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Randal MacDonnell
Marquess of Antrim
A low-resolution image of a painted portrait of a man wearing a read gown and a long light-brown curly wig flowing down his chest
Tenure1636–1683
PredecessorRandal, 1st Earl of Antrim
SuccessorAlexander, 3rd Earl of Antrim
Born1609
Died3 February 1683 (aged 74)
Dunluce, Ireland
BuriedBonamargy Friary, Ballycastle
Spouse(s)
FatherRandal, 1st Earl of Antrim
MotherAlice O'Neill

Randall MacDonnell, 1st Marquess of Antrim (1609–1683) was a Roman Catholic landed magnate in Scotland and Ireland, son of the 1st Earl of Antrim. He was also chief of Clan MacDonnell of Antrim. He is best known for his involvement, mostly on the Royalist side, in the Wars of the Three Kingdoms.

Birth and origins

Randal was born on 9 June 1609,[1][2] probably at Dunluce Castle, his parents' habitual residence. He was the eldest son of Randal MacDonnell and his wife, Alice O'Neill. His father, Lord of the Route[3] and Constable of Dunluce Castle, had been knighted by Lord Lieutenant Mountjoy in 1602.[4] His father was an important landowner in the north-eastern corner of Ireland facing Scotland across the North Channel. His father's family, the MacDonnell of Antrim, were the Irish branch of the Scottish Clan Donald. The MacDonnels descended from the twelfth-century Scottish warlord Somerled and from Alexander MacDonald, 5th of Dunnyveg, a Scottish-Irish magnate, who was driven out of Scotland by James IV and fled to Ulster where the family was already established through a series of marriages. His Scottish lands were taken over by the rival Clan Campbell, although the MacDonalds continued to live there and looked towards the MacDonnell family for leadership. Recovering his Scottish lands remained an objective that his father pursued all his life without ever meeting it.

Randal's mother was described as "of good cheerful aspect, freckled, not tall but strong, well set, and acquainted with the English tongue."[5] She was born in 1583[6][7] as the daughter of Hugh O'Neill, Earl of Tyrone and his second wife, Siobhan (i.e. Joan) O'Donnell.[8][a] She was thus a member of the O'Neill dynasty, an ancient Gaelic family, the leaders of which were once kings and ruled all of Ulster. However, her father had left Ireland in the Flight of the Earls in 1607 and was then attainted by the Irish Parliament, losing his title and lands.[11]

Randal's parents were both Catholic. They had married in 1604 before the Flight of the Earls.[12] Unlike most of the Ulster Catholic elite, the MacDonnells benefited financially from the Plantation of Ulster, which brought large-scale Scottish and English settlement of Northern Ireland. In spite of this, and their good relations with their Protestant neighbours and tenants, the MacDonnell's remained staunch Catholics.

Family tree
Randal MacDonnell with his two wives, his parents, and selected relatives.[b]
Sorley Boy
MacDonnell

d. 1590
Mary
O'Neill
Hugh
O'Neill

c. 1550 – 1616
Siobhan
O'Donnell

d. 1591
Randal
1st Earl

1569–1636
Alice
O'Neill

1583–1665
Catherine
Manners

1603–1649
Randal
1st
Marquess

1609–1683
Rose
O'Neill

d. c. 1690
Alexander
3rd Earl

1615–1699
Randal
4th Earl

1680–1721
Rachel
Skeffington

d. 1739
Alexander
5th Earl
1713–1775
Anne
Plunket

d. 1755
Legend
XXXRandal
MacDonnell
XXXEarls & marquesses
of Antrim

He appears below as the elder of two brothers:

  1. Randal (1609–1683)
  2. Alexander (1615–1699), succeeded him as the 3rd Earl[13]
Randal's sisters
He had six sisters.[14]
  1. Ann, married firstly Christopher, Lord Delvin, and secondly William Fleming, Baron of Slane[15]
  2. Mary, married firstly Lucas, 2nd Viscount Dillon, and secondly Oliver, 6th Lord Louth[16]
  3. Sarah, married firstly Neile-Oge O'Neill of Killileagh in County Antrim, secondly Charles O'Conor Sligo, and thirdly Donald Macarthy More[17]
  4. Catherine, married Edward Plunkett of Castlecor[18]
  5. Rose, married Colonel Gordon, commander of a regiment in Robert Munroe's army[19]
  6. Ellis, of whom nothing seems to be known but her name[14]

Early life

On 28 May 1618 Randal's father was created Viscount Dunluce[20] and in 1620 1st Earl of Antrim by King James I of England.[21] By the latter creation Viscount Dunluce became a subsidiary title of the family, which was given as courtesy title to Randal, aged 11, the Earl's eldest son and heir apparent, who was therefore styled Viscount Dunluce.

