax's letter, which speaks to his character, but not to the backstory, start at LORD FAIRFAX'S ADVICE page 131.

The far more terrible retributions of later years have obliterated many recollections of the Farnley Wood Rising. Yet Fairfax's plea was called for, since 17 or 18 rebels were executed. 1
1 "Life of Clarendon,'' vol. ii. p. 415.

And some were reprieved, but many were left in prison — a terrible fate, when one remembers the condition of the gaols at that period — to be tried at the next assize.

Yes, I up-dated spelling - SDS

About George Villiers (2nd Duke of Buckingham)

San Diego Sarah  •  Link


On October 17, 1663, Arlington wrote again to Buckingham, saying there was no sign of a rising in the South, and if there was any sign of trouble in Yorkshire, "His Majesty bids me encourage you to be very severe with the beginners, and to be confident that you shall be avowed therein, which he saith is all the directions he can give you, till he hears more from you. ..."

Again, on 20 October, 1663, Arlington writes to ask "that Your Grace should proceed, with the assistance of the High Sheriff and Deputy lieutenants, to cause strict examination to be made of all persons whom you know or suspect to be guilty or contributing to the intended rising, that they may be punished by such ordinary or extraordinary course of law as His Majesty shall appoint and they shall appear to have deserved: the originals of which examinations, Your Grace may please to be sent hither by an express, or Copies of them, if they come by the ordinary Post."

When the papers reached Whitehall, Arlington had to agree that "most of them related only to what they (the conspirators) said to one another, without being able to give accompt of the bottom and source of this design."

Apparently Arlington thought more could be extracted from the suspects by the Council in London, as he ordered several to be sent there under a good escort, and with proper precautions to prevent their having any communication with one another.

A Mr. Walters, who had shown willingness to turn King's evidence, was to be reserved for His Majesty's personal enquiry.

Meanwhile, in the hope of a full pardon — for which Buckingham had evidently pleaded — Walters was to be urged "to be more ingenuous and more particular than he had been," and Buckingham was assured "that great care should be taken that Your Grace's word be not violated" — not an unnecessary pledge to a man whose acquaintance with the standard of honor at Charles II's Court made him distrustful of vague promises.

Moreover, to allay any irritation Buckingham show at the prisoner's removal from his jurisdiction, Arlington reiterated Charles II's "entire and perfect satisfaction in your carriage and management of this whole matter, of which he promises speedily to give you a particular assurance under his own hand."

The Northern crisis was short-lived; this letter of Arlington's, dated 24 October, 1663, closes the series.
Lord Lt. Buckingham's prompt action had probably discouraged any further insurrectionary attempts.

About George Villiers (2nd Duke of Buckingham)

San Diego Sarah  •  Link


I shall have here about 1,000 foot in the Town, which will be sufficient for the defense of it, besides that we have reason to conclude their rising will be in the west parts, and so being drawn together in the fields, we shall be in a greater readiness to fall upon them.

Collonell could not last night remember who it was that Col. Chaytor designed in his letter for the man that has given him this intelligence, but this day he tells me it was Col. Smithson, which makes us more confident of the truth of it, he being the man in these parts of the greatest credit among them.
Your Majesty may be pleased to keep his name private, for he may be of more use to Your Majesty than any man in this country, if I can but engage him to deal truly with us.

I could wish Your Majesty would be pleased to make me a commission for Raising a Regiment of Horse, which I promise not to make use of, except there be occasion, and when I am sure it would be for Your Majesty's service that as many men as could be raised.

I am sure it would be a great encouragement to a great many gentlemen
that are very zealous in Your Majesty's service, and the sooner we could get into arms the better.

I give Your Majesty the trouble of reading this tedious letter, having the fortune to have so many about Your Majesty that I know will censure everything I do, that I am resolved to make Your Majesty yourself the judge of my actions and the director of them, and I hope Your Majesty will have the justice to protect me from the malice of my ill-wishers, since I have no ambition in this world but to serve your Majesty to the utmost of my power, and to approve myself, etc., etc.”

1 Dom. State Cal. Charles II. vol. Ixxxi.

To this letter Charles II ordered Henry Bennet, Lord Arlington to reply, acknowledging Buckingham's "exceeding care in his service," but refusing to grant him permission to raise a regiment of horse.

Arlington did not forget to include in his despatch the latest bulletin of the Queen, Catherine of Braganza's illness. He eithere knew or guessed it was of special interest to Buckingham, who had identified himself with the party following the Duke of York, whose hopes centered on the childlessness of the Queen.

