Friday 8 February 1660/61

At the office all the morning. At noon to the Exchange to meet Mr. Warren the timber merchant, but could not meet with him. Here I met with many sea commanders, and among others Captain Cuttle, and Curtis, and Mootham, and I, went to the Fleece Tavern to drink; and there we spent till four o’clock, telling stories of Algiers, and the manner of the life of slaves there! And truly Captn. Mootham and Mr. Dawes (who have been both slaves there) did make me fully acquainted with their condition there: as, how they eat nothing but bread and water. At their redemption they pay so much for the water they drink at the public fountaynes, during their being slaves. How they are beat upon the soles of their feet and bellies at the liberty of their padron. How they are all, at night, called into their master’s Bagnard; and there they lie. How the poorest men do use their slaves best. How some rogues do live well, if they do invent to bring their masters in so much a week by their industry or theft; and then they are put to no other work at all. And theft there is counted no great crime at all.

Thence to Mr. Rawlinson’s, having met my old friend Dick Scobell, and there I drank a great deal with him, and so home and to bed betimes, my head aching.

43 Annotations

Bradford   Link to this

"stories of Algiers, and the manner of the life of slaves there!"

L&M, in the "Shorter Pepys," replace the exclamation point with a semi-colon; and to "Slaves" add the brief note, "Taken by the pirates of Algiers."

dirk   Link to this

Algiers & slaves

For those who want to read about this kind of slavery from the other party's point of view, I would suggest "Leo Africanus" by Amin Maalouf.

Although not quite contemporary to Sam, most of what's being told in the book was still valid in Sam's time.

Want to know more about Leo Africanus?
Have a look at:
http://www.uta.fi/~hipema/leo.htm

vincent   Link to this

A spoiler but it has been mentioned before -Tangiers- and the reasons for Adm:Blake and other expeditions to the "la Mere' was that many Cornishmen and the neigbours the Devonites spent many an unpleasant period working for the men of Algiers and were ransomed back to the Families. 'Twas not pleasant times to go wandering on the beach and then be snatched and not see ones home land . This is one of the reasons that the Navy was kept and used to protect the business interests of the Merchant class of London, besides those disputes with the other Europeans, there was Piracy [even today ships disappear from sight [ and site] and LLoyds of London has to pay up even after the cargo mysteriously appears in the market place but no ship]

Emilio   Link to this

More Algiers and slaves

The full L&M has a lengthy footnote on this topic, mostly devoted to the very different take from Sir Godfrey Fisher's Barbary Legend. Fisher argues that "Algiers had a good reputation in this respect, and treated its captives rather better than Christian countries treated their slaves or jailbirds. He points out that, although slaves under Muslim law, they were regarded as prisoners-of-war, and had well-established rights. There is, however, much evidence besides Pepys's to controvert this view."

And thanks dirk for the Leo Africanus link above, it's just fascinating.

vincent   Link to this

If you were one of the guests of the pirates you might have had to study linqua franca
a source [sample Yorno, matina and manchar (day, morning and to eat.) ]
http://www.uwm.edu/~corre/franca/edition3/notes...

Susan   Link to this

Wheatley adds a note to this passage:"The Long Parliament imposed a tax on merchants' goods (called the Algiers Duty) for the redemption of captives in the Mediterranean." Wheatley also says Bagnard translates as prison.(?) Very few persons at that time were anti-slavery or slave trade. The Royal Society invested in the slave trade. The Earl of Sandwich and Pepys himself owned slaves. A negro page boy was a Court fashion accessory. In Bristol, once the main port of the slave trade in England, there is a street called Blackboys Hill, where these little boys were displayed for sale. This remained current for some time. Jane Austen's contemporaries in Bath (near Bristol)had black servants. Antislavery sentiments did not become current in England until the 1670s. Aphra Behn published an anti-slave trade novel in 1688.

vincent   Link to this

6 pages of barbary coast by the bbc
http://rds.yahoo.com/S=2766679/K=barbary+coast+... remained a pirate stronghold for 300 years, an important part of the Ottoman empire and a bulwark against the Spanish imperialism (Hourani, 228-9).
[finally in ]1816: Dutch and British navies destroy the Algerian fleet.
1830 June 14: In retaliation of Algerian attacks on trade vessels, France attacks Algiers.