Although the family was part of an increasingly Anglicised Irish elite, he was exposed to Gaelic culture, Gaelic language, and raised as a staunch Catholic. In 1613, when he was four, an arranged marriage was made for him with Lucy Hamilton, a daughter of James Hamilton, 1st Earl of Abercorn, but the wedding never took place.[22]

France and England

In 1625 Dunluce, as he was now, travelled to France to complete his education. After two years there he went to London, where he was presented at the court of Charles I. He was described as "a tall, clean-limbed, handsome man with red hair".[23] Dunluce spent the next ten years in England, with only occasional, brief visits to Ireland. In 1635 he began a career as a military contractor by agreeing to raise two regiments of Irish troops for service in the French army, but the plan was vetoed by the King.[24]

A ruin of a medieval castle on a high cliff over the sea. A round tower stands in front in the centre.
The ruin of Dunluce Castle, County Antrim, the main residence of the Marquess for much of his life.

First marriage

After abandoning his long-standing fiancée Lucy Hamilton, Dunluce was linked with several other prospective marriages. In 1635 he married Katherine Manners, the widow of George Villiers, 1st Duke of Buckingham,[25] who had been England's Chief Minister under both James I and Charles before his assassination in 1628. The Duchess was a devout Catholic and wealthy. She was close to Queen Henrietta Maria, and further enhanced Dunluce's status at court.[26] He became friends with leading British politicians including the Earl of Nithsdale, the Duke of Lennox and the Duke of Hamilton.

Dunluce planned to acquire large amounts of land in the Londonderry Plantation, but this was blocked by Thomas Wentworth, the Lord Deputy of Ireland, who mistrusted Dunluce and was to become a major opponent of his.[27] Dunluce also made a failed attempt to recover some of the family's traditional lands in the West of Scotland by purchasing them, but this also fell through.

Dunluce was emotionally very close to his wife and became stepfather to her children including George Villiers, 2nd Duke of Buckingham. The couple lived a lavish lifestyle, and Dunluce ran up large debts in England which troubled him for the rest of his life.

Earl of Antrim

On 10 December 1636 Dunluce's father died in Dunluce Castle and was buried at the Bonamargy Franciscan Friary.[28][29] Dunluce succeeded as the 2nd Earl of Antrim. In his will, his father had divided his estate between his two sons. Randal inherited the larger share of the land, consisting of the baronies of Dunluce and Kilconway,[30] whereas Alexander, his younger brother, inherited the Barony of Glenarm.[31]

In an effort to cut down on expenses Lord Antrim, as he was now, and his wife the countess relocated to Ireland in 1638.[32] Antrim set up home in his family's traditional seat of Dunluce Castle as one of the wealthiest men in Ireland. He oversaw nearly 340,000 acres of land, which was mostly sublet to tenant farmers.[33] Along with the family's traditional Scottish followers in the Western Isles, Antrim's tenants provided him with an important power base during the coming wars.

Painted portrait of a woman in a black and white dress holding a miniature portrait
Antim's first wife Katherine Villiers, the widow of the royal favourite George Villiers, 1st Duke of Buckingham.

Scottish crisis

Antrim Plan

Antrim took a close interest in Scottish politics, due to his ties to the Catholic faction of the Scottish McDonald clan who dominated Kintyre and the Western Isles.[c] Charles' attempts to impose religious reforms on the Church of Scotland led to the signing of the National Covenant in 1638, and the outbreak of the Bishops' Wars in 1639. Antrim saw an opportunity both to assist the king, and also regain traditional MacDonald lands in Scotland from Archibald Campbell, 1st Marquess of Argyll, a leader of the Covenanters.[34] He proposed raising an Irish Catholic army from his tenants in Ulster, then crossing the North Channel to link up with the Scottish MacDonalds.[35]

The expedition was planned in conjunction with other landings and an invasion by the main English army under Charles. Its purpose was to divert Covenanter resources, while also allowing Antrim to recover Kintyre for his family. For the Irish government, the project would also prevent the Covenanters invading northern Ireland, where they enjoyed strong support amongst the Presbyterian settlers, many of whom were Scots emigrants. Antrim argued an Irish invasion of Scotland would pre-empt this threat.[36] Nonetheless Wentworth in Dublin was extremely sceptical about the plan. He rejected Antrim's appeals for money, supplies and weapons. Wentworth's refusal was likely due to his own plans for the regular Irish Army to launch a rival invasion from Ireland against Dumbarton and his mistrust of the Earl's motives.[37] Eventually, Wentworth was ordered to assist Antrim by the King.[38]

The growing crisis re-ignited the MacDonald-Campbell feud. In response, Argyll raised troops of his own in Scotland and attacked the MacDonalds who were arming in anticipation of Antrim's invasion, driving many into exile in Ireland. The threatened invasion by Irish Catholics also strengthened support in Scotland for the Covenanters, and further damaged the King's reputation there.[39]

New Irish Army

Half-length painted portrait of a man in shiny dark armour with long brown hair, short beard and moustache, holding a staff
Charles I. Throughout the 1640s, Antrim attempted to raise Irish troops to assist Charles in the English Civil Wars.