Buckingham's business-like epistle proves he could throw off the indolence which, far more than the "malice of his ill-wishers" impeded his ambitions.

But Buckingham was not over-scrupulous.
He was ready in this crisis to make use of Major Greathead or Smithson, but commonsense alone forbade him to foment rebellion in order to destroy possible malcontents.

About George Villiers (2nd Duke of Buckingham)

San Diego Sarah  •  Link


Buckingham’s long residence at Nun Appleton before the Restoration had taught him to appreciate the virtues of the Yorkshire Nonconformists. He made no secret of his admiration for them, and much of his unpopularity with the Parliamentary Church Party can be linked to his advocacy of the dissenters' claims.

Buckingham to Charles II:
YORK, 11 October, 1663.

“Though upon the receipt of that paper I sent your Majesty from Royston I rid night and day, the waters were so up upon the Road, that I could not possibly get to Doncaster before 9 of the clock in the morning of Saturday, when meeting with my Deputy lieutenants and a regiment of foot, which they had drawn thither before I came,

I was stayed so late that I came not hither till Sunday morning, at four of the clock;

as soon as I arrived, I sent and enquired of Sir Thomas Goare how his intelligence was of this design, and he telling me that he believed the business was blown over upon their seeing the country was in so great a forwardness to take up arms, I confess I did not think it necessary to put the country gentle- men and Militia to further trouble, and so left them in their several quarters as they were ordered to be before I came,

but receiving at night intelligence from Col. Chaytor (who is a very under-standing as well as a very brave man) that the rebels should be in arms this day or to-morrow at latest, and that he was assured it from an officer that formerly had been of their party, who was offered to command them, and refused it, I thought it was not proper to delay any more time and therefore sent orders immediately to draw all the militia together to Pomfret and Fernbridge, except the militia regiment of foot and the volunteer regiment of foot of this town, which I thought better to leave here for the defense of this place.

Col. Chaytor's letter I sent last night to the Generals as soon as I received it, and deferred the giving Your Majesty this account of myself till the morning that I might not delay that post.

We have hourly intelligence to the same effect from general hands, so that I do not only believe they have really a design, but that they are still resolved
to make some attempt, to which end it is not only my opinion, but the opinion of Col. Trebswell and all the rest of the gentlemen here, that we draw out of this town the troops of horse and foot of Your Majesty's Guards and join them with the Militia.

About Friday 20 November 1663

San Diego Sarah  •  Link

"A great talke there is today of a crush between some of the Fanatiques up in arms, and the King’s men in the North; but whether true I know not yet."

Pepys is a month late with the news! Buckingham, as Lord Lt. of the West Ridings, had left the pleasures of the Court around the middle of October and riden to Doncaster to lead the restoration of law and order (according to his bio., which never mentions Wharton).

I've posted an abbreviated version of events in Buckingham's encyclopedia from one of his biographies, as there's a sad lack of dates in the narrative.…

About George Villiers (2nd Duke of Buckingham)

San Diego Sarah  •  Link

Buckingham 2 had such potential -- charming, funny, with leadership skills, and even a moral compass of sorts.

In 1663, as Lord Lt. of the West Ridings, it fell to Buckingham to investigate and quell The Northern Rising AKA Farnley Wood Plot AKA The Derwentdale Plot AKA The Rymer and Oates Conspiracy.

Consolidated from
By WINIFRED Anne Henrietta Christine Herbert Gardner, LADY BURGHCLERE

Many people in Yorkshire had lost Church and Crown lands, given to them during the Civil Wars. Naturally, they did not love the Restoration.
Nor were evicted Nonconformist ministers alone. Old soldiers and officers of the Cromwellian regiments, dismissed from their professions and deprived of the right to worship God according to their conscience, were in sorry straits.
Most accepting their reduced status, and took up peaceful trades and industry. But some of the fiercer spirits could not contain their disgust at the new regime, and this was sometimes fanned into rebellion by spies and informers who benefitted from forfeitures and blood-money.

It was to the machinations of the unhappy gentry that the rising of Rymer and Oates in 1663 was mainly due.
Two old Parliamentary officers, Rymer and Oates, were no desperadoes. They both owned properties valued from £200 to £300 per annum, so they held a stake in the country that no middle-aged Englishman lightly imperils. Moreover, they would not have assumed the initiative of revolt had they not confided their musings to their former comrades, Cols. Smithson and Greathead.
When Rymer and Oates sought the Col.'s advice, they had no formed plans.

