Hunting was a social as well as physical outlet for royalty and nobility under the Tudor and Stuart dynasties. Poaching was considered a serious offense against the king and was punishable by fees, imprisonment, or, in a few cases, death.
Henry VIII was an avid hunter; the lands freed by the Dissolution of the Monasteries made the creation of large parks for hunting possible.
Queen Elizabeth also enjoyed participating in bow and stable hunting (where deer are driven en masse in front of the hunters), while King James I and VI relished hunting par force.
At King James’ instigation, Parliament increased the regulations on which types of people could legally participate in the hunt (with the privilege tied to social class) with a series of laws between 1603 and 1610.
At the same time the movement between social strata was becoming more possible, because of increased economic opportunities for those outside the aristocracy and an increased availability titles for sale by the King. Therefore, more people met the legal requirements to be eligible to participate in the hunt.
As the higher social echelons became permeable, hunting remained the recreation of choice for the nobility, turning the sport into a skill necessary for the nouveaux riche of the times. Hunting took on a social function similar to golf today.
Business people know games of golf with colleagues turn into important settings for making social and business connections. Golf is a sport that takes place in specified large spaces (golf courses, country clubs); it has its own jargon (birdies, bogeys, par); it requires specialized (usually expensive) equipment and often enablers (golf clubs, golf carts, caddies). Thus, the setting, requirements for participation, and the time to practice the challenging nature of the sport, give it exclusivity.
Hunting in early modern England served the same purpose. Hunting took place in hunting parks owned by members of the aristocracy; it had specialized terms calling for packs of dogs and horses, and the huntsmen necessary to care for them.
Thus, economic and social shifts created a new class of those who were upwardly mobile, with money, admitted to higher ranks, but who did not have the social advantages of being raised with the elite.
As such, they would not have participated in the hunt in their youth, or be familiar with the nuances of the sport. They were in danger of appearing ignorant, ill-bred and ill-mannered.
An example of those who were in this situation can be seen in Act 4, Scene 2, of Shakespeare’s Love’s Labors Lost (1598), where Holofernes, Sir Nathaniel and Dull dispute the correct term for the deer that the Princess has just slain. Holofernes calls it a deer, and Nathaniel corrects him:
NATHANIEL. Truly, Master Holofernes, the epithets are sweetly varied, like a scholar at the least: but, sir, I assure ye it was a buck of the first head.
HOLOFERNES. Sir Nathaniel, haud credo.
DULL. 'Twas not a old grey doe; 'twas a pricket. (4.2.1-20)
Dull mishears “haud credo” (“I do not think so”) as “old grey doe”; since he is a constable his mistake is easier to overlook than that of Nathaniel or Holofernes, who, as a scholar and a knight/curate working in the surroundings of court, ought to have a grasp of hunting terminology.
Confusion over hunting terminology shows how the lack of knowledge exposed parvenus to social risks.
Yes, there were early modern English hunting manuals which functioned as courtesy literature for those newly admitted to the higher levels of society. Most notably George Gascoigne and Gervase Markham explained the techniques employed in early modern hunting.
It's interesting to note that neither Gascoigne nor Markham gained favorable positions at court as a result of their efforts.
Much more on hunting and society and these manuals at
Cosmo, the future Grand Duke of Turin, visited Hampton Court Park.
I've standardized the spelling of names I know, corrected the scanning errors I could figure out, and increased the number of paragraphs. Sometimes I got confused, so I apologize if they are wrong:
On the morning of 20/30 May, 1669 his highness performed his usual devotional exercises at an early hour, that he might be ready for his projected excursion to Hampton Court, now that calm and mild weather invited him to that recreation; and my Lord Philip Howard and my Lord Anthony Ashley-Cooper waited on him for that purpose.
With them he entered his carriage, and set out, followed by the gentlemen of his suite, for the above-mentioned royal residence, which is about 12 miles from London, in order to see the deer-hunting in the adjacent park.
On first entering the park, he was met by Prince Robert [RUPERT], who was likewise come thither for the diversion of seeing the hunt. After the usual compliments, his highness went forward.
Prince Robert [RUPERT] remaining in the place appointed for him under the shade of a tree, on a stage a little raised from the ground, which is the same where the king stands to see this amusement.
