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The Duchess of Buccleuch
Anna, Duchess of Buccleuch and her two surviving sons
Personal details
Anne Scott

(1651-02-11)11 February 1651
Dundee, Kingdom of Scotland
Died6 February 1732(1732-02-06) (aged 80)
(m. 1663; died 1685)​
Children9, including James, Henry
Parent(s)Francis Scott, 2nd Earl of Buccleuch
Margaret Leslie
RelativesMary Scott, 3rd Countess of Buccleuch (sister)

Anne Scott, 1st Duchess of Buccleuch (11 February 1651 – 6 February 1732) was a wealthy Scottish peeress. After her father died when she was a few months old, and her sisters by the time she was 10, she inherited the family's titles. She was married to James Scott, 1st Duke of Monmouth, and the couple had six children, only two of whom survived past infancy.

Her husband was executed after losing the Monmouth Rebellion, and she went on to marry again.

Early life

Scott was born on 11 February 1651, in Dundee.[1] Her father was Francis Scott, 2nd Earl of Buccleuch, her mother Margaret Leslie, daughter of John Leslie, 6th Earl of Rothes.[2] Scott had two elder sisters, Mary and Margaret, but no brothers.[3] Scott's father died the same year she was born, and her sisters died, Margaret in 1652 and Mary in 1661, leaving Scott to inherit the titles and estates.[4]

There had been some complications, as Mary had been married, and it was therefore arguable that her husband would inherit the Scott honours; however, Mary's marriage was found to have been unlawful, due to her age, so the estates, with the titles of "Countess of Buccleuch", "Baroness Scott of Buccleuch", and "Baroness Scott of Whitchester and Eskdaill" passed to Anne.[4]


Upon her marriage in 1663, her husband took her surname, and the titles of Duke of Monmouth, Lord Scott of Whitchester and Eskdaill, Earl of Dalkeith, and Duke of Buccleuch were created, with remainder to the heirs male of his body by Anne, failing whom to the heirs whomsoever of her body who shall succeed to the estates and Earldom of Buccleuch.[4] On 16 January 1666, "the Duke and Duchess resigned their honours and estates into the hands of the Crown and obtained a novodamus vesting the titles of Duke of Buccleuch, Earl of Dalkeith and Earl of Buccleuch in the Duke of Monmouth, and the title of Duchess of Buccleuch, Countess of Dalkeith and Countess of Buccleuch, etc., in the Duchess conjunctly, severally and independently of each other in the event of death, forfeiture, etc., with remainder to the heirs male of their bodies, whom failing to the heirs male of the Duchess."[5]

Following the Duke of Monmouth's death in 1685, the Duchess, whose titles were not affected by her husband's attainder because of the novodamus of 1666, resigned them into the hands of the Crown for a second time and obtained a new grant by a charter under the Great Seal, on 17 November 1687, of the title of Duchess of Buccleuch and her other honours to herself for life, and after her death to James, Earl of Dalkeith, and his heirs-male.[5] The 1687 charter was ratified by Act of Parliament on 15 June 1693. The Duke of Monmouth's heirs were rehabilitated by a further Act of Parliament on 4 July 1690.[5]


Dalkeith Palace, Midlothian

On 20 April 1663, the twelve-year-old Anne married the fourteen-year-old James Crofts, 1st Duke of Monmouth, the oldest illegitimate son of Charles II (eldest surviving son of Charles I), by his mistress, Lucy Walter.[6] James had been born in Rotterdam during the Second English Civil War, where his father was with his sister, Mary and his brother-in-law William II, Prince of Orange.[7] The couple had six children:[5]

Her husband, the Duke of Monmouth and Buccleuch, was attained and executed for high treason on 15 July 1685 following the failure of Monmouth's Rebellion, in which he had attempted to seize the English throne and overthrow James II (the younger brother of his father, who became King of England, Scotland, and Ireland in February 1685 following the death of Charles II).[5]

On 6 May 1688, Anne married Charles Cornwallis, 3rd Baron Cornwallis, with whom she later had three children:[5]

  • Lady Anne Scott (d. 1690), who died young.[5]
  • Lord George Scott (1692–1693), who died young.[5]
  • Lady Isabella Scott (d. 1747/8).[5]

Anne died in 1732, aged 80; her titles passed to her grandson Francis, the son of James, Earl of Dalkeith.[4][8]