But Cols. Smithson and Greathead wanted to find favor with the new power, and while they questioned whether they were hearing just disaffected chatter, they consulted Sir Thomas Gower, the Governor of York, who encouraged them to lead on their friends beyond retreat.

Since the four were fellow-religionists, doing this was not difficult.

While Charles II's representatives were contriving the ruin of Buckingham’s misguided subjects, he was absent from the West Ridings of Yorkshire.
The black work progressed more rapidly than Gov. Gower expected; when it was known that the conspirators had assembled at Farnley Wood, near Pontefract, the public alarm bordered on panic.

The plot was that the rebels were to raise the countryside, fall unexpectedly on Whitehall, and paralyze the Government by seizing the Duke of York, and the principal Ministers.
This plan required a considerable force, but when they meet in Farnley Wood, the tiny band recognized that such a plot was hopeless.
They dispersed, but they had scared their opponents, and the reprisals were bound to be savage.

About Saturday 21 September 1661

San Diego Sarah  •  Link

Please wait until we get there, 徽柔. Your enthusiasm is appreciated, but readers not familiar with the stories get very confused when we skip years.

About Saturday 21 September 1661

San Diego Sarah  •  Link

Meanwhile, at Whitehall:

On 21 September, 1661, Charles II conferred the Lord Lieutenancy of the West Ridings of Yorkshire upon George Villiers, 2nd Duke of Buckingham.…

The honor was far from being a sinecure. It entailed not only vast expenditure, but grave responsibilities. Calcutta is today no further removed from the center of Government, than was York from London, at that time of slow travel.

The gentry and nobility of the northern province received Buckingham with enthusiasm.

At Doncaster, all the county notables who were warned in time, assembled "to wait upon His Grace, with all the joy and best music they could make.”


The citizens show as much eagerness in greeting their new Governor. On his arrival the Mayor and Aldermen feasted him "with good store of wine," and the next day, when Buckingham scrupulously attended both morning and evening service, they accompanied him to church.

At York Buckingham’s reception was even more cordial. When he arrived there, escorted by a gallant band of volunteers, he found the way to his inn lined on both sides by the city regiment, under the command of the High Sheriff. Then the bells and cannon took up the tale, and pealed and roared so continuously that there can have been little rest for anyone that night in York. 1
1 "Mercurius Politicus," York, Nov. 1661.

This exuberant loyalty concealed genuine discontent. Many people in Yorkshire had lost Church and Crown lands, allotted to them during the Civil Wars. Naturally, they were not enamored by the Restoration.

Nor were the evicted Nonconformist ministers alone to be pitied. The old soldiers and officers of the Cromwellian regiments, alike dismissed their profession and deprived of the right to worship God according to their conscience, were in sorry straits.

Based on
By WINIFRED Anne Henrietta Christine Herbert Gardner, LADY BURGHCLERE

About Wednesday 27 June 1660

San Diego Sarah  •  Link

Meanwhile, at Whitehall:

During Charles II's triumphal progress to London, George Villiers, 2nd Duke of Buckingham had many opportunities to revive his credit with Charles II -- something he must have hoped would continue from the favor with which Charles regarded his cousin, Barbara Villiers, Lady Palmer.

Later this "enormously vicious and ravenous woman" honored Buck-ingham with one of her furious demoniac hatreds, but at first they were on excellent terms, and it was at her lodgings that Buckingham was brought into nightly contact with Charles II.

Both mistress and wit were united by their common detestation of Chancellor Edward Hyde (not created the Earl of Clarendon until May 1661). Buckingham attributed to him the conspicuous omission of his name from the list of the Privy Council, to which all the other former members had been reappointed.

Buckingham’s revenge was fast. The convivial gatherings at Lady Palmer's gave him his opportunity, and at the little suppers where Charles II sought to drown in wine and ribaldry all recollection of the homilies delivered by his Chancellor, the flippant Duke caricatured to the life the pompous deportment of that austere Minister.

It must have been difficult for Charles II to repress his amusement at the spectacle of the madcap Duke, preceded by his old associate Col. Silas Titus, with a fire-shovel for the mace, and a pair of bellows for the purse, solemnly aping the portentous gravity of the tedious "Schoolmaster."

Reckless as he habitually was, Buckingham did not affront Chancellor Hyde without safe-guarding himself against too critical an enquiry into his own past doings. By June 6, 1660, he had taken out a pardon under the Great Seal "for all past offences." It is true this step did not necessarily presuppose an admission of guilt. 1
1 Dom. State Cal., 6 June, 1660.