Emilio   Link to this

"they do invent to bring their masters in so much a week"

L&M have "endent" (as in "indenture") for the verb in this sentence, which makes so much more sense. Here are the relevant senses of the word, with a number of example sentences from Sam's mate Thomas Fuller:

3. intr. To enter into an engagement by indentures; hence, to make a formal or express agreement; to covenant (with a person for a thing); to engage. Also fig. Obs.

1642 Fuller Holy & Prof. St. V. iii. 367 At last she indents downright with the devil. He is to find her some toies for a time, and to have her soul in exchange. 1655 ---- Ch. Hist. II. iv. ? 23 Thus would I have Ecclesiasticall and civil Historians indent about the Bounds, and Limits of their Subjects.

b. with subord. cl. or inf. expressing purpose.

1643 S. Marshall Letter 7 Suppose a free man indents with another to be his servant in some ingenious employment. a1661 Fuller Worthies (1840) III. 366 [She] indented with her husband that her heritable issue should assume her surname.

vincent   Link to this

Strange coincidence, going to the " Fleece" and talking to men about their having been fleeced by the barbary pirates.
Lingua franca or a scan erratum "d" or 't'.
liberty of their padron [patron?]

dirk   Link to this

barbary pirates

See also:
http://www.st-keverne.com/History/Diggens/d9.html

Nix   Link to this

The pirates are still out there --

If you can find a copy of the Atlantic Monthly from last September, there is a long and frightening article about contemporary maritime piracy.

Alan Bedford   Link to this

"Wheatley also says Bagnard translates as prison."

In modern French usage, "Bagnard" translates as "convict" but I'd guess that it probably had the connotation of "cell" in the 17th century, at least in lingua franca. By the way, there's a good (and accessible) discussion of the lingua franca language as well as a glossary at: http://www.uwm.edu/~corre/franca/edition2/lingu...

Emilio   Link to this

Still more history of the Barbary pirates

this time from the 1911 Encyclopedia: http://1.1911encyclopedia.org/B/BA/BARBARY_PIRA...

It mentions that North Africa had been a hotbed of piracy long before Sam's time. The article starts with piracy during the decline of the Roman empire, but one of Pompey the Great's jobs was to defeat a still earlier generation of Barbary pirates in 67 BC, and the ships of Carthage indulged in piracy as well around 400 BC. More than two millenia of plunder is quite a record for the area!

Lawrence   Link to this

You couldn't hope to spend a better Friday afternoon, these are the days when you wish you'd been there with Sam listening and getting befuddled with him, I bet there was roars of laughter all afternoon. "Loving it Sam"

vincent   Link to this

"slave trade": today-We just use differrent legal and illegal methods to get dirt cheap labo(u)r now. { yesterdays news uk., 1L. a day to go 'cockerling'[not warming ones heart either] } alternative the credit card is a nice legal way of indenturing people to keep working for years.
Weekly Piracy Report
http://www.iccwbo.org/ccs/imb_piracy/weekly_pir...

Read up on the straits of Singapore & Indonesia for the modern version of Piracy.
TIMEasia.com | Asia Buzz: Anti-Piracy Act | 12/14/99
... But piracy in Indonesia worries Singapore and Kuala Lumpur too, because many of
the attacks of recent years have been in the busy Straits of Malacca that ...

dirk   Link to this

Bagnard

The English word "bagnard" used here is a phonetic equivalent of "bagno", as it is more commonly spelled in the lingua franca. Originally this was the word used for a public bath (a common institution among the North-African Arab nations!), but pretty early the word also came to be used for slave quarters - also in the christian countries around the Mediterranian.