Based in Carrickfergus, Antrim began raising his army in December 1638 although it wasn't until April the following year that he formally received a commission from the King authorising him to do so. Antrim recruited his army from many of the leading Gaelic families of Ulster, but Wentworth blocked a plan to import experienced Irish mercenary officers from Europe to command them. The army was raised separately from the existing standing Irish Army, which was more heavily Protestant. The army was to consist of 5,000 infantry and 200 cavalry.[40]

Assembling the force took longer than expected, and by the time it was ready the First Scottish War had been ended by the Treaty of Berwick (1639). This settled relatively little and was closer to a ceasefire than a final agreement. A second war was widely expected, but Antrim had to postpone and then abandon his expedition. Nonetheless, sporadic fighting continued in western Scotland between local MacDonalds and Campbells.[41] Antrim and Wentworth both blamed the other for the delays with the expedition.

In 1640, the Scottish situation flared up again and the Covenanter Army now launched an invasion of England. Antrim's planned expedition was revived, but this time Wentworth himself oversaw the recruitment of an 8,000-strong "New Irish Army" which assembled at Carrickfergus. Like Antrim's earlier force, the army was made up mainly of Irish Catholics. By this time the Scots had captured Newcastle, and were able to agree a favourable peace at the Treaty of Ripon before the Irish army had crossed to Scotland. This effectively left the new Covenanter government intact in Scotland, with Argyll one of its leading figures.

Antrim moved to Dublin during 1640, occasionally attending the Irish House of Lords and generally opposing the policies of Wentworth. In November 1640 Wentworth was recalled to London where he was impeached by Parliament and ultimately executed.

The future of the New Irish Army became a source of controversy once the Scottish crisis ended, as it was alleged that Charles I intended to ship them to England to enforce his will against the London Parliament with whom he was in dispute. Antrim's exact role remains controversial. He later claimed he was contacted by a messenger named Thomas Bourke, on the King's behalf, and encouraged to stop the New Irish Army from disbanding, to raise its strength to 20,000 and to equip it for operations in England. Antrim worked alongside other Irish supporters of the King such as Ormond and Castlehaven and kept in contact with Charles. Some of the other figures Antrim worked with at the time such as Lord Enniskillen were soon to take part in the Irish Rebellion. As the King's political situation in both England and Scotland seemed to improve in 1641, the need for Irish military intervention lessened. Nonetheless, Antrim worked hard to secure support for the King in Ireland, planning to get the Irish Parliament to declare for the King against the English Parliament should fighting break out in England.[42]

Antrim's plan to use Ireland to solve the King's English problems was wrecked by the outbreak of the Irish Rebellion in October 1641.[43]

The New Irish Army remained unpaid in the wake of Strafford's execution, and were waiting to be shipped abroad for foreign service.

Irish Rebellion

Soon afterwards he returned to Ireland, and sought in 1641 to create a diversion, together with James Butler, 1st Duke of Ormonde, for Charles I against the parliament. He joined in his schemes Lord Slane and Sir Phelim O'Neill, later leaders of the rebellion, but on the outbreak of the Irish Rebellion of 1641 in the autumn he dissociated himself from his allies and retired to his castle at Dunluce (now in Northern Ireland). Although Sir Phelim O'Neill announced in the Proclamation of Dungannon that he had a commission from the King that authorized the rebellion, Antrim remained broadly neutral. He assisted the besieged Protestant garrison during the Siege of Coleraine, persuading his Catholic tenants to abandon the campaign and sending supplies of food to the hard-pressed inhabitants.

His suspicious conduct, however, and his Roman Catholicism, caused him to be regarded as an enemy by the English party. In May 1642 he was captured at Dunluce Castle by the Scottish Covenanter general Robert Monro, and imprisoned at Carrickfergus.[44][45] Escaping thence he joined the queen at York.

In May 1643, having proceeded to Ireland to negotiate a cessation of hostilities between the English Royalists and Irish Catholic rebels, he was again captured with his papers and confined at Carrickfergus, thence once more escaping and making his way to Kilkenny, the headquarters of the Roman Catholic confederation.

He returned to Oxford in December with a scheme for raising 10,000 Irish for service in England and 2000 to join Montrose in Scotland, which through the influence of the duchess of Buckingham secured the consent of the king. On 26 January 1645 Antrim was elevated from Earl to Marquess of Antrim.[46] He returned to Kilkenny in February, took the Irish Confederate oath of association, and was made a member of the council and lieutenant-general of the forces of the Catholic confederacy. The confederacy, however, giving him no support in his projects, he threw up his commission, and with Ormond's help despatched about 1600 men under his kinsman Alasdair MacColla in June to Montrose's assistance in Scotland, sparking a Scottish civil war. Antrim subsequently returned to Oxford and was sent by the king in 1645 with letters for the queen at Saint-Germain-en-Laye.