This was a time when a mere technicality might place the most upright citizen at the mercy of an informer, so a pardon was dictated by ordinary prudence.

On this occasion, Buckingham did not prove over-hasty, as a week after his pardon had been signed and sealed, a warrant was issued against two of his gentlemen, on the grounds that they had betrayed Charles II's secrets to his enemies during the Commonwealth." 2
2 Guizot's "Life of Monk," App. p. 374.

Adapted from:
By WINIFRED Anne Henrietta Christine Herbert Gardner, LADY BURGHCLERE

Col. Silus Titus MP…
Barbara Villiers, Lady Palmer…
George Villiers, 2nd Duke of Buckingham…
Chancellor Edward Hyde…

About Monday 3 June 1661

San Diego Sarah  •  Link

"... my Lord Abbot Montagu being not at Paris, my Lord hath a mind to have them stay a little longer before they go."

Pepys didn't say they were in London either. It's probably to early for the annual summer trip, made by the entire French court, to Fontainebleau. It's not important where Abbe Ralph went after all.

About Tuesday 19 May 1663

San Diego Sarah  •  Link

"... we were shown the method of making this new money, from the beginning to the end, which is so pretty that I did take a note of every part of it and set them down by themselves for my remembrance hereafter."

Pepys was right. In May 2024 one of the rarest British coins in existence sold for £817,929 or $1,000,000 at an auction. It is now the most expensive silver British coin ever sold at auction.

The Petition Crown of Charles II was minted in 1663. Only 16 of these Petition Crowns exist.

The Petition Crown was struck by celebrated medallist and coin-designer Thomas Simon, who worked for the Royal Mint, in 1663. It was created by Simon to 'petition' Charles II to reinstate him as the sole chief engraver at the Royal Mint and also as a petition against the contemporary coins designed by the Flemish brothers John and Joseph Roettiers.

Using new mechanical coin machinery, Simon printed message around the edge of the coin asking the King to 'compare this his tryall piece with the Dutch', a dig at the Flemish engravers.

The coin features a striking portrait of Charles II so detailed that even a shadow of the veins on the King's neck can be made out.

Coin experts at the Classical Numismatic Group said: 'Our understanding is that there are 8 examples of the Petition Crown in museum collections and a further 8 in private hands.'

David Guest, director of Classical Numismatic Group said: 'Widely regarded as the most beautiful machine-made coin ever struck and undoubtedly the most important coin in the British series, we are delighted to have seen the 1663 Petition Crown realise a world record price.'

Highlights from an article which also has great sketches and photos of this rare coin at…

The article continues with information about 2 more rare English coins which were also auctioned:

The Oxford Crown was minted in 1644 and shows King Charles I in battle at Oxford during the English Civil War.

It is the only coin in the British series featuring a depiction of a city, and it sold for £382,798 or $486,000, making a record for any coin depicting Charles I.

Only 11 Oxford Crowns are known to be in existence, 8 of which are in museum collections.

Regal: The King Henry VIII Testoon is one of the most sought after coins aside from the Petition Crown. This coin was struck in 1544. It has always been popular with collectors because of the striking portrait of Henry VIII.

It represents a key moment in Henry VIII's reign, when lack of funds in the treasury led the Tudor government to introduce cheap metals into coins previously made of sterling silver, known as the Great Debasement.

About Wednesday 5 June 1661

San Diego Sarah  •  Link

Slingsby at this time did not live in the Navy complex, which is why he wants to take over Pepys' house along with the Davies' old house next door. Clearly he now has large quarters somewhere order to accommodate a bowling alley.

"... and it being very hot weather I took my flageolette and played upon the leads in the garden, where Sir W. Pen came out in his shirt into his leads, and there we staid talking and singing, ..."

Life is so much better now "Lady" Davies and her brood are in Ireland, and no one has blocked Pepys' access door to the leads, or will complain about the noise.
(Life before television!)

May the rain stay away, and the grain prices drop soon.

About Tuesday 4 June 1661

San Diego Sarah  •  Link

"4th crossing: thence to Lord Crew's to dinner. I'm guessing this is back on the north side of the river in either the City or in Westminster. The Theatre seems to have been there as well and must have had artificial lighting since it would have been getting dark by then. London in June - not really dark until about 9 pm?"

Glyn worked hard on this timeline, but forgot that dinner time was lunch time to us. So the theater outing was in the afternoon.

Lord Crew's house was in what we now think of as Lincoln's Inn, and Gibbon's Tennis Court Theater was a building off Vere Street and Clare Market, near Lincoln's Inn Fields. Just around the corner, so not a long walk.