Why? I suppose the smell of these unhappy creatures had something to do with it..

dirk   Link to this

barbary pirates & slaves

*Very* interesting link on the subject:
http://www.humnet.ucla.edu/humnet/c1718cs/Davis...

Bradford   Link to this

Vincent asks:

"Lingua franca or a scan erratum "d" or "t".
liberty of their padron [patron?]-
"Shorter Pepys" says:
"at the Liberty of their Padron."
—-the last word in italics. As Emilio kindly reproduced from the L&M note on transcription—-
http://www.pepysdiary.com/diary/1661/01/27/
3rd annotation—-italics means the word was in bigger letters—-and, one would assume, spelled out, rather than in shorthand.

language hat   Link to this

bagnard: dirk is correct; this is what the OED calls an "obs[olete] corrupt form of bagnio," whose three definitions are:

1. A bath, a bathing-house; esp. one with hot baths, vapour-baths, and appliances for sweating, cupping, and other operations. (No longer applied to any such place in Britain, the nearest approach to which is the modern Turkish Bath; but applied as an alien word to the baths of Italian or Turkish cities.)
1624 Massinger Renegado i. ii, At the public bagnios or the mosques. 1653 Greaves Seraglio 7 Dining rooms, Bagno's [marginal note. Bathes or hot-houses; it must be pronounced Banios].

2. An oriental prison, a place of detention for slaves, a penal establishment.(So in It. and Sp., and F. bagne. The origin of this use of the word is doubtful: see conjectures in Chambers Cycl. 1751 and Littr?.)
1599 Hakluyt Voy. II. i. 186 The king sent.. to the Banio: (this Banio is the prison wheras all the captiues lay at night). 1645 Howell Lett. I. 42 A slave in the bannier at Algier. 1660-1 Pepys Diary 8 Feb., Stories of Algiers and the.. slaves there.. How they are all, at night, called into their master’s Bagnard. 1687 Rycaut Hist. Turks II. App. 5 A prison and Banniard of Slaves. 1728 Morgan Algiers II. iv. 268 He sent him to his Bagnio, among the rest of his Slaves. 1847 Disraeli Tancred vi. v, To be sent to the bagnio or the galleys.

3. A brothel, a house of prostitution. (Cf. similar application of stew.)
1624 Massinger Parl. Love ii. ii, To be sold to a brothel Or a common bagnio.

Sronk   Link to this

Turkish Baths
Some might find it interesting that these were originally a Greek institution, the same one that you find commonly described in Greek and Roman literature. The Turks took them over when the conquered the Greek Byzantine empire, while Western nations allowed them to die out (with a few exceptions). Thus when Westerners rediscovered them in Turkish lands, they called them 'Turkish Baths'.

Emilio   Link to this

Padron/italics

Thanks for your faith, Bradford, but I don't think I got it quite right back then. In the fuller account in the Intro to the whole shebang, L&M give a more complete list of when italics are used. I think today the italics are there simply because 'padron' is a foreign word; on that day a couple weeks ago, 'menses' was probably being italicized as Latin. When Sam writes large, they apparently make the italics larger to reflect that. _Mea culpa_.

For any interested, what gets in italics is any:

"headings, names of days and festivals that begin daily entries, titles of books, plays and music, names of ships, and any foreign words other than those that appear in the erotic passages written in Pepys's lingua franca. [These can all be in either longhand or shorthand.] The large formal hand he sometimes uses for headings and festivals is represented by larger italics."

vincent   Link to this

Emillio : Are the words Lingua Francae used by L&M or is that a modern expression for Mediterranean lanquage for the un-schooled around the ports of the 'med' from Beirute to Tangiers.
On my travels, blue moons ago every port, scruffy kids seemed to be able to make his wants known in the many languages of the lands that abound the "La Mare" [especially in the more fundamental words]
A dictionary says hybrid based on Italian, with Spanish,French,Greek and Arab elements from " Italian for frankish language"

Emilio   Link to this

Vincent -

It's both. In addition to the more usual meaning, that's what L&M call the Spanish-based language Sam will start using in a few years to describe his erotic encounters.

dirk   Link to this

Lingua Franca

For those who are less at home on the subject (Emilio, Vincent, correct me if I'm wrong!):

The language and the term "Lingua Franca" (="the language of the Franks") was formed in the late Middle Ages. It was a pidgin language (like Swahili e.a.).