He proceeded thence to Flanders and fitted out two frigates with military stores, which he brought to the Prince of Wales at Falmouth. He visited Cork and afterwards in July 1646 joined his troops in Scotland, with the hope of expelling Argyll from Kintyre; but he was obliged to retire by order of the king, and returning to Ireland threw himself into the intrigues between the various factions.

Late in 1647 he was appointed with Muskerry and Geoffrey Browne by the Irish confederacy to negotiate a treaty with the Prince of Wales in France, and though he outmanoeuvred his companions by starting a week before them, he failed to secure the coveted lord-lieutenancy, which was confirmed to Ormond.[47]

Cromwell era

He now ceased to support the Roman Catholics or the king's cause; opposed the treaty between Ormond and the confederates; supported the project of union between O'Neill and the parliament; and in 1649 entered into communications with Cromwell, for whom he performed various services during the Cromwellian conquest of Ireland, though there appears no authority to support Carte's story that Antrim was the author of a forged agreement for the betrayal of the king's army by Lord Inchiquin[48] (Calendar State Papers Ireland, 1660–1662, pp. 294, 217; Cal. of Clarendon St. Pap., ii. 69, and Gardiner's Commonwealth, i. 153). Subsequently, he joined Ireton, and was present at the Siege of Carlow.

He returned to England in December 1650, and in lieu of his confiscated estate received a pension of £500 and later of £800, together with lands in County Mayo.[49]

Restoration

After the Restoration of Charles II to the throne in 1660, Antrim went to London to demonstrate his loyalty to the King. Before being able to meet Charles, he was imprisoned in the Tower of London, accused of collaboration with Cromwell and the English Republicans. Antrim was excluded from the Indemnity and Oblivion Act, which offered a pardon for offences that might have been committed during the previous two decades. His long-standing rival Argyll also came to London to swear his loyalty to Charles, and was likewise imprisoned before being taken back to Scotland, tried and executed for treason.[50]

From July 1660 until May 1661 Antrim remained in the Tower. He was investigated by the new Royalist authorities for several offences, particularly allegations that he had taken part in the 1641 Irish Rebellion and that he had publicly suggested Charles I had secret involvement with the rising. He was also accused of a variety of other crimes including specific charges of his dealings with Ireton and other Republican officers during the Irish campaigns. Although all but the first of these accusations were essentially true, Antrim was eventually released without being charged.[51]

Later life

A photo of a ruined stone building with a gable and a mullioned window standing in a graveyard
Antrim was buried at Bonamargy Friary which he had supported during his lifetime.

Despite being cleared, he still faced serious battles to recover his Irish estates. He had to prove that he was innocent of any involvement in the Irish rebellion.

Subsequently, being called before the lords justice in Ireland, In 1663 he succeeded, despite Ormond's opposition, in securing a decree of innocence from the commissioners of claims. This raised an outcry from the adventurers who had been put in possession of his lands, and who procured a fresh trial; but Antrim appealed to the king, and through the influence of the queen mother obtained a pardon, his estates being restored to him by the Irish Act of Explanation in 1665[52][53]

Antrim was described by Clarendon as "of handsome appearance but of excessive pride and vanity and of a marvellous weak and narrow understanding". He married secondly Rose, daughter of Sir Henry O'Neill, but had no children, being succeeded in the earldom by his brother Alexander, 3rd Earl of Antrim.[54]

Death and timeline

Lord Antrim died on 3 February 1683. He had married twice but both marriages were childless.[55] The marquessate became extinct and Randal was, therefore, the first and last Marquess of Antrim of the 1645 creation. His brother Alexander succeeded him in the earldom as the 3rd Earl of Antrim.[56]

Timeline
Age Date Event
0 1609, 9 Jun Born, probably at Dunluce Castle.[2]
8 1618, 28 May Father created Viscount Dunluce.[20]
11 1620, 12 Dec Becomes Viscount Dunluce, as his father is created Earl of Antrim.[21]
15 1625, 27 Mar Accession of King Charles I, succeeding King James I[57]
22 1632, 12 Jan Thomas Wentworth, later Earl of Strafford, appointed Lord Deputy of Ireland, succeeding [58]
25 1635, April Married Katherine Villiers, the widow of George Villiers, 1st Duke of Buckingham.[25]
27 1636, 10 Dec Succeeded his father as the 2nd Earl of Antrim'.[28]
31 1640, 28 Oct The Treaty of Ripon ended the 2nd Bishops' War.[59]
31 1641, 12 May Strafford beheaded[60]
32 1641, 23 Oct Outbreak of the Rebellion[61]
32–33 1642 Surprised by Monroe at Dunluce and taken prisoner.[44]
35 1645, 26 Jan Created Marquess of Antrim.[46]
36 1645, 21 Oct Giovanni Battista Rinuccini, the papal nuncio, landed in Ireland.[62]
36 1646, 5 Jun Battle of Benburb[63]
39 1649, 30 Jan King Charles I beheaded.[64]
50 1660, 29 May Restoration of King Charles II[65]
73 1683, 3 Feb Died childless, and was succeeded by his brother as the 3rd Earl.[56]