I'm guessing lunch was at 1 p.m., and the theater at 3 p.m.-ish.

About Tuesday 4 June 1661

San Diego Sarah  •  Link

"The Comptroller came this morning to get me to go see a house or two near our office, which he would take for himself or Mr. Turner, and then he would have me have Mr. Turner’s lodgings and himself mine and Mr. Davis’s. But the houses did not like us, and so that design at present is stopped."

We have established that Slingsby likes Pepys, and he can't be insensative to the inconvenience the Pepys family have had to endure recently getting their housing fixed up -- never mind the cost of that fine new staircase and improved kitchen, which I suspect Pepys paid for since he was so worried about money the month before it started.

My guess is that Slingsby is trying to find better housing for someone nearby, so he can up-grade the Pepys' quarters by having them move --either into the new house or the Turner's house, and by combining the Pepys house with the next-door Davies quarters, make a really nice house for himself. It's a case of unlocking some doors, and voila, a bigger residence.

Win-win. But Pepys needs to buy into the scheme. Which, so far, he has not done. (Must really like his new staircase?)

About Tuesday 4 June 1661

San Diego Sarah  •  Link

"It was necessary to attract men of honour into the service, but also to maintain standards of technical skill and to keep the navy as free as possible from political graft."

This must have been an on-going conversation, the principles of which were unevenly applied as getting competent and qualified men aboard a warship in wartime was an on-going problem.

If you want to avoid a spoiler, do not click on this link.
If you want to read an example of James, Duke of York taking a stand in wartime for the need to employ qualified Captains, click on through:…

About Saturday 1 June 1661

San Diego Sarah  •  Link

"Or is there no rent-paying office that's too small for grabbing? And can he keep the feathers?"

Sandwich has lots of retainers to employ and pay, and so no office is too small. And as for the feathers -- I wonder how they work in mattresses?

About Saturday 1 June 1661

San Diego Sarah  •  Link

THANKS Sandra -- and please join in whenever you feel inspired. Your insights are as good as anyone's; we are all guessing most of the time, since none of us were there!
And I agree about the enrichment to our everyday lives -- I feel exactly the same as you. If we make it through the entire 9-1/2 years, I think we've earned an honorary History degree!

About Friday 31 May 1661

San Diego Sarah  •  Link

I don't know what the gift-giving protocol was at Christmas/Twelfth Night in Charles II's times -- during Queen Elizabeth's day, silver and gold goodies as gifts were common. Presumably King Charles and Cromwell sold/melted all that were left to pay for the un-Civil Wars.

As noted many times during these annotations, plate was a way of storing and transferring wealth, since there were no banks. Charles II was generous as well -- but no-one gave it away if they didn't expect a meaningful return.

"Great talk now how the Parliament intend to make a collection of free gifts to the King through the Kingdom; but I think it will not come to much."

In this case, Parliament would let it be known that people should make a contribution in lieu of there being some sort of a tax imposed. Presumably the wealthy would then guess how much that tax would cost them, and voluntarily give less than that, hoping that the combined total would fill His Majesty's needs, and no tax would be imposed.

Why Pepys thinks this can be avoided, I don't know. There are still soldiers and sailors to be paid off, and a fleet to send to Portugal which will bring home a fortune -- in a year's time. Deficit financing was unknown at the time -- no Bank of England yet. When the Treasury was empty, it was empty.

About Halfway House

San Diego Sarah  •  Link

Elizabeth Pearcey on the Pepys Group today clarified that there was also a Half Way House at Rotherhithe (Redriffe), unfortunately demolished when the railway was built in 1834.

This is the one Pepys quite often visited on his way (by land) to or from visits to Deptford Dockyard, Greenwich, or Woolwich Dockyard.

Thank you, Elizabeth!

About Lambeth

San Diego Sarah  •  Link

In 1663, George Villiers, 2nd Duke of Buckingham took out a patent for extracting glass and crystals from flint, and, with an energy worthy of a member of the Royal Society, he founded a manufactory at Lambeth, for which he imported Venetian workmen.

In 1676, John Evelyn visited the Lambeth glassworks, and highly praises the wares produced there. He was evidently delighted with "the huge vases of metal as clear, ponderous, and thick as crystal; also looking-glasses far larger and better than any that come from Venice." 3
3 Evelyn's Diary, vol. ii. p. 322, 19 September, 1676.

Information from
By WINIFRED Anne Henrietta Christine Herbert Gardner, LADY BURGHCLERE