It developed out of a need to communicate (not necessarily on peaceful terms!) with the Arabic speaking peoples of the Near-East and the North-African Coastline. It was made up mainly of words from Southern-European languages (i.e. the "Franks", as they were called by the Arabs still at the time): mainly Italian dialects, some French and Spanish and a little bit of Arabic etc - and virtually no grammar (no tenses or inflections etc).

It died out in the 1800s. For more info (and a - downloadable - glossary) have a look at the link in Alan Bedford's annotation above.

As far as I konw the term is still in use in *linguistics* to indicate a common (usually written) form of a language, which stands as a common denominator above sometimes widely differing dialects or related languages: like Modern Standard Arabic vs. the various local (spoken) forms of the Arabic language.

StewartMcI   Link to this

Mediterranean Slaves - This was at the height of the Order of St. John as a major naval power based on Malta serving as the bulwark of Christianity against the Westward spread of the Turk. An oared galley had a distinct advantage over a wallowing merchantmen at the mercy of the wind direction. Hence the success of the pirates, their galley slaves, and the Order pressed captives into similar service. A bit earlier John Knox the leader of the Scottish Reformation spent a year and a half as a galley slave in the French Navy.

dirk   Link to this

Lingua Franca

Maybe Sam actually spoke/understood some Lingua Franca??? He wouldn't have been the only one to do so in England at the time, although the average Briton/Londoner wouldn't have understood a word of it (being derived from Romanic languages) ...

john lauer   Link to this

re dirk's "e.a." = et al.
(not commonly recognized west of the water, or by Webster.)

Emilio   Link to this

Lingua franca

I tend to doubt that Sam knew much Lingua Franca, although he certainly could have picked up the odd bit from his seafaring friends.

You'll notice that L&M use the term in lower case, and from how they describe it it seems very much like something thrown together on the spur of the moment rather than a lingo that he picked up. Not only does it mix together bits of Spanish, English, French, Dutch, Italian, Latin, and even Greek, but to confuse things a bit more Sam throws in random l's, r's, m's, and n's. He probably started using it to hide some of the racier passages in his shorthand even further, but since he also drops into it for some innocuous passages he seems to love using it for its own sake.

All in all it gives a weird new spin to the phrase 'frank-ish language', so what better could you call it than Sam's own, lower-case 'lingua franca'?

Pedro Ornelas   Link to this

In 1617, nearly all men (a few hundreds) of the Portuguese small island of Porto Santo (northeast of Madeira) were kidnapped by corsairs of Algiers. Although by that time the ramsoning in Portugal was already 'state subsidised', as the BBC article says, on that occasion negotiations didn't work and most men never returned. More about corsairs (from Algiers, and France, Holland & Britain as well) in Portuguese atlantic islands, and references (if anyone can read Portuguese): http://www.ceha-madeira.net/brasil/estudos/1/8/...