  1. ^ King, Brian (2018). Dundee in 50 Buildings. Amberley Publishing Limited. p. 142. ISBN 978-1-4456-6493-4. Retrieved 10 June 2020.
  2. ^ "Rothes, Earl of (S, 1457/8)". Heraldic Media Limited. Retrieved 10 June 2020.
  3. ^ "Buccleuch, Earl of (S, 1618/9)". Heraldic Media Limited. Retrieved 10 June 2020.
  4. ^ a b c d e Nicholson, Eirwen E. C. "Scott, Anna". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (online ed.). Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/67531. (Subscription or UK public library membership required.)
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n "Buccleuch, Duke of (S, 1663)". Heraldic Media Limited. Retrieved 10 June 2020.
  6. ^ Crawford, Bryan (2011). Letters My Grandfather Wrote Me: Family Origins. AuthorHouse. p. 256. ISBN 978-1-4567-8853-7. Retrieved 10 June 2020.
  7. ^ Fraser, Antonia (1979). King Charles II. London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson. pp. 55–56. ISBN 0-297-77571-5.
  8. ^ Matikkala, Antti (2008). The Orders of Knighthood and the Formation of the British Honours System, 1660-1760. Boydell & Brewer Ltd. ISBN 978-1-84383-423-6. Retrieved 10 June 2020.

External links

3 Annotations

First Reading

jeannine  •  Link

From Grammont's footnotes

This was Lady Anne Scott, daughter and sole heir of Francis, Earl of Buccleugh, only son and heir of Walter, Lord Scott, created Earl of Buccleugh in 1619. On their marriage the duke took the surname of Scott, and he and his lady were created Duke and Duchess of Buccleugh, Earl and Countess of Dalkeith, Baron and Baroness of Whitchester and Ashdale, in Scotland, by letters patent, dated April 20th, 1673. Also, two days after he was installed at Windsor, the king and queen, the Duke of York, and most of the court being present. The next day, being St. George's day, his majesty solemnized it with a royal feast, and entertained the knights companions in St. George's hall in the castle of Windsor. Though there were several children of this marriage, it does not appear to have been a happy one; the duke, without concealment, attaching himself to Lady Harriet Wentworth, whom, with his dying breath, he declared he considered as his only wife in the sight of God. The duchess, in May, 1688, took to her second husband Charles, Lord Cornwallis. She died Feb. 6, 1731-2, in the 81st year of her age, and was buried at Dalkeith, in Scotland. Our author is not more correct about figures than he avows himself to be in the arrangement of facts and dates: the duchess's fortune was much greater than he has stated it to have been.… see note 157

Second Reading

San Diego Sarah  •  Link

From the Directory of National Biography (you need a subscription):

‘Scott, Anna [Anne], duchess of Monmouth and suo jure duchess of Buccleuch (1651–1732), noblewoman, was born in Dundee on 11 February, 1651 ...

The Monmouths had in common only financial extravagance and a particular excellence in dancing, which was unhappily ended in May 1668 when Anna sustained a dislocated hip which lamed her for life.

That she had no influence over the malleable ‘Prince Perkin’ was ultimately to her advantage. Her priority following her husband's 1685 rebellion was to protect the interests of her sons and more broadly the Buccleuch inheritance, with which she identified in a manner that echoed the determination and intelligence that had characterized her mother.

Having spent the duration of Monmouth's rebellion in the Tower, and with the injured monarch, James II, predisposed in her favor, she finally secured her husband's confirmation that she had known ‘nothing of his last design’, thereby freeing her sons — and thus the Buccleuch inheritance — from the penalties of attainder.
Attainder having forfeited Monmouth's English titles, the Buccleuch honors, now a dukedom, and estates were formally restored to Anna and thence her eldest son, restoring the original entail, on 17 November 1687 ...

... contemporary commentators remark on her wit rather than her beauty.
In character she was confessedly self-sufficient and reserved.

... in 1698 ... she retired to Scotland. There she oversaw the lavish rebuilding of Dalkeith Castle and maintained a quasi-regal status, but returned to London upon the Hanoverian succession.
She resisted all pressure to relinquish the Buccleuch title during her lifetime in favor of her son, preferring to be ‘a man in my own family’.

She died in London in February 1732, short of her 81st birthday.‘

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Chart showing the number of references in each month of the diary’s entries.



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  • Mar