Notes and references

Notes

  1. ^ In the Dictionary of National Biography (DNB), Dunlop (1898) claims that Alice is a daughter of Hugh's fourth wife, but this seems impossible as her birth date falls into the time of Hugh's second marriage.[9] In the Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, an update to the DNB, Canny (2004) mentions neither Alice nor Randall MacDonnell.[10]
  2. ^ Also see the list of siblings in the text.
  3. ^ Other branches of the MacDonalds were Protestant, eg Clan MacDonald of Keppoch and Clan MacDonald of Glencoe

Citations

  1. ^ Webb 1878a, p. 310, left column, line 9. "... [Randal] is stated to have been born 9th Jube 1609."
  2. ^ a b Lodge 1789, p. 207. "Randal, the second earl of Antrim, was born in the year 1609 ..."
  3. ^ Cokayne 1910, p. 174, line 16. "Randal Mac Sorley Mac Donnell of Dunluce, co. Antrim, 2nd but 1st surv.s. and h. of Sorley Boy Mac Donnell, Lord of the Route ..."
  4. ^ Cokayne 1910, p. 174, line 21. "He was knighted, 13 May 1602 by the Lord Deputy Mountjoy ..."
  5. ^ Webb 1878b, p. 416, right column, line 23. as quoted
  6. ^ Webb 1878b, p. [ 416, right column, line 20]. "Hugh's daughter Alice, born in 1583, married Sir Randal MacDonnell (1st Earl of Antrim)."
  7. ^ Cokayne 1910, p. 174, line 34. "[Alice] was living 19 Aug. 1663, and then aged 80."
  8. ^ Cokayne 1910, p. 174, line 29. "He [the 1st Earl] m. 1604 Alice, da. of Hugh (O'Neill), Earl of Tyrone [I. [Ireland]] by his 2nd wife, Johanna, da. of Hugh McManus O'Donnell"
  9. ^ Dunlop 1895, p. 196, right column, line 4. "She [Hugh's 4th wife] was the mother of ... several daughters, one of whom married Sir Randal MacDonnell, first earl of Antrim ..."
  10. ^ Canny 2004, p. 839, left column, line 19. "Dungannon [i.e. Hugh] formed further strategic alliances within Gaelic Ulster by negotiating marriages for ... his various daughters ..."
  11. ^ Meehan 1870, p. 402. "But the grand object for which this parliament met was not achieved till October 1614, when Sir John Everard ... brought in a bill for confiscating the vast territories of the fugitive earls ..."
  12. ^ Burke & Burke 1915, p. 115, right column, line 53. "His Lordship [the 1st Earl] m. [married] 1604, Alice, dau. of Hugh O'Neill, Earl of Tyrone, and had issue."
  13. ^ Debrett 1828, p. 688, line 34. "... Alexander, 3rd Earl, who d. 1699, leaving issue ..."
  14. ^ a b Ohlmeyer 2004, p. 307. "... and six sisters (Anne, Mar, Sarah, Catherine, Rose, and Ellis)."
  15. ^ Lodge 1789, p. 207, line 12. "Daughter Lady Ann, was first married to Christopher, Lord Delvin; and secondly to William Fleming, Baron of Slane ..."
  16. ^ Lodge 1789, p. 207, line 15. "Lady Mary, first in 1605 to Lucas, the second Viscount Dillon; and secondly to Oliver, the sixth Lord Louth."
  17. ^ Lodge 1789, p. 207, line 17. "Lady Sarah, first to Neile-Oge O'Neill of Killileagh in the county of Antrim, Esq. (son of Neile Mac-Hugh O'Neile, who, in Q.Elizabeth's wars in Ireland, was slain in the service of the Crown) by whom she had Henry O'Neile, born in 1625, and other children; secondly to Sir Charles O'Conor Sligo, Knt., who died at Sligo 14 May 1634, without issue; and thirdly to Donald Mac-Carthy More, Prince of his sept in the Province of Munster."
  18. ^ Lodge 1789, p. 207, line 25. "Lady Catherine, in 1639, to Edward Plunket, of Scatlecor, Esq. son and heir to Patrick, Lord Dunsany."
  19. ^ Lodge 1789, p. 207, line 27. "Lady Rose, to Colonel Gordon, who commanded a regiment in Major-General Robert Munroe's army in the North."
  20. ^ a b Cokayne 1910, p. 174, line 23. "On 28 May 1618 he was cr. Viscount Dunluce, co. Antrim [I. [Ireland]] ..."
  21. ^ a b Cokayne 1910, p. 174, line 25. "... on 12 Dec. 1620 he [Randal McSorley] was cr. [created] Earl of Antrim [I. [Ireland]] ..."
  22. ^ Paul 1904, p. 48, line 15. "Lucy or Lucrece, contracted by her father, when very young, to Randal, Lord Dunluce, afterwards Marquess of Antrim, but he not abiding by the contract, she never married; and by letters from Whitehall, 28 October 1627, the Earl of Antrim was ordered to pay £3000 to James, Earl of Abercorn for his son's failure to implement the contract."
  23. ^ Ohlmeyer 2004, p. 307, line 27. "In the spring of 1627 as Viscount Dunluce—described as 'a tall, clean-limbed, handsome man with red hair'"
  24. ^ Ohlmeyer 2001, p. 28.
  25. ^ a b Ohlmeyer 2004, p. 307"Undauntedly he married in April 1635, Katharine Villiers (née Manners), duchess of Buckingham (1603?–1649) ..."
  26. ^ Ohlmeyer 2012, p. 216, line 3. "The second earl of Antrim's marriage to the duke of Buckingham's widow brought him the patronage of Charles I himself, together with that of the queen and William Laud, the Archbishop of Canterbury ..."
  27. ^ Ohlmeyer 2001, pp. 55–60.
  28. ^ a b Burke & Burke 1915, p. 115, right column, line 68. "The [1st] Earl d. [died] 10 Dec. 1636, and was s. [succeeded] by his elder son ..."
  29. ^ Hill 1873, p. 246, line 9. "He died at Dunluce at the 10th of December, 1636, and his body, after lying for some time in state, was buried in the vault which he had built at Bunnamairge in 1621 ... "