HY   Link to this

Thank many of you for excellent references in your annotations. Unfortunately, little has been done in the current literature to offset the striking Eurocentrist view of the Barbary Navy. They, in many ways, were more civilized than pre-19th century Europeans in their dealings with Christians. While everyone was pretty bad back then, they did provide a loophole for people through conversion. Something not available to African Slaves in America. Also, conversion often meant freedom and upward mobility as proven by the many European captains and even admirals of the Barbary states. "Pirate Utopias" is quite good at looking at the Moroccan corsair state of Bouregreg. We forget Muslims had lived in Spain for eight hundred years with high civilization and then were brutally expelled followed by the inquisition and many of the Barbary corsairs were originally from Spain.

vincent   Link to this

Civilised behaviour, 'tis noted, only skin deep if that. The writer ALWAYS puts the best SPIN on the version that he doth publish. The Great Will: did say and I will muck it up "..the good is oft interred while evil doth live on.." so 'wot' ever is written must always be taken with a pinch of salt,[ Cum grano salis] or said another way when the coin lays on the ground, you only see one side of things , the trick is to dope the coin to show your side.

Lameen   Link to this

Correction to Vincent:
"1830 June 14: In retaliation of Algerian attacks on trade vessels, France attacks Algiers."

The real story was more comical; in an argument about some huge 30-year-old debts owed to two Algerian Jewish wheat merchants (Bacri and Busnach) by the French government, the Dey of Algiers struck the French consul in the face with a fly-whisk. This provided a convenient casus belli to the French government, which hastened to occupy Algiers.

vincent   Link to this

enslaved : J Evelyn on his trip [oct 7 1644] through Europe describe the gally ships and their slave orsmen at the Marcelles [Marseille]
"...We went then to Visite the Gallys being about 25 in number. The Captaine of the Gally royal gave us most courteous entertainement in his Cabine, the Slaves in the interim playing both on loud & soft musique very rarely: Then he shew'd us how he commanded their motions with a nod, & his Wistle, making them row out; which was to me the newest spectacle I could imagine, beholding so many hundreds of miseraby naked Persons, having their heads shaken cloose, & onely red high bonnets, a payre of Course canvas drawers, their whole backs, & leggs starke naked, doubly chayned about their middle, & leggs, in Cupples, & made fast to their seates: One Turke amongst them he much favourd, who waited on him in his Cabine, but naked as he was, & in a Chayne lock'd about his leg; but not coupled.
……………Yet was there hardly one but had some occupation or other: by which as leasure, in Calmes, & other times, permitts, they get some little monye; in so much as some have after many Yeares of cruel Servitude been able to purchase their liberty: Their rising forwards, & falling back at their Oare, is a miserable spactacle, and the noyse of their Chaines with the roaring of the beaten Waters has something of strange & fearfull in it, to one unaccostom'd. They are ruld, & chastiz'd with a bulls-pizle dry'd upon their backs, & soles of their feete upon the least dissorder, & without the least humanity: Yet for all this they are
Cherefull, & full of vile knavery:…”
http://astext.com/history/ed_1644.html#1644

more 21st oct 1644 at Ligorne
page103 the diary of John Evelyn by E.S.DeBeer
Starts “..Here is in Ligorne, & especialy this Piazzo, such concourse of Slaves, Consisting of Turkes, Mores, and other Nations,etc…

Frank Landsman   Link to this

Although it is true that many corsairs were from Spain, some of the wealthiest and most powerful Admirals were from the Netherlands. My probable forefather "De Veenboer" came from Andijk, west-Frisia, and converted to Islam in Algiers, where he became Admiral of the Algerian Sultan's corsair fleet (200 ships). He was known by the name of Sulayman Reis and became the scourge of the Mediterranean, although he usually spared Dutch crews. He was killed by a cannon-ball in the harbour of Amsterdam on the 10th of October 1620. The sloop that carried his corpse was returned by the French/English captains involved. Sulayman's quartermaster was the notorious renegade Jan Janszoon van Haarlem, who ended up as Murad Reis in Morocco. His mulatto son (by a Moorish concubine)Anthony Jansen van Haarlem emigrated to New Amsterdam, where he was called "The Troublesome Turk" (sic). His descendants allegedly include such luminaries as Humphrey Bogart, the Vanderbilts, and Jackie Onassis-Kennedy.
Last week's Guardian Weekly from Britain featured an article by Rory Carroll on the hot topic of White Slavery, which claimed that all of the slave masters were Africans. Not so ...
Incidentally, not all European corsairs embraced Islam; the most successful of them all, Simon de Danser, remained a Christian of sorts.