When the huntsmen had stretched out the nets, after the German manner, inclosing with them a considerable space of land, they let the dogs loose upon 4 deer which were confined there, who, as soon as they saw them, took to flight; but as they had not the power of going which way they pleased, they ran round the nets, endeavoring, by various cunning leaps to save themselves from being stopped by the dogs, and continued to run in this manner for some time, to the great diversion of the spectators, till at last the huntsmen, that they might not harass the animals superfluously, drawing a certain cord, opened the nets in one part, which was prepared for that purpose, and left the deer at liberty to escape.
Having walked during the deer-hunting over the park, which is rendered truly delightful by its numerous canals and amenities of every kind, his highness repaired to the palace to view the building, which is a piece of beautiful Gothic architecture, ...
Besides the sumptuousness of this building, and the pleasantness of the gardens, the amusements of hunting and fishing are not wanting, those diversions being at hand in the park, which is of considerable size, both in length and breadth, enclosing large meadows, where the preserved deer feed.
To vary the delights of these beautiful premises, several canals or ponds are distributed in different parts of the park, in whose transparent waters quantities of fish are seen sporting, which are reserved for the diversion of angling.
Also see the description of HAMPTON COURT PALACE in our encyclopedia.
TRAVELS OF COSMO THE THIRD, GRAND DUKE OF TUSCANY,
DURING THE REIGN OF KING CHARLES THE SECOND (1669)
TRANSLATED FROM THE ITALIAN MANUSCRIPT
His highness, Cosmo, must be considered only as a traveler. Under his direction, the narrator of the records was Count Lorenzo Magalotti, afterwards Secretary to the Academy del Cimento, and one of the most learned and eminent characters of the court of Ferdinand II.
Coursing: the pursuit of running game with dogs that follow by sight instead of by scent
The Duke of Norfolk’s “Lawes of Leashing and Coursing” as listed in Harding Cox’s essay “Coursing”:
The date when matches were first made between dogs is not known, but it was before Queen Elizabeth's time, during whose reign, by command of the Queen, ‘laws of the Leash or Coursing’ were drawn up and “allowed and subscribed by Thomas, Duke of Norfolk’:
1. That he that is chosen Fewterer, or that lets loose the greyhounds, shall receive the greyhounds matched to run together, into his Leash, as soon as he comes into the field, and follow next to the hare-finder, or he who is to start the hare until he come unto the form ; and no horseman or footman is to go before, or on any side, but directly behind, for the space of about 40 yards.
2. You ought not to course a hare with more than a brace of greyhounds.
3. The hare-finder ought to give the hare three so-ho's before he puts her from her form or seat, that the dogs may gaze about and attend her starting.
4. They ought to give 12 score yards law before the dogs are loosed, unless there be danger of losing her.
5. The dog that gives the first turn, if after that there be neither cote, slip, nor wrench, wins the wager.
6. If the dog give the first turn, and the other bear the hare, he that bears the hare shall win.
7. A go-by, or bearing the hare, is equivalent to two turns.
8. If neither dog turn the hare, he that leads last to the covert wins.
9. If one dog turn the hare, serve himself, and turn her again, it is as much as a cote, and a cote is esteemed 2 turns.
10. If all the course be equal, he that bears the hare shall win, and if she be not borne, the course shall be adjudged dead.
11. If a dog take a fall in a course, and yet performs his part, he may challenge the advantage of a turn more than he gave.
12. If a dog turn the hare, serve himself, and give divers cotes, and yet in the end stands still in the field, the other dog, if he turn home of the covert, although he gives no turn, shall be adjudged to win the wager.
13. If by misfortune a dog be ridden over in his course, the course is void, and to say the truth, he that did the mischief ought to make reparation for the damage.
14. If a dog give the first and last turn and there be no other advantage between them, he that gives the odd turn shall Win.
15. A cote is when a greyhound goeth endways by his fellow, and gives the hare a turn.
16. A cote serves for two turns, and two tripplings or jerkings for a cote; and if she turneth not right about she only wrencheth. The first version has it thus: — A cote shall be more than two turns, and a go-by or bearing the hare equal to two turns.
17. If there be no cotes given between a brace of greyhounds and that the one of them serves the other as turning, then he that gives the hare most turns wins the wager; and if one give as many turns as the other, he that beareth the hare wins the wager.
18. Sometimes the hare doth not turn but wrencheth, for she is not properly said to turn, unless she turns as it were round; and two wrenches stand for a turn.
19. He that comes in first to the death of the hare, takes her up and saves her from breaking, cherishes the dogs and cleanses their mouths from the wool, is adjudged to have the hare for his pains.
20. Those that are judges of the leash must give their judgment presently, before they depart the field.
Chart showing the number of references in each month of the diary’s entries.