  30. ^ Hill 1873, p. 246, line 24. "His elder son, Randal, got the baronies of Dunluce and Kilconway,"
  31. ^ Hill 1873, p. 247. "His younger son, Alexander, was bequeathed the barony of Glenarm,"
  32. ^ Ohlmeyer 2001, pp. 72–73.
  33. ^ Ohlmeyer 2001, pp. 33–48.
  34. ^ Stevenson 1981, p. 22. "The suggestion that Ireland could play a part in reducing the covenanters to obedience came first from the earl of Antrim who hoped (by thus helping the king) to regain former MacDonald lands in the Highlands and Isles that had fallen into the hands of the Campbells."
  35. ^ Manning 2006, p. 239.
  36. ^ Stevenson 1981, p. 23. "Antrim would thus command an invasion of the Western Highlands by part of the Irish army and his own MacDonald forces, which would prevent the covenanters from drawing forces from this area to the border to oppose invasion from England."
  37. ^ Ohlmeyer 2001, pp. 81–82.
  38. ^ Ohlmeyer 2001, p. 83.
  39. ^ Stevenson 1981, p. 24. "And it was not only Campbells who were turned against the king by the news of Antrim's invasion plan; many other Scots were appalled that the king was ready to send an army of 'Irish' papists under a Catholic commander against good protestants."
  40. ^ Ohlmeyer 2001, pp. 82–85.
  41. ^ Ohlmeyer 2001, pp. 94.
  42. ^ Ohlmeyer 2001, pp. 96–99.
  43. ^ Ohlmeyer 2001, p. 99.
  44. ^ a b Webb 1878a, p. 310, left column, line 32. "In 1642, on the plea that some of his tenants had been engaged in the war, Munro seised his person and plundered Dunluce."
  45. ^ Gilbert 1879, p. (33). "... he [Munroe] seissed on the earle's bodie, plunders all the house, left a garrison of hise owne there, and the earle in the nature of a prisoner for some fewe weekes, and after caried his lordship to Carrigfergus, where he was close prisoner ..."
  46. ^ a b Cokayne 1910, p. 175, line 4. "... by Royal warrant dat. at Oxford 26 Jan. 1644/5, was cr. Marquess of Antrim [I. [Ireland]] ..."
  47. ^ Hill 1873, p. 274, footnote 53. "Towards the close of the year 1647, the Catholics met in Kilkenny, and agreed that, as all access to the captive king was forbidden, they would invite the prince his son to come to Ireland ... The commissioners appointed were the marquess of Antrim, lord Muskerry, and Mr. Geoffrey Browne."
  48. ^ Carte 1851, p. 509. "Something must be observed to explain the affair here mentioned between Antrim and Inchiquin ..."
  49. ^ Yorke 1911, p. 152, two thirds down page. "He returned to England in December 1650, and in lieu of his confiscated estate received a pension of £500 and later of £800, together with lands in Mayo."
  50. ^ Ohlmeyer 2001, p. 260.
  51. ^ Ohlmeyer 2001, pp. 258–259.
  52. ^ Yorke 1911, p. 152, lines five and six from end. "... Antrim appealed to the king and through the influence of the queen mother obtained a pardon, his estates being restored to him by the Irish Act of Explanation in 1665."
  53. ^ Hallam 1872, p. 396, line 15. "Notwithstanding the rigorous proofs nominally exacted, more of the Irish were pronounced to be innocent than the commons had expected; and the new possessors having the sway of that assembly, a clamour was rised ..."
  54. ^ Yorke 1911, p. 152, final two lines. "He married secondly Rose MacDonnell, Marchioness of Antrim, daughter of Sir Henry O'Neill, but had no children, being succeeded in the earldom by his brother Alexander, 3rd Earl of Antrim."
  55. ^ Debrett 1828, p. 688. "... [Randal MacDonnell] was twice married but d. without issue 3 Feb. 1682."
  56. ^ a b Burke & Burke 1915, p. 115, right column, line 76. "He [the 1st Marquess] d. [died] 3 Feb. 1682, when the marquessate expired, but the other honours devolved on his brother ..."
  57. ^ Fryde et al. 1986, p. 44, line 16. "Charles I. ... acc. 27 Mar. 1625 ..."
  58. ^ Asch 2004, p. 146, right column, line 23. "Wentworth was appointed lord deputy on 12 January 1632 ..."
  59. ^ Gardiner 1904, p. 215. "On the 28th [October 1640] the Great Council was gathered together for the last time, to advise on the acceptance or rejection of the compact made at Ripon. Even Strafford did not venture to recommend the latter course now. The King's assent was therefore given ..."
  60. ^ Burke 1866, p. 577, left column, line 3. "He [Strafford] suffered death with characteristic firmness on Tower Hill, 12 May 1641."
  61. ^ Warner 1768, p. 6. "... the twenty-third October [1641] ... seized all the towns, castles, and houses belonging to the Protestants which they had force enough to possess;"
  62. ^ Coffey 1914, p. 152, line 16. "... [Rinuccini] landed at Kenmare October, 21st [1645]."
  63. ^ Duffy 2002, p. 114. "When the latter [O'Neill] scored a surprise victory at Benburn, on 5 June 1646, over the Ulster-Scots led by General Robert Munro, it seemed that the confederates were in sight of victory ..."
  64. ^ Fryde et al. 1986, p. 44, line 17. "Charles I. ... exec. 30 Jan. 1649 ..."
  65. ^ Fryde et al. 1986, p. 44, line 39. "Charles II. ... acc. 29 May 1660 ..."