Virginia Castro   Link to this

I am looking for more information, and hopefully a portrait of Jan Janszoon van Haarlem and/or his son Anthony Jansen van Salee-Vaes who emigrated to New Amsterdam and once owned 200 acres on Long Island, New York. I am a descendant through the Southards Thomas Southard who married Annica Jansen, Anthony's daughter)and their daughter Sarah Southard who married John Bedell. The Bedells fought in the Revolution and ended up with land in a small town in Missouri, Fairgrove, near Springfield, where my father was born. The Bedell family has annual family reunions in different areas of the U.S. which is how I found out about our pirate ancestry. My great grandfather Mahlon Bedell married a Black-Cherokee woman and had many children with his black slaves, all of whom he claimed and educated. So the mixture goes on. I would like any info on my pirate ancestors and would provide anything I know as well.Also books in Italian or French, which I can read somewhat (I am fluent in Spanish). Ones I have seen in bibliiographies are: BONO, S. I corsari barbareschi, Turin, 1964. HUBAC, Pierre: Les Barbaresques, Paris 1949. FISHER, Sir Godfrey: Barbary Legend: War, Trade and Piracy in North Africa 1415-1830, Oxford 1957. Has anyone read these?

Vicky   Link to this

I am related to Jan Van Haarlem and his son Anthony Van Salee, Anthony's daughter Sara, Jan Emans, their son Abraham Emans, Rebecca Stillwell, their son Jan Emans and Elinor Van Aaken, Catherine Emmens and Nathaniel Westfall, Sara Westfall and Thomas Hamilton, James Hamilton and Mary Agnes Logue. The Hamilton's lived in Meadville, Pennsylvania. I am 58 years old and just found out my family history. Only the names Hamilton/Logue, Bower were even mentioned and we didn't know any of them. My family moved from Pa. to California 1946. I wonder if they knew or didn't want us to know. I instinctively knew everything I found. Call if psychic premonition.

Terry Foreman   Link to this

Some current links for British slavery on the Barbary coast
https://www.google.com/#q=british+slavery+on+th...

Terry Foreman   Link to this

Links for Leo Africanus by Amin Maalouf
https://www.google.com/#q=leo+africanus+by+amin...

Terry Foreman   Link to this

Wikipedia says a lingua franca (also called a working language, bridge language, vehicular language or unifying language) is a language systematically used to make communication possible between people not sharing a mother tongue, in particular when it is a third language, distinct from both mother tongues. Lingua francas have arisen around the globe throughout human history, sometimes for commercial reasons (so-called "trade languages") but also for diplomatic and administrative convenience, and as a means of exchanging information between scientists and other scholars of different nationalities. The term originates with one such language, Mediterranean Lingua Franca.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lingua_franca

Bill   Link to this

"their master’s Bagnard"

BAGNIO, an Italian Term, signifying a Bath. Thence Bagnio is become a general Name in Turky, for the Prisons in which the Slaves are confin'd, it being usual to have Baths in those Prisons.
---The Builder's Dictionary. 1734.

By this means I kept my self alive, shut up in a Prison or House, which the Turks call a Bagnio, where they keep their Christian Slaves, as well those of the King
---Don Quixote. Cervantes.

Bill   Link to this

"their master’s Bagnard"

The cellars of the castle of Livorno were called bagno [from the Italian 'bagno' meaning bath] because they were below sea level, but they were used as dungeons for Turkish slaves: hence bagnio in older English, and bagne in French, 'dungeon, workhouse'.
---Dictionary of Languages. Andrew Dalby. 1998.

Edith Lank   Link to this

The American sentiment in the early 1800s -- Millions for Defense but Not One Cent for Tribute.

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