Sources

Further reading

5 Annotations

First Reading

Terry F  •  Link

"Randal MacDonnell, 1st Marquess of Antrim (1609 - February 3, 1683), was a landed magnate in Scotland and Ireland, son of the 1st Earl of Antrim, was educated as a Roman Catholic.... He is best known for his involvement, mostly on the Royalist side, during the Wars of the Three Kingdoms." http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rand…

Second Reading

Bill  •  Link

MACDONNELL, RANDAL, second Viscount Dunluce, second Earl and first Marquis of Antrim (1609-1683), son of Sir Randal MacDonnell, first viscount Dunluce and first earl of Antrim; introduced at court, 1634; married the Duke of Buckingham's widow, 1635; sent by the king to raise forces in Scotland, 1639; took his seat in the Irish House of Lords, 1640; frequently imprisoned as a suspect, 1642-5; ordered to lay down his arms, 1646; retired to Ireland; allowed to return to England, 1650; pardoned, 1663.
---Dictionary of National Biography: Index and Epitome. S. Lee, 1906.

Third Reading

San Diego Sarah  •  Link

Randal MacDonnell, made Marquiss of Antrim in 1645, had a chequered career during the Civil Wars, ending up on the wrong side of Ormonde and Charles II.
L&M Companion has no entry about him.

Skipping to 1645 in his Wiki entry:
He now stopped supporting the Roman Catholics or King Charles' cause; opposed the treaty between Ormonde and the confederates; supported the project of union between O'Neill and the parliament;

and in 1649 entered into communications with Cromwell, for whom he performed various services during the conquest of Ireland, although there appears no authority to support Carte's story that Antrim was the author of a forged agreement for the betrayal of the king's army by Lord Inchiquin

Later he joined Ireton, and was present at the Siege of Carlow.

Antrim returned to England in Dec. 1650, and in lieu of his confiscated estate received a pension of £500 and later of £800, together with lands in Co. Mayo.

After the Restoration in 1660, Antrim went to London to swear loyalty to the King.
Before being able to meet Charles II, he was imprisoned in the Tower of London, accused of collaboration with Cromwell and the English Republicans.

Antrim was excluded from the Indemnity and Oblivion Act.
His rival, Archibald Campbell, 8th Earl of Argyll, also came to London to swear loyalty to Charles, and was also imprisoned before being taken back to Scotland, tried and executed for treason.

From July 1660 to May 1661 Randal MacDonnell, 2nd Earl of Antrim remained in the Tower. He was investigated by the new Royalist authorities for several offences: that he had taken part in the 1641 Irish Rebellion and that he had publicly suggested King Charles had secret involvement with the rising.
He was also accused of other crimes including dealings with Ireton and other Republican officers during the Irish campaigns.
Although all but the first of these accusations were essentially true, Antrim was released in 1663 without being charged.

Antrim still faced problems recovering his Irish estates. He had to prove he was innocent of any involvement in the Irish rebellion.

Called before the Lords Justice in Ireland in 1663, Antrim succeeded -- despite Ormonde's opposition -- securing a decree of innocence from the Commissioners of Claims.
This was appealled by the Adventurers who had his lands, which caused a new trial.
Antrim appealed to Charles II, and through the influence of Queen Mother Henrietta Maria, obtained a pardon; his estates were restored by the Irish Act of Explanation in 1665.

Antrim was described by Clarendon as "of handsome appearance but of excessive pride and vanity and of a marvellous weak and narrow understanding".

He married twice, but had no children, being succeeded only in the earldom in 1682 by his brother Alexander.
https://www.pepysdiary.com/encycl…

San Diego Sarah  •  Link

The BCW Project -- again skipping the first half:

In May 1646, he arrived in the Western Isles with a force of 600 men.
That month, Charles I surrendered to the Scots and issued orders that all Royalist forces in Scotland should disband.
Anxious to keep the recaptured MacDonnell lands in Scotland, Antrim was reluctant to obey the King's command and remained in arms until the autumn of 1646.
He finally disbanded his forces when the King personally intervened with a promise that Antrim would receive the Marquis of Argyll's disputed estates in Kintyre when the King was again in a position to grant them.

From Jan. - April 1647, Antrim played a prominent role in the 7th Confederate General Assembly at Kilkenny where he sat as a member of the Supreme Council.
He allied himself with the hardline Catholic faction led by Archbishop Rinuccini and opposed negotiations with Ormonde, for a treaty between the Confederates and the Royalists.
In March 1648, Antrim went to Paris as a member of the Confederate delegation appointed to continue the negotiations with leading Royalists. He opposed both the Inchiquin Truce and the 2nd Ormonde Peace and attempted to lead a Catholic insurrection when Ormonde returned to Ireland in 1648.
However, Antrim's uprising was easily suppressed and he was obliged to seek refuge with the Ulster army of Owen Roe O'Neill.

When Cromwell invaded Ireland in 1649, Antrim unexpectedly shifted his allegiance to the Parliamentarians.
He was in communication with Col. Jones, the Gov. of Dublin, from the end of 1648 and made contact with Henry Ireton upon his arrival in Ireland in the summer of 1649.
Antrim helped to secure the surrender of New Ross to the Parliamentarians in October 1649 and persuaded his former followers to surrender Carlow peacefully in July 1650.

When the subjugation of Ireland was complete, Antrim was granted an annual pension of £500, later increased to £800.
His first wife having died in 1649; he married a Protestant heiress, Rose O'Neill, daughter of Sir Henry O'Neill, in 1653.
He remained in eastern Ulster throughout the 1650s.

At the Restoration, Antrim presented himself at the court of Charles II and was immediately imprisoned in the Tower of London.
However, with support from the Queen Mother and her courtiers, and even from creditors who wanted to ensure that they would be repaid, Antrim was released in May 1661.
Although he was accused both of involvement in the Catholic rebellion of 1641 and of collaboration with Cromwell, and despite the protests of speculators who had gained possession of his lands, he was finally granted a full pardon and restored to his estates in Ulster in 1665.
Thereafter he retired from politics and withdrew to his estates in Ireland.

Antrim died childless in February 1683.
The marquisate became extinct and he was succeeded as 3rd Earl of Antrim by his brother Alexander.
http://bcw-project.org/biography/…

San Diego Sarah  •  Link

And now an odd story about Antrim, from the Oxford Dictionary of National Biography entry for Quaker author and land-owner, and William Penn Jr.'s father-in-law, Isaac Penington:

About May 1665, Isaac Penington was arrested again, this time at the behest of John Egerton, 2nd Earl of Bridgewater (1622-86), who was offended because Penington had refused to address him as 'My lord'.

Isaac Penington was released after 9 months upon petition to Randal MacDonnell, Marquess of Antrim, ...
https://www.oxforddnb.com/view/10…

Why on earth did a recently pardoned Roman Catholic Irish Marquess bother to get an English Quaker out of jail?
If anyone knows, I'd love to hear the story behind this one.

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References

Chart showing the number of references in each month of the diary’s entries.

1664